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After an engraving from a bust by'Lochee 

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Sir Isaac Pitman & Sons, Ltd., 1 Amen Corner, E.C. 

And at Bath, New York and Melbourne 


3 i C *>'k 

Printed by Sir Isaac Pitman & 
Sons, Ltd., London, Bath, New 
York and Melbourne . 1915 



In presenting this volume to the public I would draw 
attention to the fact that it deals with the Irishman out 
of Ireland in the broadest sense — that is to say, it deals 
with him in England, Scotland, Wales, France, Spain 
and the British Colonies, anywhere, indeed, saving in 
his own country. Also I beg to thank Madame Maud 
Gonne, Miss M. Barry O'Delany, General Minarelli- 
Fitzgerald, Le Comte Margerin de Cremont, Count 
MacGregor de Glenstroe, and the Duke of Tetuan, for 
the kind assistance they have rendered me. For 
permission to reproduce certain of the illustrations 
I am indebted to the extreme courtesy of Mr. Roger 







MANCHESTER ..... 34 





ENGLAND . . . . . .115 

ENGLAND ...... 132 


NOTE IN ENGLAND . . . .144 
























AMERICA ...... 338 

famous irishmen in the united states of 
America, 1600-1900 . . . .363 

INDEX 384 



bet. pp. 260 and 261 

,, ,, ,, ,, FITZGERALDS 

bet. pp. 286 and 287 



After an engraving from a bust by Lochee. 



From a painting by Thomas Gainsborough. 


From an etching after a sketch by Sayer. 


From an engraving by Jackson, after the painting by Gwivn. 


From an engraving by Ridley, after a picture by Drummond. 



. 56 
. 106 

. 126 

. 134 


. 240 
. 276 






Although many Irishmen had left their native shores 
before the seventeenth century, up to that time there 
had been no emigration in the usual sense of the word. 

When not merely for the sake of travel, it was either 
for the purpose of acquiring knowledge, of spreading 
their religion and art, of redressing their own wrongs, 
or of assisting others to redress theirs, that the Irish had 
hitherto sought a foreign country, and, in a few cases, 
though with no idea at first of making it their home, 
had eventually settled in it. 

Of these excursions abroad, one of the earliest on 
record is that of Naoighiallach, better known as Niall 
of the Nine Hostages, who led a punitive expedition 
into Britain. Naoighiallach, or Niall of the Nine Host- 
ages, was the ancestor of the O'Neills (O'Niall converted 
into O'Naill, and then into O'Neill), O'Donnell's 
(O'Dohmniall — O'Dohmnaill — O'Donnell) , O* Cornell's 
(O'Conniall — O'Connaill — O'Connell), and various other 
clans. He reigned over all Ireland from a.d. 379 to 
a.d. 405, and was probably the first Irishman of note to 
visit England. 


I— (2S59) 


Following his example, Irishmen of lesser fame led 
similar expeditions, but no one of any note appears to 
have visited England again till about a.d. 520, when 
Finen, or St. Finnian, a native of Leinster, travelled in 
Britain, and perceiving the ignorance and heathenism 
of the Anglo-Saxons, planned their conversion ; after- 
wards returning to Ireland, and founding at Clonard 
the renowned School with which his name has ever since 
been associated. Among his pupils was Columcille, or 
St. Columba, a descendant of Niall of the Nine Hostages, 
and a member of the Cinel-Connail, or Clan Connail — 
which gave its name to the O'Dohmnaills (O'Donnells) — 
who, anxious to carry on the work begun by St. Finnian, 
after having established his head monastery on the 
Island of Iona, visited the Northern provinces of England 
to select sites for the founding of branch houses. 

Another Irishman we hear of in England was St. 
Adamnan, Columba's biographer, (also of the Cinel- 
Connail), a native of Donegal, and sixth Bishop of Iona, 
who, about a.d. 685, journeyed from Iona to York to 
intercede with Alfred, King of the Northern Saxons, for 
the release of a number of Irish prisoners. 

Following close upon St. Columba, St. Aidan of 
Galway, at the invitation of Oswald, King of Northumber- 
land, went over to help in the conversion of his subjects 
to Christianity, and afterwards founded the monastery 
of Lindisfarne. He was the first in the line of bishops 
that take their title from Durham, and greatly to the 
disgust of his biographer, the Venerable Bede, he sided 
with the Irish Church in the differences regarding the 
celebration of Easter. St. Aidan died in a.d. 651 and was 
succeeded by another Irishman, St. Finan of Tipperary, 


who, through his untiring efforts to convert the North- 
umbrians, won the friendship of King Oswiu, and the 
esteem of Bede. St. Finan spent the greater part of his 
life in England and died about a.d. 661. 

Almost contemporary with St. Finan were two other 
famous Irish missionaries, St. Fursa, or Fursey, and St. 
Finnbarr, or Bairre. St. Fursa, the son of Fintan, a 
Prince of Munster, was born about a.d. 590, near Lough 
Carrib. After studying to be a priest under St. Meldan 
at Inchiquin, he erected a monastery at Rathmat, and 
then crossed over into England and began his work of 
conversion among the heathen of East Anglia. After six 
years' toil, during which time he won over many hundreds 
of the rude and savage Anglo-Saxons to Christianity, he 
went over to France, where he established a world-wide 
reputation for his piety and learning. " The reputation 
of St. Fursey," says a calendar of Scottish Saints, "extends 
far beyond the limits of the Anglo-Saxon Church." Not 
only is he the most distinguished of those missionaries 
who left Erin to spread the Gospel through the heathen, 
or semi-heathenized races of mediaeval Europe, bridging 
the gap between the old and new civilizations, but his 
position in view of dogma is a most important one. 
He has profoundly affected the eschatology of 

Though less celebrated than St. Fursa, St. Finbarr of 
Connaught did much to advance the cause of Christianity 
in England by materially aiding in the conversion of 
Mercia, and by improving and developing the Monastery 
of Glastonbury. 

There is little doubt, too, St. Cuthbert was Irish, 
and, according to Dr. Healy, Coadjutor Bishop of 


Clonfert, there is a manuscript in the library of the 
Dean and Canons of York that substantiates that 

St. Gall, the founder of the monastery of Arbon, which 
eventually became so celebrated that the name of St. 
Gall was given to the surrounding country — now the 
province of St. Gall ; St. Albin, made Abbot of the 
monastery of St. Augustine at Pavia by Charlemagne ; 
St. Foelan, St. Boniface, St. Killian were also Irishmen ; 
and at the present day 155 Irish Saints are still venerated 
in Germany, 46 in France, 32 in Belgium, 13 in Italy, 
and 8 in Denmark, Norway and Sweden. It is, of course, 
impossible to enumerate all the Irish pioneers of civiliza- 
tion and religion, their name is legion — only let it be 
understood that long, long before the inhabitants of 
what is now England had ceased to be savages, Ireland 
had attained a far-famed reputation as a centre of art 
and learning. One of the oldest transcriptions of Horace 
in existence, now in the Library of Berne, is written in 
Celtic characters, with notes and commentaries in the 
Irish language ; and so proficient did the Irish monks 
become in their knowledge of Latin and Greek, that they 
were eagerly sought after as teachers by students of 
every nationality. 

But this was not all. Most of these monks loved Art, 
and many were great artists. In Denmark, France and 
Spain, there are yet to be seen evidences of their wonderful 
skill in architecture and the working of metals. It is 
only in England — in the country that owes everything 
to Ireland, her raising from the quagmire of paganism 
and barbarity, and the very foundations of her civiliza- 
tion — that all traces of her early skill in art have been 


ignored, and all recognition of her ancient supremacy in 
learning jealously suppressed. 

The era of Irish missionaries over, we next hear of the 
Irish abroad in the dispatch of a fleet of sixty ships from 
Dublin to help Edwin and Morcar against the Normans. 
The fleet sailed up the Bristol Channel and, entering the 
estuary of the Avon, successfully navigated the narrow, 
winding gorge, and anchored just outside the city, in 
what is now known as Cumberland Basin. But the 
Normans drove them off, and, on their sailing away, the 
Irish, making one more attempt to land on the banks 
of the distant Tamar, were again repelled, this time 

A long period now ensues, during which many desultory 
visits were paid to France and other countries on the 
Continent, but none of much moment till that of the 
brutal, dissolute Diarmaid (Dermot) Macmurrough, 
King of Leinster, who, through his unholy love for the 
beautiful Devorgilla, wife of Tiernan O'Rorke (O'Ruark), 
brought about the ruin and disintegration of Ireland. 
As Mr. Justin McCarthy remarks, " Helen was not more 
fatal to the Greeks and Easterns than Devorgilla, Erin's 
Helen, proved to the neighbouring islands that lie along 
the Irish Sea. Through ages of bloodshed and slaughter 
her country has indeed bled for her shame." 

The story of the quarrel between the Macmurroughs 
and O'Rorke is too well known to be repeated here. 
The fate of Ireland, had this quarrel never happened, 
would, doubtless, have been the same in the end. The 
inroad of the English would have been postponed, 
perhaps for one, perhaps for two centuries, but one day 
they would have come over and taken everything, 


just as they came and took everything in Canada, India, 
Africa and Australia. Destiny makes empire builders 
of most nations. It was England's turn then. God 
knows, but the turn of the Celt may come, too, some 

Ireland, although no longer a kingdom — for in 1180 
Roderick O'Connor, the last King of Ireland, was obliged 
to visit London, to pay homage to Henry II in order to 
retain the solitary province of Connaught — still continued 
to send out small detachments of her native populace. 

At the beginning of the thirteenth century, Ireland 
having ceased to be the chief home of learning, a large 
number of young Irishmen, no longer conscious of 
superior advantages at home, went to Oxford to be 
educated ; whilst others sought instruction from the 
venerable monks of Hereford, Bath and Bristol. 

In 1243 a contingent of Irish soldiers, amongst whom 
were Felim O'Connor, Chief of Connaught, a descendant 
of Roderick, and the two Irishized Normans, Maurice 
Fitzgerald and Richard Mac William Bourke, went from 
Ireland to aid the English in their war with the Welsh ; 
and, a little later, the wars with Scotland, the Wars of 
the Roses, and the Rebellions of Perkin Warbeck and 
Lambert Simnel, saw the departure of even bigger 

It was not, perhaps, until Henry VII's reign, when 
Gerald Fitzgerald, " The Great Earl of Kildare," who had 
been the chief supporter of the Yorkists in Ireland, came 
to London to answer a long category of complaints 
brought against him by the Archbishop of Armagh, that 
any great Irishman again visited England. The decision 
of the Court was in the Earl's favour and he returned to 


Ireland jubilant. Two years later he was recalled to 
England to answer various charges brought against him 
by his hereditary enemy Ormonde, and this time he was 
committed to the Tower. When brought to trial before 
Henry VII, his native wit and frankness served him. 
Asked by Henry whether he was provided with a counsel 
to defend him, he replied, " Yea, the ablest in the realm ; 
your Highness I take for my counsel against these false 
knaves." This pleased the King so much that he 
listened to the accusations brought against Kildare with 
a distinct leaning in favour of the Earl, and when Kildare, 
in response to the demand of the Archbishop of Cashel's 
counsel as to why he had burned down the Archbishop's 
Cathedral, replied, " Sure, I would not have done it if 
I had not been told that the Archbishop was inside," the 
King leaned back in his chair and laughed long and loud. 
The Court were astonished, not to say dismayed, at this 
levity, and one of the prosecuting party pleaded with the 
King. " Your Highness," he said, " is probably not 
aware that all Ireland cannot keep this Earl of Kildare 
in order." " Is that so ? " said Henry, still laughing, 
" then let this Earl keep all Ireland in order. It is my 
will." And Kildare went back to Ireland in triumph. 
The next appearance of a Kildare in London was that of 
Gerald Fitzgerald, son of the great Earl, who was detained 
at the Court of Henry VII as a hostage for his father's 
fidelity ; but he appears to have been treated extra- 
ordinarily well, and, marrying the young and beautiful 
Elizabeth Zouche, he was permitted to return to his own 
country, where many high posts and honours were 
bestowed upon him by the new king, Henry VIII. On 
his next visit to London, occasioned through the charges 


brought against him by Ormonde, he incurred the bitter 
enmity of Wolsey, and was sent to the Tower, only 
escaping execution through the friendly intervention of 
the Constable. Pardoned by the King, he returned to 
Ireland, but was again summoned to London some years 
later to answer fresh accusations again brought by 
Ormonde. This time fate was not so kind to him ; no 
pardon was forthcoming, and he died of a broken heart 
in the Tower. Interred in St. Peter's Church in the 
Tower, he was the first Irishman of distinction to be 
buried in London. 

The next Irishman of note to come to London was 
also a Fitzgerald, named Thomas, son of Gerald Fitz- 
gerald, and commonly known as " Silken Thomas." He, 
too, was thrown in the Tower through the machinations 
of Ormonde, and he had not been there long before his 
five uncles, Sir Oliver, Sir John, Sir James, Sir Walter 
and Sir Richard, were treacherously captured and lodged 
with him. On 3rd February, 1537, after many cruel 
tortures, all six were executed like common criminals 
at Tyburn. 

Irish traders were now coming in increasing numbers 
to London, Liverpool, and Bristol, but no one of any 
particular account landed in England till Con Bacagh 
O'Neill, inaugurated The O'Neill on the death of his 
brother, obeying Henry VIII's summons, presented him- 
self at the English Court on the 24th of September, 
1542. Being given to understand in that jocular, yet 
sinisterly significant manner that was so characteristic 
of Henry VIII, that unless he renounced the name of 
O'Neill, adopted the English dress and language, was 
wholly obedient to the King's laws, assisted the Deputy 


in his hustings and refused to succour any of the enemies 
of the King and his minister, his stay in London might 
be exceedingly uncomfortable and protracted, he sub- 
mitted. What else could he do ? He was sent back to 
Ireland, under escort, with a few cheap and paltry 

With Edward VI on the throne, vigorous religious 
persecutions at once began within the English pale, and, 
as a result, many hundreds of Roman Catholics fled from 
Ireland. The majority of these took refuge in France 
and Scotland, but a good sprinkling landed in Wales and 
Cornwall, and not a few found their way to London. 

This migration, however, was only temporary, for on 
Mary's accession the fierce Protestant regime in Dublin 
ended, and money was generously sent to the refugees 
to enable them to return. 

The Irishman of most note in London during this 
reign was O'Connor of Offaly, who had been imprisoned 
on account of his religious views by Edward, but whom 
Mary released, treated sumptuously, and sent back to 
Ireland laden with costly gifts. 

With Elizabeth's succession to the throne, the real 
era of gloom and suppression in Ireland began. And yet 
it was not owing to any racial or religious prejudice on 
the part of the Queen. Elizabeth, as many authenticated 
anecdotes prove, had a great admiration for the handsome 
Irish, and would doubtless have done much for them, 
had not Cecil persuaded her to send certain ministers 
as Deputies to Ireland. These men, actuated partly 
by jealousy and bigotry, and partly by greed, for Ulster 
offered a remarkably fair field for spoliation, so continually 
and subtly blackened the Irish in Elizabeth's eyes that 


they eventually succeeded in entirely poisoning her 
mind against them, and, instead of continuing their 
friend, she ultimately became their arch enemy and 

Before that state of affairs was reached, several of the 
more eminent of the Irish chieftains visited England. 
The first to come was the cruel and treacherous Shane 
O'Neill, who at that time had his kinsman, Calvagh 
O'Donnell, a prisoner in chains in a dungeon, whilst he 
was making violent love to his wife, the sister of Mac- 
Donnell, Earl of Argyle. Shane O'Neill was the terror 
of Ireland, trusted neither by friend nor foe, and, after 
the Lord Deputy had made several fruitless attempts 
to have him put out of the way by secret assassination, 
Elizabeth expressed a desire to see him. Accordingly, 
he came to London, and this is Mr. Froude's account of 
his reception. " The Council, the peers, the foreign 
ambassadors, bishops, aldermen, dignitaries of all kinds 
were present in state, as if at the exhibition of some wild 
animal of the desert. O'Neill stalked in, his saffron 
mantle sweeping round and round him, his hair curling 
on his back and clipped short below the eyes, which 
gleamed from under it with a grey lustre, frowning, 
fierce and cruel. Behind him followed his gallo-glasses, 
bare-headed and fair-haired, with shirts of mail which 
reached beneath their knees, a wolf-skin flung across 
their shoulders, and short, broad battle-axes in their 

O'Neill and his retinue were, in all probability, rather 
more prepossessing than this picture presents them — 
Mr. Froude's value as an historian being considerably 
modified by his manifest partiality — but there is most 


probably some truth in the description of their dress and 
of the crude curiosity and ignorance of the crowd 
assembled to see them. 

That O'Neill must have possessed great attractions 
for the other sex is evinced by the fact — too well authen- 
ticated ever to have been questioned — that Elizabeth 
was so taken with him, that she invited him to Windsor 
as her guest, flirted openly with him, told him, half in 
play and half in earnest, that he was never to select a 
wife without consulting her first, as she knew better than 
anyone else who would suit him, loaded him with presents, 
and very reluctantly allowed him to leave her, pro- 
claiming that he was to be treated on his return to 
Ireland as one of her most loyal and trusted allies and 

The next Irishman of distinction to visit London was 
the man Shane O'Neill had so cruelly wronged — Calvagh 
O'Donnell, Lord of Tirconnell. His entry into the 
Royal presence differed essentially from that of his 
rival, Shane. He came alone, travel-stained and weary, 
and, kneeling at the Queen's feet, went into ecstacies 
over the beauty and symmetry of the white-bejewelled 
hands that were held out to him to kiss. Elizabeth dealt 
gently with him ; all the woman within her rose upper- 
most when she listened to the story of his wrongs, and 
noted the confirmation of it in his face and eyes. Nor 
did his appearance — for he was tall and straight, with 
strong and rather curiously emphasized features, hair 
slightly tinged with red, and a general expression of great 
frankness and sincerity of purpose — fail to leave its mark 
on her impressionable heart. He, too, came as a guest 
to Windsor, and when he went back to Tirconnell, it 


was as " her man," and with a Patent Royal 1 , bearing 
her signature, creating him Earl of Wexford. 

So charmed was Elizabeth at this time with the Irish 
that, directly after Calvagh's departure, she invited 
" The O'Rourke." Walker, in his Irish Bards, gives a 
long account of O'Rourke's visit to London, the substance 
of which (reproduced from the Editorial Notes to Lady 
Morgan's O'Donnel) is as follows — 

" O'Rourke, the chief of Brefni, a brave and powerful 
person, was invited by Queen Elizabeth to London, 
though under the displeasure of the Lord President 
Bingham. The Queen made him warm professions of 
honours and service, intending by this invitation to lead 
him into a kind of exile, in order to secure his obedience. 
O'Rourke confided and obeyed her summons ; but before 
his departure he assembled his vassals and friends in 
the great hall of his castle, and entertained them with 
all the splendour of the times. (Such was the parting 
feast which gave rise to the song of the bard in after- 
days.) On the arrival of the Irish chief in Whitehall, 
the Queen was ready to receive him. The elegant 
symmetry of his person, and his noble aspect, struck 
Her Majesty and he was soon ranked among her choicest 
favourites." The authenticity of Walker's sequel has 
been disputed, but, as the action he attributes to Elizabeth 
is consistent with her character, one may be pardoned 
the assumption that there is in it at least an element 
of truth. He says, " One night a person tapped at 
O'Rourke's door and was admitted — it was a woman. 
The visit continued to be repeated, the lady always 

1 The original was as recently as 1911 in the hands of a gentleman 
in Birmingham, who lent it to the Archaeological Society of Belfast. 


retiring before daybreak. The Chief's curiosity became 
urgent ; he pressed the mysterious lady to reveal herself, 
but she refused ; a straggling moonbeam, however, 
discovered to him a ring that glittered on her finger ; 
he examined it unobserved by the wearer. The next 
day he saw it upon the Queen's finger at Court, and had 
the impudence to hint his suspicion to Her Majesty. 
His fatal curiosity (adds the tradition) was punished with 
secret death — he was assassinated that night." 

According to other chroniclers, however, who admit 
the Queen's fascination for O'Rourke, the Irish Chieftain 
was accused of having received some shipwrecked 
Spaniards under his roof — an accusation that was as 
unfounded as its source was mysterious — and publicly 
executed. Whether he was poisoned or beheaded, 
O'Rourke's son, who was in London at the time, deter- 
mining to avenge his father's death and the spoliation 
of his own property by the English Lord President, 
hastened back to Ireland and joined the flag of Red 
Hugh O'Donnell. 

Red Hugh came over to England several times, but his 
visits were neither so frequent, nor so protracted, as those 
of his illustrious kinsman, Hugh O'Neill, Earl of Tyrone. 

The greatest efforts were made to make an Englishman 
of Hugh O'Neill. When in his teens he was brought to 
the English Court by Sidney, and introduced to the 
Queen, who not only gave him a command in her special 
bodyguard, but granted him a pension and also provided 
him with a whole bevy of tutors. At length, so English 
did he become, that, in 1580, he co-operated with Essex 
in the massacre of his countrymen at Smerwick, and in 
the partitioning and settling up of Antrim. 


The disaffection of O'Neill, and his subsequent union 
with Red Hugh O'Donnell against the English, led up 
to the culminating scene in the great war of 1595-1602, 
when, defeated by Mount joy in the desperately fought 
battle of Kinsale, the two chieftains rallied their broken 
forces on the banks of the dark and swollen Bandon 
and agreed to part — O'Donnell to go to Spain to entreat 
aid from the King, and O'Neill to remain in Ireland and 
continue harassing the English. The departure of Red 
Hugh on the 6th of January, 1602, which gave rise to 
Moore's famous song of the Union of the Olive and the 
Shamrock, marked the beginning of a national exodus, 
w 7 hich, in a varying degree, has gone on, from that day 
to this, and has never ceased. 

In 1603, the war in Ireland over, Hugh O'Neill, for- 
getful of his promise to Red Hugh O'Donnell, to go on 
struggling to the bitter end, made a formal submission 
on his knees to the Lord Deputy and members of his 
Council at Mellifort, near Drogheda, was pardoned, and 
came to London as a guest of the King. His reception, 
though nothing like so cordial as it had been on former 
occasions, was too friendly to meet the approval of many 
of the English. " I have lived," wrote Sir John Harring- 
ton, one of the august veterans who had fought for the 
Deputy in Ireland, " to see that damnable rebel, Tyrone, 
brought to England, honoured and well liked. O what 
is there that does not prove the inconstancy of worldly 
matters ? How I did labour for all that knave's destruc- 
tion ! I adventured perils by sea and land, was near 
starving, ate horse flesh in Munster, and all to quell 
that man, who now smileth in peace at those who did 
harass their lives to destroy him ; and now doth Tyrone 


dare us, old Commanders, with his presence and 

Beyond the circle of smiling ladies, and a few courtiers 
broad-minded and chivalrous enough to extend welcome 
to any knight, so long as he was brave and gallant, 
O'Neill encountered nothing but sullen scowls ; the 
black and angry looks of officials and adventurers, who 
had looked forward to the forfeiture of his lands ; of 
soldiers longing to avenge old scores ; and of bigoted 
religionists, hating him on account of his Catholic faith. 
It was a trying situation, and it required all O'Neill's 
tact and courage to live through it. His stay in London, 
however, was not for long. Lawsuits with O'Cahan, 
the Bishop of Derry, and others of his enemies called him 
back to Ireland, and his next journey, namely, to Rome, 
was his last. 

In these two migrations — that of Red Hugh O'Donnell 
and Hugh O'Neill — there sailed from Ireland in all about 
120 souls, few of whom ever again visited their native 
land. Their subsequent wanderings and vicissitudes are 
referred to in the chapters dealing with Spain and Italy. 

The next two Irishmen of distinction to visit England 
after Hugh O'Neill were Rory O'Donnell, Red Hugh's 
brother, and Sir Niall Garv (Garbh) O'Donnell, grandson 
of Calvagh O'Donnell, Earl of Wexford, and the ally of 
the English in the war of 1598-1602. These two came 
to London as rival claimants of the Earldom of Tir- 
connell, a title that became vacant on the death of Red 
Hugh. Charges of treachery to his allies, the English, 
being brought against Sir Niall Garv, and confirmed, the 
Earldom was awarded to Rory, who certainly had the 
better right to it. Both returned to Ireland, but were 


destined to leave it soon after for good. Tirconnell 
accompanied Hugh O'Neill to Rome, and Sir Niall Garv 
O'Donnell, becoming involved in his kinsman, Sir 
Cahir O'Dogherty's, rebellion, was arrested for high 
treason, brought in chains to London, and, together 
with his son, Nachtan, lodged in the Tower. He died, 
some say by the hand of the assassin, in 1626, and was 
the first real Celtic-Irishman — the first of the O's and 
Mac's — of any note to be buried within the precincts of 
the Tower. Of the fate of Nachtan nothing is known for 
certain ; some affirm that he escaped, found his way to 
France in a coasting vessel, joined the army of Louis 
XIII, and was killed in a duel ; others, that he died in 
captivity from lack of proper nourishment and fresh air. 
Sir Niall left two other sons, Manus and Hugh Boy, 
whose descendants are still living. Of Sir Niall Garv 
O'Donnell's character many adverse things have been 
written, but of his skill and courage never has there been 
any question. The O 'Sullivan Beare, in referring to 
him, called him " a man of great and daring spirit, 
endowed with a knowledge of military affairs " — a des- 
cription that is amply corroborated by many other 

The four great Irishmen, Hugh O'Neill, Red Hugh 
O'Donnell, his brother Rory, and his cousin Sir Niall 
Garv out of the way, the English, having no one else to 
fear, at once commenced their work of robbery, expulsion 
and extermination. Nor can the annals of any country 
in Europe show a blacker record. There were already 
a large number of English settlers — chiefly traders — in 
Munster, Leinster and Connaught ; but few had hitherto 
crossed into Ulster, and it was Ulster upon which the 


crafty King of England and his rapacious myrmidons 
had long had their eye. The reason of this is not far to 
seek. The larger portion of Ulster, consisting of the 
Counties of Donegal, Derry, Tyrone, Cavan, Armagh 
and Fermanagh, belonged to the exiled Earls of Tyrone 
and Tirconnell, admittedly the richest of the Irish 
chieftains, and they not only had in their immediate 
possession — in their castles and abbeys, which Mr. Froude, 
in his racial antipathy to the Irish, would have one believe 
were quite humbly poor and bare — gold and silver plate 
and ornaments, some of home manufacture and some 
from Spain and Italy ; jewels, mostly from Spain, Italy 
and the Far East ; pictures, from Italy ; books and 
parchments of Celtic origin, or from various parts of 
Europe ; carpets, tapestry, silk and satin goods, from 
Spain and Portugal and the Far East, whither Irish 
mariners are known to have wandered and traded at a 
period when England could only boast of coracles ; and 
many other treasures — but were the representatives of 
clans that owned many hundreds of acres of rich pasture 
land, interspersed with highly prosperous and contented 
towns and villages. In addition, Ulster possessed the 
best harbours and the best climate in Ireland, but had 
it not been only too obvious that without their leaders 
the Irish of Ulster were paralysed and helpless, the hordes 
of London and Scottish shopkeepers and usurers, who 
swarmed across the Channel at the bidding of James, 
would never have dared to put a foot within the province. 
The alleged treason of the O'Neill and the O'Donnell 
was the excuse offered for the now wholesale robbery. 
A commission of omnivorous Londoners, under the pro- 
tection of an army of steel-clad soldiers, sat at Limavaddy, 

2— (2339) 


and with Bible and Prayer-book — the customary and, 
assuredly, the only trade-mark of their respectability — 
on the table by their side, drew up a list of all the Ulster- 
men who owned anything that was worth taking. When 
this list was complete, the Scottish and English mercen- 
aries were called in, and to the representatives of twelve 
City of London Companies, in which were included the 
Drapers, Skinners, Salters, Mercers, Ironmongers and 
Fishmongers — men who had no sense of art, of poetry, 
of literature, of pity, of honour, of anything save of 
making and hoarding up money — were sold great tracts 
of Derry, the Derry of the O'Neills. In a few cases, 
the owners of property having influential English friends, 
it was feared that complications might arise, and a more 
subtle method was employed. Spies, chiefly London 
Jews, were set to work, and, for finding out and inventing 
flaws in the title deeds, they were well remunerated. All 
property thus denounced was, of course, confiscated and 
appropriated by King James. But the new-comers — 
the ancestors of the present generation of Ulster Orange- 
men — could not enter into their new possessions till the 
rightful occupants had left, and, as it was deemed likely 
that many of these occupants would show fight, the 
ejectors called for the assistance of an armed force. The 
summoners had not far to go for it. All that was neces- 
sary in that way had been provided by the thoughtful 
King of England and his Parliament. 

Most English historians have preferred to pass over 
what followed, and one can readily understand the 
reasons that have prompted them ; but an omission of 
this kind can scarcely be regarded as " playing the 
game," especially when one notes how readily the same 


historians have narrated in full detail shameful scenes in 
the chronicles of other countries. 

The worst horrors of the Spanish War with the Dutch, 
of the Russian subjugation of Poland, of the Massacre of 
St. Bartholomew's Day, and of the French Revolution 
are as nought compared with the English treatment of 
the Clans of O'Neill and O'Donnell during the war of 
1598-1602, and afterwards, during the Anglo-Scotch 
colonisation of Ulster. 

Before the Commission of Attorneys and Usurers had 
terminated their sitting at Limavaddy, the inhabitants 
of the villages round Derry and Donegal were awakened 
one morning by the jingling of spurs and stirrups and 
the chinking of sword scabbards. There was nothing 
unusual in these sounds. During the war they had 
heard them often enough, but now peace was supposed 
to have been declared, and their chiefs were far away on 
the waters, they marvelled, not a little, at the advent of 
soldiers. They were not left long in doubt as to the 
nature of the mission. Dismounting from their horses, 
the troopers drew their swords, and at a word from their 
commanding officers rushed into the cabins. The Irish 
are born fighters, and times without number have 
struggled against odds that few other nations would 
have attempted to face ; and even on this occasion, when 
naked, starving and unarmed, they did their best. How- 
ever, what chance had bare limbs and empty hands against 
swords, pikes, guns and armour ? The old men were 
knocked down, shot and hacked to pieces ; the young 
men, stunned and bound, to be afterwards marched off, 
linked and chained together, across the moors and hills 
to Dublin ; the weak — to fall down and die of sheer 


exhaustion, the strong — to be shipped off to Germany, 
where they were drafted into the army of Gustavus 
Adolphus, who used them for beasts of burden, and 
made them occupy the most hazardous positions in 

Such was the fate of the male members of the Clans 
of O'Neill and O'Donnell ; that of the women was even 
worse. Those who were young and comely were violated 
and murdered, or taken away to be the slaves and 
mistresses of any who cared to buy them from their 
captors ; those who were old or ill-favoured either were 
killed, or, after being stripped and beaten, were driven 
away with the greater number of the children into the 
woods and morasses. Most of the infants in arms were 
tossed high in the air and caught laughingly on pikes, or 
brained with the heels of boots, or on boulders. In this 
manner some 20,000 Irish were got rid of, and the eviction 
question in Derry and Donegal was permanently settled. 

The new-comers, that is to say, the Lowland Scotch 
(not one Highlander was present) and the Anglo-Saxon 
shopkeepers, speedily took possession of the vacated 
premises, and the so-called colonisation of Ulster was 
begun. Can anyone wonder that the Irish have at times 
tried to retaliate, or that Orangemen have never been 
particularly popular with their neighbours ? If Rome 
was built on smouldering ashes, upon what were Belfast 
and Londonderry built ? Not a whit less cruel than 
Nero were James the First and his paid parasite Mount joy. 

This first big exodus over, emigrations in small numbers, 
forced on by the policy of James and his successor, 
Charles I, both of whom had their eyes fixed hungrily 
on Ireland, began to take place. What had happened 


to the owners of property in Deny and Donegal was now 
happening in Connaught. A whole army of pettifogging 
attorneys from London made out cases against the men 
of Connaught, some of whom were told that the titles to 
the land they had held for hundreds of years were invalid ; 
whilst others were accused of treason. No matter how 
monstrous and how empty the charges levelled against 
them, the result was always the same — they were deprived 
of all they had, and threatened with instant torture and 
imprisonment unless they left Ireland immediately. The 
Commission Court which was held in Dublin had 300 
Irish landowners, all of whom were Roman Catholics, 
imprisoned on false charges, robbed of everything they 
possessed, and subjected to the torments of the boot, 
the water-rack, and the thumb-screw. Those evicted 
ones who were fortunate enough to escape capture fled 
to the nearest seaport towns, whence they embarked for 
France, Spain and America. 

Emigrations of this nature went on till 1641, when the 
curtain rose on the second great tragedy of the century. 

Since the object of this volume is to portray the Irish 
out of Ireland and not at home, only just sufficient 
reference must be made to this drama to make it clear 
that one of the immediate outcomes of it was another 
emigration on a big scale. 

The cause of the tragedy was the arbitrary and aggres- 
sive conduct of the Anglo-Scottish settlers in Ulster 
towards the residue of natives. No sooner were these 
settlers established, securely ensconced in their homes, 
than they began to abuse and ill-treat the Irish whom 
they had robbed. Should an Irishman be seen in Derry 
or any of the other Anglo-Scotch towns, he at once 


became the object of anger and insult. Children threw 
stones at him, dogs were set on him, women called him 
a " dirty Papist," and " starving scamp " ; and by the 
men he was not infrequently kicked to death, since to 
kick an Irishman was considered no crime, and, therefore, 
entailed no punishment. A worse fate befel the Irish 
women. The Anglo-Scottish settlers, taught by their 
religion that Irish Catholics were scarcely human, that 
they could claim none of the rights of ordinary civilians, 
and that it was in no way sinful to do anything to them, 
allowed themselves to be wholly carried away by their 
vices. No Irishman's wife or daughter was safe ; and, 
when any attempt on the part of the enraged and broken- 
hearted husband or parent was made to punish the 
miscreant, the aid of other ruffians was at once summoned 
and wholesale murders took place. Within 50 miles of 
Derry and the site of the present town of Belfast, there 
was not a hamlet, nor a wood, nor a hillside that had not 
witnessed a tragedy of this kind, and echoed and re- 
echoed with the groans of slaughtered clansmen and the 
screams of violated women. This kind of thing went 
on, until, at last, goaded into desperation by the terrible 
injustices and cruelties inflicted on them, the natives of 
Ulster called upon Sir Phelim O'Neill to help them. 

Sir Phelim, fourth in descent from a younger brother 
of Con Bacagh O'Neill, the nearest of kin to the Earl of 
Tyrone (who had died in 1610), and still owner of con- 
siderable estates in Tyrone and Armagh, which he had 
been allowed to retain through the allegiance of his 
grandfather, Sir Henry, to the English cause, was the 
most prominent Celtic-Irishman in Ireland at that time, 
and, as such, was the last great hope of the Patriots. 


In response to the appeal of his clansmen for vengeance, 
he held a meeting in his house in Dublin, at which Roger 
More, Lord Maguire, Turlough O'Neill, Sir Con Maginniss, 
and other persons of distinction were present ; and drew 
up plans for a general insurrection. 

This was the origin of the much-debated Rising of 
1641. Many historians, both contemporary and modern, 
have given particulars of the campaign, but few have 
succeeded in discussing it impartially. Those who have 
treated it with least display of partisanship and most 
temperately are Justin McCarthy, John Mitchell, and 
John Prendergast. Thomas Carte and Goldwin Smith 
are fair and moderate only at times ; Edmund Borlace 
and Froude are never anything but grossly inaccurate 
and prejudiced. There can be little doubt that cruelties 
were perpetrated on both sides. But, as Justin McCarthy 
says, in reference to the Irish, " it is only fair to remember 
that most nations that have been treated cruelly are 
cruel in their revenge when they get it, and the followers 
of Sir Phelim O'Neill believed they had as bitter wrongs 
to avenge as men can have. They had been taught 
lessons of massacre by their masters, and this was their 
first essay." 

The Irish, then, were actuated by a burning sense of 
injustice; the English — by greed, and religious and racial 
bigotry. Of the massacres alleged to have been per- 
petrated by the Irish there is nought but the flimsiest 
evidence. The Special Commission sent for from London 
to enquire into them was in itself farcical. It was 
entirely composed of friends and relatives of the Anglo- 
Scotch, and had arranged its verdict before starting. 
The bribery of witnesses was wholesale, and almost the 


only evidence listened to was that of old women who 
had been far removed from the scenes of the alleged 
massacres, and had heard of them for the first time when 
sent for by the Commissioners. The crowning proof of 
the utter shame and fraudulency of this so-called enquiry 
lies in the fact that, when a demand was made by certain 
Irish ofhcers to be shown the hundreds of corpses declared 
to be choking the river near Portsdown, only one body 
could be found. 

Far different were the scenes witnessed after the 
English left Mullaghmast ; after Essex desisted from 
" wiping out " the Clan O'Neill ; after Bingham withdrew 
his troopers from Connaught, and the legions of Sir W. 
Cole turned their heels on Munster. There were corpses 
then for everyone to see, corpses not merely of Irish 
soldiers but of Irish women and children, of Irish old and 
sick. Thousands of corpses, vales and villages of corpses, 
bays and rivers of corpses, forests full of corpses — 
and no Commissioners to enquire as to how they came 
there. The English public heard of none of these things. 
And why ? Because those who were responsible for the 
doings of the King's troops took very good care the 
Commission should report nothing that might in any 
way create sympathy with the Irish ; for there were 
plenty of men and women in England then who had 
hearts — hearts uninfluenced by bigotry and fanaticism — 
even as there are plenty now. 

The war in Ireland lasted with varying success till 
Cromwell crossed over with 8,000 foot and 4,000 horse 
in 1649. The deaths of Owen Roe O'Neill, who had 
superseded Sir Phelim in the command of the Patriots, 
and Roger More, both of whom died at a strangely 


convenient time for Cromwell, paved the way to success 
for the English ; and one cannot help thinking that 
Cromwell won because the Fates were with him. At 
the moment of his landing, the Patriotic party was 
worn-out with its long, wearisome struggle ; it had no 
funds to provide more arms and ammunitions which it 
sadly needed ; and its most capable leaders were dead. 
It stood absolutely no chance against the greatest military 
genius of the day, backed up with all that the wealth of 
England could provide ; and it was hopelessly crushed. 

What Cromwell did in Ireland has few parallels in the 
annals of European history ; the atrocities at Drogheda 
and Wexford, carefully glossed over in English history 
books, whilst fully equalling those of Alva in Bruges, 
and far surpassing those of Tilly at Magdeburg, prove 
that the Protestants have been at times every whit as 
cruel and fanatical as the Roman Catholics, and that 
ferocity and pitilessness are the monopoly of no one 

Half the Irish population of Ulster and Connaught 
having been disposed of by butchery, it now remained 
for Cromwell to get rid of as many of the rest as possible 
by deportation. 

The disbanded Irish soldiery received his attention 
first. The valour of Irishmen was well known on the 
Continent. It had become proverbial in the armies of 
Henri Quatre, Wallenstein, Gustavus Adolphus, William 
of Orange, and other famous leaders, and, when once it 
was known that recruits were to be had from amongst 
the old clans, every effort was made to obtain them. 
Recruiting sergeants of many nationalities crossed the 
waters, and to the roll of foreign drums, between the 


years 1651 and 1654, over 40,000 Celtic Irishmen marched 
away, to die with all their accustomed gallantry — many 
winning imperishable renown — in the services of France, 
Spain, Poland and Italy. 

Having thus succeeded in deporting the men, Cromwell 
next turned his attention to the women. Hearing that 
the planters in New England and the West Indies were 
weary of maroons, and would pay any price for white 
women, Puritan Cromwell at once volunteered to supply 
their needs. Gangs of his soldiers invaded Connaught, 
and pouncing on all the women and girls they could find 
drove them in gangs to Cork. It was the work of 1603 
over again, only on a much larger and even more revolting 

The young and pretty women were frequently violated, 
the older and uglier — beaten and branded. From Cork 
they were taken to Bristol, and, after being publicly sold 
in the market there, they were thrust on board ship, 
and borne to their final destinations. The mind shrinks 
from imagining the horrors of their sufferings at sea. 
From the records of survivors they must have been at 
least equal to any of the sufferings experienced by African 
slaves on the way to America. But, as certainly did not 
happen in the case of the latter, their hardships excited 
no sympathy in England. The inhabitants of Bristol 
watched them being packed on board and driven below 
with the same dull curiosity and phlegm which they 
displayed in watching the embarkation of cattle. To 
them, doubtless, there was little to choose between a cow 
and an Irish Roman Catholic — neither, in their opinion, 
could feel sorrow nor pain. In this manner did Oliver 
Cromwell ply his white slave traffic ; and, according to 


Justin McCarthy, it was only when Cromwell's agents in 
human flesh began to seize upon English women to inflate 
their masters' coffers that the practice was stopped. 

In the meanwhile the question of the Celtic children 
had been solved. Sir William Petty, one of the most 
successful of the English looters who followed in the 
wake of Cromwell's army in Ireland, states, in his writings, 
that 6,000 boys and girls were transported as slaves from 
Ireland to Jamaica, and that the total number transported 
there and to Virginia amounted to 10,000. 

When Oliver Cromwell handed over the reins of 
government in Ireland to his son, Henry, who for many 
years was Lord Deputy, the same system of transporta- 
tion was continued. We read in Justin McCarthy's 
Outline of Irish History that Henry Cromwell not only 
approved of the deportation by force of 9,000 " Irish 
wenches " for the consolation of the soldiers in the 
newly-acquired Colony of Jamaica, but, on his own 
motion, suggested the shipment also of from 1,000 to 
2,000 boys of from twelve to fourteen years of age. " We 
could well spare them," remarked the saintly Henry, 
" and who knows but it might be a means to make them 
English — I mean Christians ? " 

John Prendergast — ever moderate in his language, 
even in his History of Ireland of these days — describes 
the great deportation thus : " Just as the King of Spain 
sent over his agents to treat with the Government 
for the Irish swordsmen, the merchants of Bristol had 
agents treating with it for men, women, and 
children, to be sent to the sugar plantations in the West 
Indies. The Commissioners of Ireland gave them orders 
upon the governors of garrisons, to deliver to them 


prisoners of war ; upon the keepers of gaols, for offenders 
in custody ; upon masters of workhouses, for the destitute 
in their care ' who were of an age to labour ; or, if women 
were marriageable, and not past breeding ' ; and gave 
directions to all in authority to deliver them to these 
agents of the Bristol sugar merchants — in execution of 
which latter direction Ireland must have exhibited 
scenes in every part like the slave marts in Africa. . . . 
In the course of four years they had seized and shipped 
about 6,400 Irish — men and women, boys and wenches." 
And, as he goes on to say that in 1655, in October alone, 
another shipment of 1,000 boys and 1,000 girls was 
made at Galway, some idea may be formed of the 
magnitude of the exodus. 

The fate of the Roman Catholic priests was reserved 
to the last, and no English historian ventures to say 
what actually happened to them. Their fate, however, 
may be gathered from the unpublished records of private 
individuals, and from the unpublished works of con- 
temporary Irish and Continental chroniclers in the 
national libraries in Ireland, in Paris, Madrid, Rome, 
Vienna, and other cities. From these sources there is 
abundant evidence to show that they fell victims to the 
fanatical hatred of the Scotch settlers and Cromwellian 
soldiery. Priest-hunts with hounds and lassoes were no 
uncommon form of pastime among the new settlers in 
Ulster and Connaught, nor were stoning and drowning 
the worst modes of death inflicted on the unhappy 
fugitives when caught. A large number — some authori- 
ties say as many as 2,000 — were stowed away in irons in 
the holds of ships and sent to the Barbados ; whilst at 
least another thousand were tumbled out on the beaches 


of the islands of Aran and Inishbofin, and heard of no 
more. Only a few escaped, and these, being smuggled 
out of the country by their friends, landed in Spain and 
France, where they were received with every kindness 
and hospitality. 

With the departure of the last of these batches of 
fugitives, the second great Irish emigration of the century 
may be said to have terminated. 

With the restoration of the Monarchy in England, the 
hopes of many of the exiles rose. Charles II was, in part 
at least, a Celt, and was known to have strong leanings 
to Roman Catholicism. It was surmised, therefore, that 
he would be a willing party to the return of the banished 
ones, and would see, too, that they took possession of 
their own. But in this, as in many other things, Charles 
proved a disappointment. He had a far shrewder eye 
to his own interests than was commonly supposed, and 
as he saw in the keen, money-making Anglo-Scotch 
settlers, who at once offered their allegiance, more useful 
and profitable adherents to his cause than in the exiled 
Irish gentry, who had nought to recommend them save 
their swords, no invitation was given to those so eagerly 
expecting it ; and the pillagers were allowed to retain 
possession of their bloodstained loot. 

On the other hand, Charles II did not encourage 
persecution, and during his reign emigration, on anything 
like a big scale, ceased. There were many flights of 
families and of single individuals, to escape the clutches 
of the infamous Broghill, Earl of Orrery, and his equally 
infamous brother, Coote, Earl of Mountrath, the vilest 
pair of scoundrels that ever sat in the King's Bench, 
but there were no more transportations organized by 


the English Government — and from this form of horror, 
at least, Ireland was now free. It is most probable, too, 
that Charles would have done more to alleviate the con- 
dition of the Irish, had not the Titus Oates plot, which 
re-kindled the wildest fury all over England against the 
Roman Catholics, made it impracticable for him to 
exhibit any sympathy with them. 

When James II became King the prospects of 
the Irish really brightened and many of the refugees 

With the Revolution, however, all hope of a 
Celtic Ireland was again completely shattered ; and 
immediately after the Battle of the Boyne, when 
Justin McCarthy, Viscount Mountcashel, Col. Daniel 
O'Brien, and Col. the Hon. Arthur Dillon, with about 
4,500 Irish soldiers sailed for France, there to form 
the nucleus of the far-famed Irish Brigade — full particu- 
lars of which will be found in the chapter dealing with 
the Irish in France — the third great Irish emigration 
began. But this great emigration included many, besides 
soldiers, who preferred to leave Ireland rather than 
remain in it, subject to the restrictions William III, in 
his blind hatred of the Roman Catholics, proceeded to 
impose on them. His penal laws in these days seem to 
us so childishly spiteful and unfair, that we can only 
wonder how any Parliament of even tolerably educated 
and rational men could ever have approved them. Yet, 
unthinkable as it is, many of these penal laws remained 
in force till well on in Victoria's reign. 

The most important of them were the following — 

1. No Catholic could sit in the Irish Parliament or 
vote members for it. 


2. All Catholics were excluded from the Army, Navy, 
corporations, magistracy, bar, bench, grand juries and 

3. No Catholic could be a sheriff, soldier, gamekeeper, 
or constable. 

4. No Catholic could possess firearms under penalty of 
severe fines, imprisonment, whipping, or pillory, and their 
houses might at any time be searched by two justices or 

5. No Catholic could own a horse worth more than £5, 
and any Protestant offering him that sum could compel 
him to part with his steed. 

6. No Catholic could receive any kind of education 
whatever (this should be digested by those people who 
are wont to remark on the ignorant Irish peasants ; if 
they are ignorant, it was the English who made them so) ; 
neither were his children allowed to attend school. 

7. No Catholic could purchase land, or inherit it, or 
receive it as a gift from a Protestant, or hold a life annuity, 
or a lease, for more than 31 years, or any lease on such 
terms as that the profits of the land exceeded one-third 
the value of the land. If a Catholic bought land, the 
first Protestant who chose to inform against him at once 
became the proprietor. 

8. The eldest son of a Catholic, upon renouncing his 
creed and becoming a Protestant, immediately took over 
the whole estate of his father, who was reduced to the 
position of a tenant on sufferance. 

9. Any wife renouncing the Catholic Faith and becom- 
ing a Protestant obtained a certain proportion of her 
husband's property, and was entirely freed from his 


10. Any child apostatising was at once taken out of his 
father's hands and given a share of his father's property. 

11. Any marriage between a Catholic and a Protestant 
was null and void ; whichever of the two was Protestant 
could leave the other at will and had sole control of the 

12. A Protestant might seduce a Catholic's wife with 
impunity, and the Catholic was denied all means of 
obtaining redress. 

Concerning these statutes, Mr. Justin McCarthy 
remarks, "It is hard for a more enlightened age to 
believe that such laws as these were ever passed, or, 
being passed, were ever practised. It was well said 
that the penal code would not have been practised in 
hell, or it would have overturned the kingdom of 

But even the penal laws did not comprise all that was 
done to crush and humiliate the Irish. From the Bench, 
Lord Chancellor Bowes and Chief Justice Robinson, 
both of whom nowadays would rightly be in Broadmoor, 
decreed that no such person as an Irish Roman Catholic 
existed, and that no Protestant could be legally convicted 
for doing anything he chose to a Papist ; and from the 
pulpit, Bishop Dopping of Meath announced that it was 
the King and Parliament's wish that no one should keep 
any faith with a Roman Catholic. Nor was this all. 
Not content with attacks on person and property, 
William proceeded to do all he could to destroy the 
trade of Ireland. Charles I had given the monopoly of 
the Irish woollen trade to English clothiers ; Charles 
II's ministry had prohibited the importation of cattle, 
sheep and swine into Ireland, and the transport of any 


kind of goods whatever in Irish-built ships ; but William 
III went much further. In 1696, all trade between 
Ireland and the Colonies was forbidden ; in fact every- 
thing was done that could be done to render it impossible 
for any Irishman to live in Ireland, and, in these circum- 
stances, all who could scrape together the money and 
were not hopelessly tied to the land left. Many went to 
America to found there fresh towns and villages, whilst 
not a few joined their friends and relatives on the 
Continent. In all, including those already mentioned, this 
third great exodus totalled up to just a half of the entire 
Celtic population of Ireland, some hundred thousand 
having been slain in battle or massacred in the war of 

Some have said that William III and his Ministers, 
in their treatment of the Irish, must have been inspired 
by Satan, but, if so, Satan assuredly was laughing at them 
up his sleeve, for though, by forcing the Irish to migrate 
to France and America, they thought they were doing 
the finest thing in the world for England, in reality they 
were doing England the greatest possible harm. The 
descendants of these emigrants completely turned the 
tide against the English at Fontenoy, and they also 
turned the scales in the final issues of the American 
War of Independence. 

3— (2339) 



The town in which the Irish first settled in England in 
anything like a large number was Bristol. This may be 
accounted for by its geographical position. The port 
of Bristol was then the nearest of any size in England to 
Ireland, hence it was to Bristol, naturally, that most 
Irish farmers and merchants sent their produce to be 
sold. Cork skippers, in saffron-coloured jerseys and 
high jack-boots, brought cargoes of cattle and sheep, 
stowed away in quantities that seemed out of all pro- 
portion to the size of their quaintly rigged forty-ton ships, 
and, disembarking them at the wharves alongside the 
Hotwells, drove them over the cobble-lined streets to 
the big market almost in the centre of the city. These 
skippers spoke but little English — and that with a strong 
" rolling " accent — were occasionally seen drunk, and 
rarely slept anywhere save on their ships, or, if the 
weather permitted, under the lofty trees that lined 
either shore of the Avon. Of their skill as seamen and 
pilots much might be said. The Irish Sea then, as now, 
was notoriously rough at times, but, despite the diminutive 
size of their vessels, these Celtic mariners appear to have 
met with few disasters, and to have weathered both sea 
and channel with the same success as they navigated 
the dangerous, winding mud-banks of the Bristol river. 
It was in one of these small trading vessels that Conor 
O'Murray, Bishop of Kilmacduagh, who died at Bristol 



in a.d. 1247, and Flann MacFlynn sailed from Cork, 
and, in all probability, in similar craft, at an earlier date, 
there also came to Bristol many monks and prelates on 
their way to Glastonbury, which owed much of its early 
fame to Ireland. Dunstan was educated by the Irish 
monks of Glastonbury, and King Alfred, rather than 
be taught by any of his own countrymen, sent to 
Glastonbury for one of its Irish inmates. 

To monks and sailors the Irish population in Bristol 
was almost exclusively confined for many years ; but, 
with the termination of the war with Wales, a new 
element arrived. Irish soldiers, who had come over to 
Wales under Norman Irish leaders to fight on behalf of 
the English, when hostilities ceased, were cast adrift and 
wandered about in all directions. Some got lost in the 
mountains and died from want and exposure, some were 
murdered by the Welsh, and some, aiming for the south, 
found refuge in the Forest of Dean, where the simple 
shepherds and wood-choppers gave them food and 
shelter, and advised them to go to Bristol. Accordingly, 
keeping the shining, yellow waters of the Severn well in 
sight, they tramped along the Glo'ster shores of that 
river till they came pretty well to where Pilning now is, 
when they struck inland, and, passing through Almonds- 
bury and Henbury, reached Bristol by the old Westbury- 
on-Trim road. Once in Bristol, their troubles may be 
said to have ended, for they speedily found their way to 
the quays, where those who wished to return to their 
native land were gladly taken on board the Irish cargo 
ships, and in most cases given a free passage to Ireland. 

The gradual growth and increasing prosperity of 
Bristol saw an ever-increasing number of Irish vessels in 


her harbours, and would have seen a larger number still, 
had it not been for the severe restrictions that began to 
be placed on all Irish commerce. But, despite these 
restrictions, and the horrible atrocities perpetrated in 
Ireland by a long succession of English generals, the 
relations between the Irish traders and Bristol continued 
to be friendly, and nothing occurred to mar the harmony, 
till the advent of the first batch of boy and girl slaves 
from Ulster and Connaught. 

At first, the Irish residents in Bristol could not believe 
that the gangs of weeping, half-starved looking children 
whom they saw brought out of the ships in what is now 
known as Cumberland Basin, and marshalled through the 
streets to the ordinary cattle market, were to be sold as 
slaves. They thought it was some grim hoax, grimmer 
and ruder than any their friends, the Bristolians, had 
hitherto played on them ; and it was not until they saw 
the whip fall on the children's backs, and heard the brutal 
language of those escorting them, that they realized the 
truth. Their indignation then knew no bounds ; they 
rushed in an angry crowd to the Mayor, but he could do 
nothing ; Cromwell had sanctioned the work ; there was 
much money in it ; and it must go on. And go on it did. 
Every week brought fresh human cargoes, and the 
natives of Bristol, when they had got over their first 
shock of horror and astonishment, flocked to see the 
exhibition with the same curiosity that prompted them 
to attend the executions of their fellow-citizens. 

There were exceptions, of course, for at all times and 
amongst all nations there have been some kind and 
sensitive hearts — were it not so, humanity long since 
must have stamped itself out ; — and in Bristol there were 


a few who listened with pity to stories of how the poor 
Irish women and children, after being hauled from the 
holds of the ships, where they had lain all huddled 
together, half dead from ill-treatment and sea-sickness, 
as well as sorrow at being torn away from their homes 
and friends, were driven in packs to the big market- 
square ; of how, after being exposed there for sale — 
usually nude — on wooden platforms, where they were 
examined and mauled about by the public as if they were 
cattle, they were eventually bought by agents of the 
planters in Virginia and the West Indies, who gleefully 
hustled them off to the docks to be stowed away on 
board their vessels ; and of how they were then, and 
subsequently, subjected to such villanies as the slave- 
trading annals of no other port or country can show. 
Few towns in England have witnessed such an immense 
amount of suffering as Bristol — happily, few towns can 
reveal such black spots in their histories. Yet, apart 
from this one foul stain, the conduct of the Bristolians 
has ever been fair and hospitable to the Irish. Indeed, 
in no city in England have they been better received or 
made truer friends. 

As might be expected, the selling of Irish slaves in 
Bristol acted as a deterrent to the Irish, who would 
otherwise have visited the city ; and so long as that 
abominable traffic lasted the Celtic Colony in Bristol 
was very small. By the middle of the eighteenth century, 
however, the Irish population in Bristol numbered some 
hundreds, most of whom were merchants, and, conse- 
quently, of Anglo-Irish extraction — for the pure Irish 
Celt at that time would not become a trader, and even 
now he does not take to commerce kindly. It is true 


that the records of the City of Bristol for Leland's time, 
namely, in 1760, point to certain Irish merchants with 
such names as Murphy and Sullivan, but analysis will 
show that their owners were in part only Irish, their 
progenitors on one side being either English or Scotch. 
Towards the end of the eighteenth century, when 
prejudice against the Roman Catholic Irish — never 
so pronounced in Bristol as in many other towns in 
England — began to decline, Irish peasants, many of 
whom belonged to old Celtic families that had been 
stripped of their property and reduced to beggary by 
the English, went to Bristol by various routes, and 
obtained employment in the coal mines and stone quarries, 
and on the wharves. 

To-day Bristol contains many thousands of people 
possessing Irish names or having strong Irish blood in 
them ; but, unlike their compatriots in Glasgow and 
Liverpool, the Irish in Bristol have no special quarter, 
they are located everywhere, and follow every occupation. 

The town that, in all probability, claims the next 
closest and oldest intimacy with Ireland is Liverpool. 
Though there is no actual record to show when the first 
Irish citizen came to Liverpool, there are evidences which 
go a long way towards proving that there was, at least, 
some intercourse between that port and Dublin as far 
back as the twelfth century. There does not appear, 
however, to have been an Irish settlement of any size in 
Liverpool till well on in the fifteenth century, when 
" Irish grain " began to be imported in large quantities. 
The greater number of the ships employed in the transport 
being of Irish build and manned by Irish crews, it was 
probably owing to the latter spreading the report that 


there was much work to be had in Liverpool for good 
pay that many men, chiefly of Anglo-Irish extraction, 
began to cross over from the towns in the English Pale ; 
and, later on, the rapid growth of the wool trade causing 
a proportionate increase in the immigration, by the 
middle of the seventeenth century there was an Irish 
Colony in Liverpool of at least 1,800, living in one quarter, 
and, with the exception of a few priests, consisting 
entirely of manual labourers. Up to the reign of Charles 
I, the relationship between the natives of Liverpool and 
the Irish was cordial enough, but, with the rise of Puri- 
tanism, this friendly feeling began to diminish. The 
Irish often were called malignants and Papists, usually 
accompanied by foul epithets, and it was not long before 
their priests were stoned and assaults were made on their 
places of worship during divine service. 

When they retaliated, which they were compelled to 
do in self-defence, the authorities were sent for, a riot 
was declared, and troops were at once called out ; and, 
as the soldiers had orders to be careful whom they 
touched, the only persons who suffered at their hands 
were the Irish, many of whom were killed outright, 
whilst others were arrested, flogged and pilloried. This 
state of affairs went on almost unremittingly all through 
the latter portion of Charles I's reign and the Common- 
wealth, reaching a climax at the time of the Titus Oates 
scare, when practically all Liverpool turned out to attack 
the Irish, and daily scenes of the most disgraceful nature 
occurred. The priests were mobbed, stoned, whipped, 
and many of them tortured to death, and their houses 
entirely demolished ; scores of Catholic women were 
violated and then murdered, whilst their children were 


knocked on the head and tossed from windows ; whole 
rows of Catholic houses were seized, and, their owners 
having been shut up inside them, they were set fire to 
and reduced to ashes. With the exposure and trial of 
Titus Oates, the fury of the Protestants against the Irish 
populace somewhat abated, though the feeling against 
them still continued to run high. 

Mr. John Denvir, in his Irish in Britain (pub. 1892), 
in illustration of the rabid prejudice of the English 
residents in Liverpool to the Irish immigrants, gives the 
following quotation from the town burial register : 
" 1688, August 12 — John Synett, an Irishman, born in 
Wexforde, master of a barque, was excommunicated by 
the Bishop of Chester for being a Catholic recusant, and 
so dying in Liverpoole, was denied to be buried at Liver- 
poole churche or chapel, and therefore was brought and 
buried in the said burial place of Harkirke, in ye 
afternoon of the third day of August 1688." 

John Synett's case was far from being an isolated one ; 
the Puritan ministers had so " dinned " into the heads 
of the Liverpool laity that Irish Papists were deserving 
of none of the privileges of human beings, that the objec- 
tion to grant them graves, either in consecrated or any 
other ground, at length became general, and the Catholics 
were at their wits' end to know what to do with their 
dead. At last, a sufficient sum of money being collected, 
a piece of land, known as the Harkirke estate, after much 
persuasion and difficulty, was bought at Crosby, and 
thenceforth used as the Irish Catholic Cemetery. After 
the commencement of the eighteenth century, the attitude 
of the people towards the Irish was a little improved. 
Nicholas Blundell, a wealthy English Catholic of Crosby, 


allowed his private chaplain to assist the Irish priests 
in Liverpool with the celebration of the Mass, and in 
1736 permission was given the Irish to erect a church, 
the services having hitherto been held in barns, private 
houses, or out-of-doors. 

In 1780 there was a temporary reaction of feeling 
against the Catholics ; the Lord George Gordon riots in 
London found their answering echoes in all parts of the 
country, and much havoc was wrought in the Irish 
settlement in Liverpool by mobs of drunken Protestant 
fanatics, who only desisted in their cruel and wanton 
work of destruction through fear of the troops. The 
same sort of thing, only on a smaller scale, had happened 
in 1745 after the retreat of the Young Pretender from 
Derby, when the joy of the Protestants at the overthrow 
of the Catholic claimant to the Throne's cause found 
vent in attacks on the Irish Colonies in London, Liverpool, 
and elsewhere ; in 1798, after the failure of the Irish 
Rising ; in 1835, when the Orangemen, unable to restrain 
their religious zeal during their anniversary fete, made a 
sudden and quite unprovoked attack on the Catholic 
quarter, chiefly in Tithebarn Street, Dale Street, White- 
chapel and Park Lane ; in 1848, when MacManus, Dr. 
Murphy, and other sympathisers with the Chartists 
urged a rising in aid of Feargus O'Connor in London, 
and a general insurrection in Ireland ; and again, in 
1850, when the Pope made Bishop Wiseman a Cardinal 
and made a new Hierarchy in England. This act of 
the Vatican led to a storm of indignation throughout 
the country. Effigies of Wiseman were burned all over 
England — Punch cartooned him, and even The Times 
let itself go and abused him and his Irish compatriots in 


the most heated and unrestrained language. A climax 
was reached through the inflammatory speeches of Lords 
Beaumont and Camoys, which led to a savage affray in 
Birkenhead. From statements made by unbiassed 
persons at the time, it appears that a number of Irish 
attended an Anti-Catholic meeting outside the Town 
Hall, and showed their resentment to the violent denun- 
ciations of the Pope and Cardinal Wiseman by vigorous 
shouting and booing. This led to a demonstration from 
the other party, and, matters becoming threatening, a 
priest called Father Brown, perceiving that many of 
the Catholics had brought weapons, persuaded them to 
give them up to him and go home peacefully. This 
they were about to do, when the police, seeing them 
move, and, presumably, thinking they were bent on 
mischief, suddenly and without any warning, charged 
them. Batons were freely used, and heads as freely 
cracked, several people — including one well-known Birk- 
enhead tradesman — being knocked down and severely 
injured. When once they had recovered from their 
astonishment at the unexpectedness of the assault, the 
Irishmen speedily pulled themselves together, and, 
roused to a pitch of the highest indignation at the utter 
unprovokedness of the attack, rushed at the police and 
scattered them to the four winds of heaven. Twenty 
policemen were rendered insensible, and two were rather 
badly hurt. A regular panic then took place in which 
half the town apparently shared. Some cried for more 
policemen, some for the military, and, when messengers 
were dispatched to Col. Sir Edward Cust's house to ask 
his assistance, he was found hiding under the drawing- 
room table. At last, Mr. Jackson, the leading magistrate 


present, thought of Father Brown, and, running up to 
him, cried in an agony of fear, " For mercy's sake, Mr. 
Brown, use your influence with these dreadful Irish, 
and calm them, or we shall all be torn to pieces." Father 
Brown, who hitherto had been looked upon with scorn 
by Mr. Jackson, and only alluded to as that " confounded 
Papist," at once walked into the midst of the melee and 
held up his hands. At first everyone was too intent on 
giving and parrying blows to notice him, but in a very 
little while he had attracted attention, and, after listening 
to a word or two of advice from him, all the Irish com- 
batants withdrew from the skirmish and walked quietly 
home. In the newspaper reports of the affair, all the 
credit for restoring peace was given to Mr. Jackson and 
his brother magistrates. Fortunately, however, some of 
the Catholics in the town were rich and influential, 
and, at the subsequent investigation upon which they 
insisted, the police were found guilty of having acted 
prematurely and with undue violence. Also, the 
character of the Irish was cleared, and anything 
further in the way of Justice could hardly be expected 
in those days. 

This may be regarded as the last serious disturbance 
with the Irish in Liverpool, although from time to time, 
notably in 1867, on the occasion of the Fenian rising, 
and in the early '80's, several demonstrations, which 
threatened to become grave, took place. 

Owing to the convenience of its situation, as well as 
to the age of its Irish Colony, Liverpool has always been 
closely connected with all Ireland's national movements. 

To begin with, the League of the " United Irishmen," 
founded at the end of the eighteenth century by two 


Protestants, Hamilton Rowan and James Napper Tandy, 
and almost entirely composed of Protestants, had power- 
ful representatives in Liverpool, where they found many 
sympathizers amongst the Catholics. 

Also, in 1807, when the Tithe and Land Question in 
Ireland called into existence the earliest of the secret 
Associations of Ribbonism, namely, the Shanavests and 
Caravats, branches of both these Orders were established 
in Liverpool ; and, later on, Daniel O'Connell, the great 
agitator for Catholic Emancipation, drew many of his 
ablest recruits and much of his money from Liverpool, 
which not only he, but nearly all the eminent Irishmen 
connected with the Catholic Emancipation movement, 
at one time or another visited. 

Following in the wake of the agitation for Catholic 
Emancipation came that for the repeal of the Union, 
which was started by O'Connell in 1830. 

This, too, found many of its most ardent supporters 
in Liverpool, not only among the Irish poor, of whom 
practically all were Repealers, but also among the rich ; 
and when the chief organ of the cause, namely, The 
Nation, was founded in 1842 by Gavan Duffy, John 
Blake Dillon, and Thomas Davis, the wildest enthusiasm 
prevailed in all parts of the city, thousands of copies of 
the paper being sold and thousands more ordered. The 
Young Irelanders had branches both in Liverpool and 
Birkenhead, and some of the most powerful and violent 
revolutionary speeches of the Mitchel faction were 
delivered by Terence Bellew MacManus, at that time a 
shipping agent, in a parlour of a private house in Circus 
Street. MacManus subsequently started the " Confed- 
erates," an association that aimed at the liberty of 


Ireland by armed force, and, in 1848, thinking that the 
psychological moment had come, and that England 
through the Chartist outbreak would be effectually tied 
at home, he helped Reynolds, Smyth, and others, organize 
a body of Liverpool Irish for the assistance of Feargus 
O'Connor in London — which body was met and driven 
back by the police before it had gone 20 miles. MacManus 
then sailed for Ireland ; and at Killenaule joined Smith 
O'Brien, Meagher, and O'Donoghue, whose followers, 
numbering six or seven hundred at the most, and composed 
entirely of the rawest peasants, he helped to drill. 
Temporary barracks had already been erected, but the 
leaders were disappointed — instead of half Ireland 
flocking to join them, each morning saw the addition 
only of some six or seven recruits, and, despite the fact 
that the bitter feeling against England was more intense 
then — and with good reason — than it had been since 
Emmet's death, the movement was a failure. The 
police, ready at any moment to strike, came down on 
the insurgents when they least expected it, surrounded 
them in a cabbage field at Ballingarry, and after the 
exchange of a few shots put them to flight. All the 
leaders were captured either on the spot or directly 
afterwards, and MacManus was sentenced to transpor- 
tation for life to Australia. He escaped, however, and 
succeeded in reaching California, where he remained till 
his death in 1861. His remains were taken to Ireland, 
and, amidst a great demonstration on the part of all 
Nationalists, buried at Glasnevin Cemetery. While 
these events were transpiring in Ireland, the police made 
a raid on the headquarters of the Confederates in Liver- 
pool, and Reynolds, in whose shop most of the meetings 


of the association were held, was seized. Having the 
good fortune to escape, he reached the United States in 
safety, where he distinguished himself, together with 
Meagher and other leaders of the '48, in the Civil War 
of 1863. 

Another contemporary leader of the Irish was Feargus 
O'Connor, who was also associated with Liverpool, 
though never actually residing there. 

After his rupture with the Repeal Party in 1833, 
O'Connor returned to the North of England, and made 
Liverpool one of the centres for the Chartist Movement, 
of which he speedily became the recognized head. His 
paper, The Northern Star, which was chiefly written by 
the Liverpool Irish, not only had branch offices in 
Liverpool but depended on Liverpool for the greater 
portion of its circulation, and, despite the fact that many 
looked upon O'Connor as merely a windbag, he was 
extremely popular throughout the North of England, 
especially in Liverpool, where many English as well as 
Irish embraced his cause. 

During his imprisonment for sedition in York Castle, 
where he was treated with unnecessary severity, the 
greatest sympathy was expressed for him in Liverpool ; 
plans were daily concerted for his rescue, and hundreds 
of people paraded the streets nightly, chanting patriotic 
and revolutionary songs that had been mostly written 
round him. On his release, he was returned with a huge 
majority for Nottingham, which constituency he continued 
to represent till 1853, when, his brain giving way through 
stress of work, he was committed to a private asylum. 
He died in London, 30th August, 1855, and was buried 
in Kensal Green Cemetery. Feargus O'Connor was not 


a great man, neither was he a great leader ; but he was 
a loyal patriot, keen and energetic in all his undertakings, 
and he possessed, to a wonderful degree, the power of 
making himself liked. His insanity was undoubtedly 
increased by the cruelties perpetrated on him in York 
prison, where, according to his own evidence, he was 
submitted to all sorts of mediaeval tortures, these 
tortures being undoubtedly intended to perpetuate his 
madness, and so prevent him being any further nuisance 
to the Government. 

The termination of the '48 Rising and that of the 
Chartists saw the beginning of fresh phases in the Young 
Ireland movement. John O'Mahony, one of the fugitives 
from Ballingarry, after escaping to Paris, where he lived 
for some time, went over to the United States, and there 
founded the Fenian Society, an Irish Revolutionary Bro- 
therhood, generally known as the I.R.B., which was the 
immediate predecessor of the still more famous Clan-na- 
Gael. In Ireland O'Mahony found an imitator in his 
friend and former colleague, James Stephens, who, in 
1851, started at Skibbereen the Phoenix National and 
Literary Society, which was in reality an offshoot of 
the I.R.B. The movement gained extraordinary popu- 
larity, and spread not only all over Ireland but into 
England, where London, Liverpool and Manchester 
became its chief centres. In Liverpool the two earliest 
branches of the I.R.B. were " the Sarsfield " and " the 
Central Liverpool," which had their headquarters in 
Circus Street and Devon Street Hall, respectively. 
Among the local Fenians destined to play permanent 
parts in the I.R.B. movement were Joseph Archdeacon, 
quite the most brilliant orator in Liverpool, John Flood, 


and John Ryan. The great Fenian Rising in 1867 was 
principally pioneered in Liverpool ; most of the arms and 
ammunition for the cause were stored there ; and Allen, 
Larkin and O'Brien all lived in Liverpool at one time or 
another, as also did that member of the I.R.B. who 
attempted to dynamite Clerkenwell Prison, and was 
rightly executed for blowing up several innocent 
and unoffending persons ; for killing — save in open 
warfare or self-defence — is, after all, murder, and 
murder is rightly punished by hanging — a life for 
a life — what can be fairer ? After the Fenian 
Rising in '67, Liverpool became tolerably quiet, and, 
though many additional branches of the various Irish 
secret societies sprang up there, nothing further in the 
nature of a serious riot occurred. In the early '80's 
there were one or two dynamite outrages in Birkenhead 
and Liverpool, but they passed without any very grave 
consequences, and proved to be the work of irresponsible 
persons, and perpetrated without the sanction of any 
of the organisations. 

After the famine of 1845 a huge migration to Liverpool 
sent the Irish population in that city up to over 80,000, 
and the exorbitant rent charged for even the meanest 
houses and rooms caused a terrible amount of over- 
crowding, the consequent suffering of these poor immi- 
grants being indescribable. It was no unusual thing for 
twenty or thirty people to be crowded together in one 
room, generally a cellar, deep down, dark and ill-venti- 
lated, full of rats and cockroaches, and considered by the 
owners too damp and rank for the storage of any kind 
of goods ; yet for such villainous accommodation fancy 
prices were charged, and, unless the rent was forthcoming 


on the very day it was due, the tenants were immediately 
turned out, and anything they had with them in the shape 
of clothes or furniture seized. Had these immigrants 
faced these haidships in a normal state of health, more 
might have survived, but considering their half-starved 
and, in many cases, feverish condition at the time they 
landed — owing to the potato famine — one cannot be 
surprised that, out of the 60,000 who came to Liverpool 
from Ireland between the years 1845 and 1849, over 
10,000 died within six months of their disembarkation. 
Incredible as it may seem, the authorities were often so 
adverse and dilatory with regard to the burial of these 
poor wretches, that their corpses had to remain for weeks 
in the cellars where they died and where their less for- 
tunate companions still lived. Later on, to provide 
accommodation for the Irish who still continued to come 
over, long rows of houses were hastily run up, usually on 
sites that present-day sanitary inspectors would condemn 
off-hand, and for these jerry-built erections rents out of 
all proportion to their value were demanded. None of 
these so-called houses had any conveniences whatever, 
the rooms, mere boxes, were low, ill-lighted and ill- 
ventilated — the windows being little bigger than loop- 
holes ; there were no kitchens in the proper sense, only 
rooms darker and smaller than the rest, containing a 
grate, which by no stretch of the imagination could be 
associated with cooking ; and one out-door lavatory 
usually served for half the street. Most of these tene- 
ments of the back-to-back order were built by Liverpool 
business men — many of them Jews — whose descendants 
have waxed fat on their vile speculations. They are now 
spoken of as " the slums," and their inhabitants scornfully 

4— (2339) 


alluded to as '* the slummy Irish." But it must be 
recollected that these streets were slums when they were 
built, and that the Irish, fresh from the free, untram- 
melled wilds of Connaught and Munster, were purposely 
compelled to inhabit them. 

Miserable as was the condition of the inmates of this 
quarter, their lot would have been even worse had it 
not been for the incessant labours of the Roman Catholic 
priests, whose ceaseless and unselfish toil — for they 
receive but the scantiest remittance — on behalf of the 
Liverpool Irish poor has been little short of heroic. The 
many instances in which these men, at the imminent risk 
of their lives, had visited pestilential cellars in order to 
administer Communion to the sick and bring them 
nourishing food and wine, would fill many volumes, 
and would win admiration from all but the blindest and 
most fanatical bigots. Where so many have behaved 
nobly, it is impossible to pick out individuals, but in 
the far past the names of Father Anthony Carroll, who 
worked in the Liverpool Roman Catholic Missions from 
1759-1768, and was murdered near Red Lion Court, 
Fleet Street, in 1799 ; Father John Carroll, afterwards 
first Archbishop of Baltimore, U.S.A., and Father Peter 
O'Brien are, perhaps, most worthy of special commen- 
dation. Here, too, mention must be made of the admir- 
able work done in the Irish quarter by certain of the 
present-day Anglican clergy. 

The Irish did not migrate to Manchester till some time 
after they first went to Liverpool. A few in search of 
unskilled labour may have found their way thither 
towards the end of the seventeenth century, but they 
were not encouraged, owing to the intense antipathy of 


the inhabitants of the town to Roman Catholics, especially 
to Irish Roman Catholics. 

In the year 1720, or thereabouts, Irish merchants, 
connected chiefly with the woollen trade, began to come 
over ; but there was nothing in the form of an actual 
colony in Manchester till some thirty or so years later, 
when, the birth of new industries and the development of 
old ones creating a large demand for labour, workmen 
were quickly sought for among the Irish population in 
Liverpool, reluctance in employing them being readily 
overcome by the fact that extreme poverty and privation 
rendered them willing to accept any wages, however 
meagre. It was in this manner that the canny eighteenth 
century Lancashire employers amassed their wealth, and 
it was these poor, imposed on, sweated labourers of theirs 
that formed the nucleus of the Irish Colony in Manchester. 

The series of agitations that broke out from time to 
time against the Roman Catholics in London and Liver- 
pool had their counterparts in Manchester, though, 
perhaps, in a modified degree ; and Manchester as well 
as Liverpool played its part with regard to the various 
movements for the realization of Irish separation and 

In the days of Ribbonism, Manchester boasted of many 
Shanavests and Caravats, and members of other Orders, 
who met in one another's cellars to discuss the grievances 
of relatives in Ireland, and then rushed up into the 
street to repel the sudden inroads of bands of immigrant 
Orangemen, stirred up to militancy by the frenzied words 
of their Presbyterian pastors. Many an old quarrel was 
fought out to the bitter end under the grim shadows of 
those jerry-built Manchester houses, and great was the 


tearful moaning, the loud groaning, and the keening that 
prevailed after the marauders had withdrawn, and 
motionless recumbent figures, all bashed and bloody, 
marked the scene of the recent combat. None knew — 
except those engaged in them — of the awful tragedies 
these fights involved ; and none — outside these Irish 
quarters — cared. 

In 1843, when the Repeal Association was founded, 
the Irish in Manchester were among those who contributed 
most liberally to its support. In 1848 there was a great 
rally round Feargus O'Connor, who was immensely 
popular among the poor in Manchester, and a large body 
of Irish and English Chartists set out, simultaneously 
with those in Liverpool, to join him. They were, how- 
ever, met on the way, a few miles out of Manchester, by 
a strong force of policemen and soldiers, who, after 
repeated charges, in which many were injured on both 
sides, forced them to disperse. 

The founding of the Irish Revolutionary Brotherhood 
(the I.R.B.) in America and Ireland saw branches of 
both organizations speedily established in Manchester. 
The local central branch of the Irish I.R.B. met at 50 
Marshall Street, where John Joseph Finnigan achieved 
a big reputation by his speeches ; the headquarters of 
the American I.R.B., or Clan-na-Gael, still a great force 
in Irish Manchester, were kept secret. Manchester 
played an important role both in the Fenian Affair of 
1865 — which ended in the arrest of James Stephens, 
mainly through a subtle trick on the part of the Man- 
chester police — and in the Rising of 1867, when, for 
awhile, all eyes were focussed on it. The plot of the 
Fenians for the seizing of Chester Castle was concocted, 


partly in Manchester, partly in Liverpool. It was 
betrayed, and the local principals concerned in it were 
arrested through the agency of spies employed by the 
Manchester police ; and it was in Manchester that the 
scuffle to effect the rescue of the prisoners, which resulted 
in the unfortunate shooting of a police constable and the 
subsequent hanging of Allen, Larkin, and O'Brien, " the 
Manchester Martyrs," also took place. Since then, 
Manchester, as far as the Irish are concerned, has been 
more tranquil, although a large percentage of its Irish 
Colony have always been — and still are — pronounced 
members of the Clan-na-Gael. 

The potato famines and evictions that led to so large 
a migration of the Irish to Liverpool in the '40's and '50's, 
were also mainly responsible for the first migration of the 
Irish to Manchester. In later years, owing to the 
miserable wages paid to the manual labourer, thousands 
have been driven out of Ireland and forced to seek their 
living elsewhere. Those that could not afford to go to 
Australia or America have come to England, and with the 
prospect of obtaining employment at Manchester and 
Liverpool, where the wages for dockers, porters, and 
factory hands are incomparably better than in their own 
country, it is there that they have naturally settled. 

As navvies, the men from Connaught were unbeatable ; 
thousands were employed on the railroads and in quarries 
round about Manchester and Liverpool, and a consider- 
able number were engaged for the construction of the 
Manchester Ship Canal. 

As much has been done of late in Manchester to 
improve the conditions of the labouring classes, the lot 
of the Irishman has naturally changed for the better. 


In some cases, no doubt, his wages might be higher, but, 
on the whole, the Irish manual labourer in Manchester 
has little to complain of. 

Also the inter-marrying between the more wealthy of 
the Irish and the Manchester English has almost eradi- 
cated racial feeling ; at any rate, so little does it count 
with the bulk of the professional and business class of 
Irish in Manchester, that the majority are in favour of 
the continuation of the Union. It is not so with the 
poor Irish ; their religion on the one hand, and on the 
other black and bitter memories of past days, handed 
down from one generation to another, and constantly 
alluded to in speeches and debates at the meetings of 
their secret societies, have combined in keeping up their 
racial differences, and in perpetuating their racial 
sentiments and antipathies. 



Without doubt, Ireland's earliest associations with 
London are exclusively connected with the Irish Church. 
Although there is no positive testimony, there is a legend 
that Irish missionaries first came to London in the reign 
of King Lucius, who, having sent over to Rome in a.d. 
156, to ask for assistance in the establishment of Chris- 
tianity in Britain, was referred to Ireland, whose inhabit- 
ants were already well versed in the Christian Faith, as 
a country easily accessible and competent to instruct. 

In all probability, this early date saw the commence- 
ment of the first Irish Settlement in London. Almost 
entirely composed of monks, this colony flourished and 
increased through fresh immigration, till the Anglo- 
Saxons totally destroyed the city of London, and exter- 
minated all its inhabitants. The whole country conquered 
by these robbers, heathenism and barbarity again held 
sway in it until a second band of Irish missionaries, 
nothing daunted by the innumerable dangers that faced 
them, came to England, and eventually succeeded in 
re-establishing there the Church and creed they so much 

According to some authorities, London was won back 
to Christianity by St. Finnian, who, accompanied by a 
party of some twelve or so young Irish priests, visited 
the city in, or about, the year a.d. 525. In any case, 
to this date may be ascribed the commencement , of the 
second Irish Colony in London, which colony, like the 



first — almost entirely composed of priests — grew and 
flourished through the succeeding centuries. 

Although, contemporaneously with these monks, Irish 
traders came to London, not infrequently in Irish ships, 
to sell their home products, but few seemed to have 
settled there, and from first to last the nature of the 
colony remained ecclesiastical. It was not until the end 
of the twelfth century that the Irish monks began to 
leave the country they had done so much for, and their 
exodus, owing to the English invasion of Ireland, and the 
consequent change of relationship between the two 
countries, soon became so rapid and complete that, in 
the course of a very few years, the colony in London 
was extinct. Irishmen of another type now began to 
come over. Chieftains, conspicuous amongst whom were 
the O'Neills and the O'Donnells, prompted solely by 
political motives, took up their abode — often for in- 
definite periods — in London's gayest quarters, whilst 
Irish seamen, finding their way to London in Anglo- 
Norman ships, lodged in the numerous small and ill-kept 
houses that crowded the banks of the Thames between 
Old Wapping and Blackfriars ; and added to this moving 
colony were numbers of Irishmen whom the various wars, 
civil and foreign, brought to England under Norman 
leaders. An Irish contingent invariably took part in all 
the principal campaigns of the Middle Ages — in the 
Anglo- Welsh war, when, under Felim O'Connor and 
Maurice Fitzgerald, they showed conspicuous bravery in 
the siege of Gannocke, where Richard MacWilliam 
Bourke was killed ; in Edward Ill's war against the Scots, 
when they led the attack at Halidon Hill, 1333, under 
Maurice, first Earl of Desmond ; in the war against the 


[See p. 106 


French, 1347-1356, when, under Maurice Fitzgerald and 
Maurice, Earl of Desmond, they won special commenda- 
tion from the King for their gallantry ; in the war against 
the French, 1415, when, under Thomas Butler, they aided 
not a little in the victory at Agincourt by the impetuosity 
of their charges ; in the Wars of the Roses, where they 
fought on either side — under James Butler, fifth Earl 
of Ormonde, for the Lancastrians, and under Thomas 
Fitzgerald, seventh Earl of Kildare, for the Yorkists. 

The Irish also participated in the insurrection of 
Lambert Simnel in 1487, when they fought at Stoke under 
John of Lincoln ; and in the 1495 to 1497 Rising of 
Perkin Warbeck, when they fought for the latter in 
various parts of England. 

When the wars were over and their services were no 
longer required, those who were able returned to Ireland, 
whilst most of the remainder tramped to London, and, 
taking up their abode among their fellow-countrymen on 
the banks of the Thames, engaged in whatever kind of 
work they could obtain. This river colony, in fluctuating 
numbers, continued to be constituted mainly of seamen 
and ex-soldiers, till well into the sixteenth century, when 
the military element in it died out. 

Traders now began to settle in London, preferring the 
quieter but more costly neighbourhood of Smithfield 
and St. Giles, Cripplegate ; and the Irish in London 
continued to be composed chiefly of merchants and 
sailors, till the seventeenth century was well in progress, 
when, for the first time, there came over a sprinkling of 
men who read for the bar, wrote, acted, or sought for 

The lawyers settled in or around the Temple, the bulk 


of the writers and actors drifted to Alsatia, that is to 
say, to the neighbourhood of Whitefriars ; whilst those 
engaged in office work looked for apartments most handy 
to the scene of their labours. As may be noted, the new 
immigrants did not congregate in any special district in 
order to be closely in touch with one another, but their 
sympathies being more diversified than those of the 
poorer class Irish they drifted apart, and each individual 
chose for himself the environment which best suited his 
tastes or vocation. 

From 1642-1649, during the progress of the Civil War, 
the soldier element was once more in evidence. With 
very few exceptions, all the Irishmen — and they numbered 
not a few — who took part in this war, fought on the 
Royalist side, but they did so, not because they loved 
King Charles — for the latter's conduct to Ireland had 
been shameful, and many of these very soldiers had 
fought against him under Sir Phelim or Owen Roe O'Neill 
— but because they so thoroughly abhorred his enemies, 
the bigoted, bullying Puritans. 

In September, 1643, four Irish regiments, each of about 
800 men, but with no Celtic-Irish officers, were dispatched 
from Ireland by Ormonde to the assistance of Charles. 
They landed at Mostyn, in Flint, and were defeated at 
Nantwich, 25th January, 1644, by Sir T. Fairfax. About 
700 were killed, 1,600 taken prisoners, and the remainder 
fled to Lancashire and joined Prince Rupert. The Prince 
already had a few score of Irishmen with him, several of 
whom were members of the old representative Irish clans, 
and nearly all of whom had had experience in fighting on 
the Continent. These, added to the new-comers, formed 
a by no means inconsiderable portion of the Prince's 


entire force, and to them was due, in a very great measure, 
the relief of the Royalists in York. 

They startled the stolid Parliamentarian yeomen by 
the mad impulse of their charges, but at Marston Moor 
they lost heavily, were at length surrounded by an 
overwhelming number of Cromwell's Ironsides, and 
almost annihilated. What few survived and escaped 
capture rode with Prince Rupert from the battlefield, 
fought again at Naseby, and, after following the fortunes 
of the Prince till his surrender at Bristol, 10th September, 
1645, left him to join Montrose's Irish Brigade in Scotland. 
Of those who were captured at Marston Moor, some were 
executed off-hand, whilst others, eventually brought to 
London, were lodged in one or other of the jails like 
common felons. On the cessation of hostilities, those 
who had survived the abominable hardships and priva- 
tions to which they had been subjected in small, foul, 
foetid, over-crowded dungeons, being unable to return 
to Ireland through lack of means, sought lodgings, 
mostly, in the poorest back streets of Whitefriars, where 
they drifted into all kinds of occupations. 

In February, 1645, a grim tragedy was enacted in 
London, in which two Irish ex-soldiers, Connor Maguire 
and MacMahon, were the unfortunate principals. Connor 
Maguire, son of Brien Roe, first Baron of Enniskillen, 
and of the sister of Owen Roe O'Neill, was born in 
Fermanagh in 1616. In 1641 he entered enthusiastically 
into Sir Phelim O'Neill's plan for a general insurrection, 
and for the expulsion of the Anglo-Scotch robbers from 
Ulster. At the conferences, many of which were held 
in his rooms at Mr. Nevil's, a surgeon, in Castle Street, 
near the pillory, it was arranged Sir Phelim O'Neill should 


seize Charlemont ; Sir James Dillon, the Fort of Galway ; 
Sir Morgan Cavanagh and Hugh MacFelim, the Fort of 
Duncannon ; and Maguire, Barry, Plunket and others, 
Dublin Castle. Unhappily for Maguire the plot was 
betrayed, and, whilst the majority of the conspirators 
escaped, he was arrested. After being incarcerated in 
Dublin Castle for a year, he was brought over to England 
in company with his friend MacMahon, and lodged in the 
Tower of London. 

During their imprisonment they were more than once 
submitted to the rack, and made to undergo other hideous 
forms of cruelty, equally dear to Charles's heart. After 
being confined for two years, they succeeded in escaping, 
and hid in a house in Drury Lane, and would probably 
have got right away to the Continent, had it not been 
for MacMahon, who, unable to withstand the sight of 
some very tempting-looking oysters, called to their 
vendor from his bedroom window. By an extraordinary 
piece of ill-luck someone happened to be passing by at 
the moment who recognized his voice and, on his giving 
the alarm, the two were at once recaptured and placed 
once again in their old quarters. Both of them were 
brought up for trial for high treason at the King's Bench 
on the 11th November, 1644. 

Maguire pleaded his right to be tried by his peers in 
Ireland : this was denied him, and his final trial was 
fixed for 10th February, 1645. Despite his youth, 
inexperience, and debility incurred through his sufferings, 
he defended himself bravely, and urged so many technical 
objections that the case was prolonged for a second day. 
The Judge, however, who showed clearly how bitterly pre- 
judiced he was against the Irish, charged strongly against 


him ; he and MacMahon were both found guilty and con- 
demned to be hanged, drawn and quartered. Despite their 
request, the consolation of a priest was denied to them, 
and, although it was contrary to custom, they were both 
subjected to many indignities and torments after being 
led back to prison. 

On the morning of the 20th of February, 1645, they 
were both rudely disturbed by their jailers, who, after 
buffeting them soundly, when they again petitioned for 
a priest, threw them on the ground and bound them, 
face uppermost, on hurdles attached by long ropes to 
horses. They were then dragged along the ground over 
cobble stones and ruts, through dust and mire, down 
street after street, till they came to Tyburn, where a 
huge crowd of laughing, jeering Londoners, men, women 
and children, had assembled to see " the sport." On 
their arrival at the gallows, as they were unable to stand — 
being almost reduced to a state of jelly — they were 
hauled on to their feet and thrust on to a cart placed 
immediately beneath the fatal tree. Once again they 
begged for a priest, and once again their request was 
roughly refused. They were now partly stripped, their 
hands bound behind them, and the nooses adjusted 
round their necks. The executioners then jumped on 
the ground, the cart was hurriedly drawn away, and 
amidst long yells of delight and excitement from the 
all-expectant, tip-toeing crowd, the forms of the two 
young Irishmen were seen — like mice in a pail of water — 
struggling helplessly and hopelessly for life. Every detail 
of the horrible sentence was carried into effect, and 
not until the last item was well over did the people 
begin to move away, and, even then, many lingered 


behind to feast their eyes on the spot where it had 

The man who, next to the Judge, did most in com- 
passing the deaths of Maguire and MacMahon was 
William Prynne, who throughout showed an extraor- 
dinary malignancy to the two captives. Bad as had 
been the treatment of the majority of Irish political 
prisoners in England brought before this Court, none 
had been subjected to quite such an ignominious and 
shameful ending as these two scions of ancient and 
time-honoured Irish families, and their fate sent a thrill 
of horror and disgust not only throughout Ireland, but, in 
a measure almost as great, throughout France and Spain. 

Towards the close of the war between Charles and his 
Parliament the Irish in London began, for the first time, 
to figure conspicuously in literature and art. Among 
the first to win distinction were James Ussher, Arch- 
bishop of Armagh, Sir James Ware and Sir John Denham, 
both of whom took part in the Civil War ; and Ludowick 
Barry, who was the first Irish dramatist to write in 
English. They are all referred to more fully in the 
chapter of seventeenth century biographies. 

In 1678, the Titus Oates Plot led to a general persecution 
of the Irish, Catholic as well as Protestant — for in the 
eyes of the ignorant English mob Irish spelt Papist — 
and many of the Irish in London, lucky to escape with 
their lives, had their houses burned over their heads. 
Similar outrages occurred during the Revolution of 1688, 
but from that time onward, till the year 1780, when the 
Lord George Gordon riots broke out, with the exception 
of minor disturbances on the occasion of the Young 
Pretender's retreat from Derby, the Irish in London 


enjoyed comparative quiet. During this interlude of 
peace, the Irish population in London had increased 
considerably. To account for the increase of the colony, 
it may be stated that nine ships plied between Ireland 
and London, which meant the employment of more 
seamen, many of whom were Irishmen ; and that, wages 
for all kinds of work being higher in London than in 
Ireland, Irish labourers also began to come over. The 
bulk of these settled in Bristol, Liverpool and Manchester, 
but a fair percentage found their way to London, where 
they worked as masons and bricklayers, in the docks, 
or on the roads, or at any job they could get. Being 
mostly Catholic, they were gregarious, and founded a 
fresh settlement in the neighbourhood of the Old Fleet 
Market, where Farringdon Street now runs. 

In addition to these seamen and labourers, the growing 
trade with London brought over from Ireland more 
merchants and more clerks ; the glamour of London life 
attracted more and more of the literary and theatrically 
inclined Irish ; whilst more and more of the pro- 
fessional Irish — lawyers and doctors — imagining that in 
a city so prosperous as London their prospects would be 
better, chose it in preference to poorer Dublin. 

Of all these immigrants few were of real Celtic origin ; 
the more educated and the seamen were mostly from the 
English pale, and the labourers, though they largely 
hailed from Connaught, were in the main descendants of 
the first English settlers there. 

After 1750, the rate of immigration was very much 
more rapid. Irishmen of all vocations in life began to 
pour over. Many took up literature, many went on the 
stage, many entered the Army and read for the bar, 


while large numbers went into business. But the biggest 
increase of all was in the labouring population, which by 
1846 was close on 40,000. There were in that year not 
far short of 260,000 Irishmen in England, 5,300 in Wales, 
and 127,000 in Scotland. 

The number of Irishmen in London who distinguished 
themselves during the eighteenth century was large, even 
for this increase of population, but may be partly explained 
as follows : The English political arena was for the first 
time thrown open to Irishmen ; London, owing to the 
founding of the Royal Academy, became better known 
as an art centre ; and the English Army offered a new 
field for Irish military aspirants. 

The Irishman could fight, and — in the place of those 
whose duty it was to fight for their town and country, 
but who preferred to stay at home and make money — he 
fought uncommonly well. After the French Wars of 1745- 
1748, 1756-1763, all through the end of the eighteenth 
century, Irish soldiers, discharged through wounds 
received in action, were to be seen limping along the 
London streets and beseeching for coppers. They had 
no pension, no fund was opened for them, and dozens of 
them died from sheer starvation. Half of Wellington's 
Army that drove the French out of Spain and finally 
defeated them at Waterloo were Irish, as were half of 
Nelson's fleet at the Nile and Trafalgar. 

From the beginning of the eighteenth century up to 
the year 1780, the relations between the Irish poor and 
the Londoners with whom they mixed were tolerably 
amicable ; occasionally there was friction between them, 
and in 1745 occurred a small riot, but it was not until 
the great agitation against the Catholic Relief Measures 


was started that anything of a serious or alarming nature 
too place. After a violent outburst against the Catholics 
in Edinburgh, London was beginning to simmer ; but it 
is very doubtful if matters would have come to a crisis, 
had it not been for the interference of Lord George 
Gordon, who, on 29th May, 1780, presided over a meeting 
in Coachmakers' Hall, London, to consider a petition to 
Parliament for the Repeal of the Catholic Relief Act, 
and thus instigated the disturbance subsequently known 
as the Lord George Gordon Riots. 

The chief sufferers in the Lord George Gordon Riots 
were the Irish ; Mr. Langdale alone lost property to the 
extent of £100,000, and hundreds of others were left 
homeless and destitute. Of the killed and injured there 
was no official record — the affair was scarcely a credit to 
any Government — and the enquiry into the losses of the 
Irish was of the most superficial nature. In all probability 
at least a thousand perished, whilst as many more received 
serious injuries. 

From 1780 to 1798 the London Irish enjoyed com- 
parative tranquillity. Then came the " '98 " Rebellion, 
in which many of the Irish in London participated. Of 
the three leaders of the Rising, one, Arthur O'Connor, 
nephew of Lord Longueville, was incarcerated for awhile 
in the Tower. O'Connor's life had been strangely full 
of vicissitudes. Born at Mitchels, near Bandon, 4th 
July, 1763, he was educated at Trinity, Dublin, and 
called to the bar in 1783. As he inherited a fortune of 
about £1,500 a year, he never practised law, but, standing 
for Parliament instead, was elected member for Philips- 
town, and so distinguished himself by his speeches on 
Indian affairs, that he was given an appointment as 

5— (2339) 


Commissioner of Revenue by Pitt. Early attaching 
himself to the popular party led by G rattan, he joined in 
the demand for Catholic Emancipation. 

Before long, however, he went further. Perceiving, 
like Tone and others of the Extremists, that Ireland 
would never obtain the really necessary reforms so long 
as it remained attached to England, he threw in his lot 
with Lord Edward Fitzgerald and the United Irishmen. 
Accompanying Lord Edward to the Continent in the 
Autumn of 1796, he had an interview with Hoche on 
the French frontier, regarding the possibility of obtaining 
the assistance of France in asserting the independence of 
Ireland. On his return to Dublin, O'Connor was arrested 
for sedition and imprisoned for six months in Dublin 
Castle. Shortly after his liberation he took a prominent 
part in starting the Press newspaper, the organ of the 
United Irishman. 

About this time, Wolfe Tone went over to France and 
pleaded the cause of Ireland so successfully with the 
French Directory, that a formidable fleet under Hoche, 
having Tone on board, was dispatched from Brest. The 
wind and waves that had wrecked Spanish Philip's 
Armada once again intervened for England, and, after 
arriving so close to the Irish coast as to be able to set 
foot on land, Hoche was compelled to withdraw to France. 
The English Government, however, being now thoroughly 
alarmed, troops were poured into Ireland, police spies 
were set to work in all directions, the Press was suppressed, 
and measures taken for the arrest of all those associated 
with it. O'Connor had long been marked, and on the 
27th of February, 1798, as he and his friend, the Rev. 
James O'Coigley, accompanied by three other United 


Irishmen, Binns, Allen and O'Leary, were dining at an 
inn on the quay at Margate, having come thither from 
London in a Whitstable hoy, they were all pounced 
upon by a strong posse of police and soldiers, and, after 
being searched, escorted to London. In O'Connor's 
baggage, a military uniform and the key to a cipher 
correspondence with Lord Edward Fitzgerald were stated 
to have been found, and in O'Coigley's a paper from a 
Secret Committee to the Executive Directory of France. 
A great deal was made of the fact that all the prisoners 
carried arms, but since highway robberies were frequent 
in all parts of England at that time few travellers would 
have ventured abroad without a weapon of some kind. 
Directly after O'Connor's arrest a raid was made on his 
headquarters at 62 Abbey Street, Dublin, where his 
private correspondence, and all that in connection with 
the Press, were seized. 

The trial of the prisoners for high treason was held on 
the 21st of May, 1798, before Mr. Justice Bullen, at 
Maidstone. Fox, Grattan, Erskine, Sheridan, the Duke 
of Norfolk and several others all spoke on behalf of 
O'Connor, and were most emphatic in their statements 
that they held him to be innocent of the charge brought 
against him. Though the Judge was bitterly prejudiced 
against the Irish, he could do little in the face of such a 
flow of eloquence as poured from the lips of the greatest 
orators in England, and, in consequence, O'Connor, 
Binns, Allen and O'Leary were acquitted. O'Coigley 
alone was convicted, and on the 7th of June was taken 
on a hurdle drawn by two horses from Maidstone jail to 
Pennington Heath, where, after hanging in mid-air for 
twelve minutes, he was cut down, and, though still 


breathing, quartered. O'Coigley protested to the last 
that he was innocent, and that the papers found on him 
had been put there by police spies in order to procure 
his arrest. 1 

With regard to O'Connor, so determined was the 
Judge that he should not get off, that he had him re- 
arrested on another warrant before he had had time to 
leave the dock. 

The Earl of Thanet and a Mr. Ferguson made a plucky 
attempt to rescue him, but failed, and were each sentenced 
to a year's imprisonment in the Tower and a heavy fine. 
O'Connor, after a few days' detention in the Tower, was 
transferred to Dublin, and afterwards committed to 
Newgate. There, together with other State prisoners, 
he was forced to enter into a compact with the Govern- 
ment, under which, on the understanding that the 
executions should be stopped, and that all the prisoners 
should be allowed to leave England, O'Connor and the 
other captives consented to reveal, without implicating 
anyone, the plans and workings of the United Irishmen. 

No sooner, however, did the Government extract the 
information it wanted from them, than it broke its word, 
and, instead of permitting them to go to the United 
States as they wished, it had them committed to Fort 
George in Scotland. After three years in this dreary 
prison, where they were more humanely treated by 
Lieut. -Governor Stuart than the Government had any 
idea of, they were deported to the Continent and set at 
liberty — this final step being due to pressure put upon 
the Government by O'Connor's friends. No sooner was 

1 Full particulars of his death are to be found in the work entitled 
State Trials. 


O'Connor set free than he at once proceeded to Paris, in 
the hope of persuading Napoleon to send over another 
expedition to Ireland. 

His frankness and devotion to the cause of liberty, 
however, awoke no response in the Emperor, who, 
although ready enough to support any action to the 
detriment of England, was unwilling to give encourage- 
ment to any scheme that might lead to the establishment 
of another Republic. He, therefore, listened to O'Connor 
with that coldness that was often, as it was on this 
occasion, so terribly disconcerting, and when he had 
finished speaking, curtly changed the topic of conversation. 

In O'Connor, however, Napoleon recognised ability, 
and appointed him General of Division in the French 
Army. He died at Bignon on the 25th of April, 1852, 
and was buried in the local cemetery. O'Connor wrote 
several works, the most important of which was Monopoly, 
the Cause of all Evil, published in 1848. He was bitterly 
opposed to Daniel O'Connell and his policy. Writing of 
him in The Lives of the United Irishmen, Dr. Madden 
says, " No man was more sincere in his patriotism, more 
capable of making great sacrifices for his country, or 
brought greater abilities to its cause." 


the irish in London (continued) 

The dawn of the nineteenth century, and the return to 
comparative quiet after the execution of O'Coigley and 
the deportation of the leaders of the United Irishmen, 
saw a big increase in the Irish migration to London. 
The better educated classes settled in all parts, the 
poorer mostly in the vicinity of Covent Garden and the 
Fleet. Few took up their abode in Wapping, which had 
ceased to be Irish, and had become entirely heterogeneous. 
There were, perhaps, fewer Irish writers and actors in 
London at this time, but there were many more doctors 
and lawyers ; and, also, shops kept by Irishmen speedily 
ceased to be a novelty. Among the immigrants of the 
nineteenth century, however, there were few real Celts, 
by far the majority were of Anglo-Irish or Scotch-Irish 
extraction. The pure Celt still preferred the Continent 
or the United States. 

On the passing of the Catholic Relief Bill in 1829, 
there was great rejoicing among all the Irish in London, 
Protestants as well as Roman Catholics, for it must not 
be forgotten that all the great advocates — Grattan, 
Lord Edward Fitzgerald, Wolfe Tone, Arthur O'Connor 
and Emmet — for Catholic Emancipation in Ireland had 
hitherto been Protestant. Bonfires were lit in Blooms- 
bury Square, Covent Garden, and on either bank of the 
Fleet ; patriotic songs, such as " O'Donnell Abu," 
" Roisin Dubh," " The Death of Eoghan Ruadh O'Neill," 
and others, were sung from house-tops and cellars, green 


THE IRISH IN LONDON (Continued) 71 

flags waved everywhere, and a general carnival of fun 
and thanksgiving was kept up from sunset to sunrise. 

In 1835, the Orange anniversary riots found answering 
echoes on a small scale in London, where several street 
scuffles occurred, and the windows of a number of 
Catholic shops and private houses were pelted with 
stones, dead fish, and other refuse. In 1843, huge demon- 
strations took place in various open spaces in London 
by Irishmen of all creeds against the arrest of Daniel 
O'Connell, and many speeches — some very able — were 
made by the London Repeal Association. In February, 
1844, when let out on bail, O'Connell himself visited 
London, addressed large meetings, and was respectfully 
received in the House of Commons. In May, the Court 
gave judgment, and O'Connell had to return to be 
sentenced. From that moment to the day of his release, 
there was no abatement to the excitement and indigna- 
tion of his fellow-countrymen in London, and many were 
the plans discussed for a general rising to rescue him. 
Some were in favour of a huge brigade being dispatched 
to Ireland, and others for a raid on Westminster, and the 
destruction of the Houses of Parliament. 

Happily, however, sounder counsel prevailed, and 
nothing took place beyond a few slight skirmishes with 
the police to disturb the peace. Shortly after O'Connell's 
release his party split, and the Young Ireland Association 
was formed. It advocated revolution by force and 
complete separation from England, and numbered among 
its leaders Terence MacManus, George Smyth, Dr. 
Murphy, and Feargus O'Connor, nephew of General 
Arthur O'Connor. In London it had many supporters, 
and thousands — ladies especially — flocked to hear the 


fiery language and unrestrained ardour of its good-looking 
youthful leaders, whose oratory was modelled on the 
lines of Desmoulins and Roland rather than on those 
of Burke or Grattan. Perhaps the zenith of its fame in 
London was reached when it amalgamated — or was 
supposed to amalgamate, for in reality very few of its 
members did — with the great Chartist Demonstration of 
April, 1848, which demonstration, for many very obvious 
reasons, ended, as the more thoughtful had anticipated, 
in accomplishing nothing. Those of the Irish who took 
part in it, however, had one satisfaction, they enjoyed 
a good joke at the expense of the police. 

So fearful were the authorities that the " wild " 
Irishmen, as they were generally — and fallaciously — 
deemed, would " kick over the traces " and create a 
riot, that extraordinary precautions were taken, and in 
addition to large bodies of extra police being brought to 
London from the provinces, thousands of special con- 
stables, either in their dotage or hardly out of short 
trousers, were " sworn in." An odder or more ludicrous 
exhibition than that of London's hastily improvised 
police on duty cannot be imagined. And the professional 
element on this occasion was, perhaps, hardly less comic. 
Its members stalking along on either side of the proces- 
sion — their ponderous arms keeping time to the ambling, 
mechanical stride of their big, ungainly feet, their narrow 
brimmed, chimney-pot hats balanced with the greatest 
exactitude at precisely the same angle on their highly 
elevated heads — were oblivious of everything saving their 
own dignity and importance, and sublimely indifferent to 
the frantic endeavours of their amateur comrades to keep 
back the crowds that lined the streets ; whilst the said 

THE IRISH IN LONDON (Continued) 73 

amateur force, all heights, and widths, and ages, dressed 
in all styles — in baggy trousers, tight trousers, black 
trousers, audaciously checked trousers ; with wasp waists, 
with no waists ; and consisting of dudes, parsons, artists, 
clerks (all carrying truncheons, which, had matters really 
come to a crisis, would have been wrenched from their 
grasp and laid across their heads in the twinkling of an 
eye), tried to appear professional and failed dismally. 
Needless to say, it was not they who prevented a fracas ; 
nor was it the threat of a regiment of Guards with ball 
cartridges, for the " '98 " testified to the little the Irish 
civilian feared the soldiers of the Crown — it was the 
priests who kept the peace by successfully prevailing 
upon the Irish element among the Chartists to proceed 
without resorting to violence. 

Two years later saw the London streets in much 
graver danger of bloodshed. On 18th February, 1849, 
Bishop Walsh, Vicar Apostolic of London, died, and on 
6th August, 1850, the Pope sent for Bishop Wiseman, 
the new Vicar- Apostolic of London, and created him 
Cardinal and Archbishop of Westminster. This act 
was thoroughly disapproved of by the Protestants in 
England ; but when the Pope declared the Hierarchy to 
be restored, and, in obedience to him, Cardinal Wiseman 
issued a pastoral, handed to him from the Flaminian 
Gate of Rome, in which he gave a full description of the 
various sects, and in conclusion ordered Te Deums to be 
sung in commemoration of the event in all the Catholic 
churches in England, the storm burst. Lord John 
Russell violently denounced the Pope's action both in 
and out of Parliament, declaring it to be a gross inter- 
ference with the spiritual independence of the country, 


and other well-known Peers and Members of Parliament 
followed his example. Such an outcry against the 
Catholics had not been heard since 1780, and as Wiseman 
was an Irishman, and all Irishmen were reckoned to be 
Papists, whether they were so or not, the Irish in London, 
Protestant as well as Catholic, came in for a bad time. 
Wiseman was burned in effigy in Hyde Park, Hampstead 
Heath, and in a dozen other places, and his London 
residence was stoned and otherwise damaged ; whilst 
similar attacks were made on the houses of several other 
well-known Roman Catholics, and on many of the houses 
of the very poor, numbers of whom were roughly handled 
and so seriously injured, that they had to be taken to the 
hospitals. Of the papers, The Times, usually so moderate 
in tone, was almost the most virulent in its attacks on 
the Irish, and Punch, somewhat losing its head, went out 
of its way to insult them, some of its cartoons of the 
Pope being in such bad taste that John Doyle, at that, 
time on its staff, resigned his post in disgust. 

When the Wiseman agitation died out, which it finally 
did with the resignation of Lord John Russell's Second 
Ministry in 1852, the Irish in London were given a respite, 
though public interest was to a certain extent concentrated 
on the doings of the Irish clique in Parliament, christened 
by the Press, " The Pope's Brass Band." The doings of 
this gang may be summarised briefly thus : The effects 
of the great potato famine in Ireland on landlord and 
tenant had been such that both were in urgent need of 
relief measures. Parliament soon came to the aid of the 
landlord by passing the Encumbered Estates Act, by 
means of which a landlord or his creditors might petition 
to have an estate sold in the Court established for that 

THE IRISH IN LONDON (Continued) 75 

purpose under the Act. This was a very necessary piece 
of legislation, as many estates were literally weighed 
down by mortgages and settlements of every description. 
Later on, by an addition to the Act, the powers of the 
Court were increased to permit the sale of estates that 
were not so encumbered. 

Now, although it had acted fairly precipitately in the 
case of the landlord, the English Government showed no 
such eagerness to do anything for the tenant. At last, 
those in sympathy with the latter began to agitate. 
Conferences were held in Ireland by Sir John Gray, the 
Protestant proprietor of Freeman's Journal, William 
Shannon Crawford, Charles Gavan Duffy, Mr. Greer, and 
Mr. Frederick Lucas, the Catholic proprietor of The 
Tablet; and in the House of Commons by Mr. John 
Bright, ever on the side of need and justice. The result 
of these meetings was the formation of the Tenants' 
League, composed of both Catholics and Protestants, the 
Parliamentary representatives of which were pledged to 
oppose any Government — Whig or Tory — that did not 
accede to its requests. In addition to The Tablet, the 
League had the support of The Nation, suppressed in 
1848, but revived by Charles Gavan Duffy ; The Banner 
of Ulster, edited by Dr. M' Knight ; and The Cork 
Examiner, edited by John Francis Maguire — a formidable 
array of talent, which enabled the League to make an 
impressive debut before the public, and a strong fight 
against Lord John Russell and his anti-Irish Whigs. 
With the dissolution of the Whig Government and the 
return to power of the Tories under Lord Derby, the 
Tenants' League at last had a chance. Over fifty of its 
members were elected, they became a power in the 


House, and were known in course of time as " The Irish 
Brigade." Unfortunately, its leaders, John and James 
Sadleir, William Keogh, and Edmund O' Flaherty, owing 
to whose fiery eloquence the Irish party was also chris- 
tened "The Pope's Brass Band," were all consummate 
posers. Instead of having the welfare of the tenants at 
heart as they professed, they thought only of self- 
aggrandisement, and regarded the House of Commons 
solely as a happy hunting-ground for promoting the 
concerns of their private life. The Sadleirs owned the 
Tipper ary Bank, in which the other two had big 
interests, and, conjointly, they ran a paper called The 
Telegraph, presumably to uphold the principles they 
professed, but in reality to bolster up their business. 
Having plenty of money and spending it lavishly, they 
had, of course, a large following, but were a great deal 
more popular in London than in Dublin. They lived in 
Mayfair and their entertainments were quite the events 
of the season. In no other drawing-rooms in Town had 
there ever been assembled quite such a gathering of the 
new rich and Jews, leavened by a sprinkling of Tory 
aristocrats, who were attracted thither, either by the 
splendour of the upholstery, or by the exquisite quality 
of the food, or by the certain prospect of seeing their 
names in print afterwards. 

There was only wanted some small provocation 
in the House for the fame of these four men to reach 
its climax. The occasion came when Lord John Russell 
returned to office and read his Ecclesiastical Titles Bill, 
declaring the Papal Bull of 1850 null and void, and 
imposing a fine of £100 on all who tried to carry it into 
effect. As may be imagined, such a measure was not too 

THE IRISH IN LONDON (Continued) 77 

joyfully received by the Roman Catholics, and the 
Sadleirs, Keogh and O'Flaherty considerably added to 
their laurels by the manner in which they opposed it. 
Their speeches were generally admitted to be some of the 
finest and most convincing that had been heard in the 
House for a great number of years, and they considerably 
strengthened the confidence placed in them by the 
Tenants' League, which gave them a most effusive 
welcome in Ireland on their return thither during the 
prorogation of Parliament. 

Most satisfactory of all, however, was the enormous 
increase in the receipts of their bank — half Ireland 
and a very fair percentage of their visitors in Mayfair 
banked with them. So far so good. Having got all 
they could out of one party, they now thought it high 
time to see what was to be extracted from the other. 
The desertion was not publicly known till the Derby 
Government of 1852 dissolved, and its place was taken 
by the Whigs under the leadership of Lord Aberdeen. 
Then, to the utter astonishment and indignation of the 
Irish — more particularly of the Tenant Leaguers — it 
was seen in the papers that their four quondam and 
idolized leaders had gone over to the enemy, and 
that John Sadleir had become a Lord of the Treasury ; 
Keogh, Solicitor-General of Ireland ; and O'Flaherty, 
Commissioner of Income Tax. 

A terrific outcry at once arose against the traitors ; 
their dismissal from office was vehemently demanded, 
and all sorts of enquiries began to be made into their 
private characters. Then followed such a series of 
disclosures as had never been heard of before in connection 
with a number of men simultaneously holding positions 


of honour and responsibility. To begin with, it was 
discovered that John Sadleir was a forger. In order to 
avoid arrest he left his house in the dead of night, 
Saturday, 16th February, 1856, and wandering, frantic 
with fear and misery, on to Hampstead Heath, cut his 
throat there in the cold grey of the morning. That was 
startling enough, but more sensational news was to 
follow. The dead man was proved to have committed 
a whole series of forgeries and embezzlements ; both his 
life and his brother's had been made up of lies and 
robberies ; whilst, to cap all, their bank was a fraud. 
It burst like a bubble and ruined thousands. James 
Sadleir was expelled from the House of Commons, a 
warrant was issued for his arrest, and his house was 
searched. He was never found, however, nor was it 
ever known whether he, too, committed suicide, or 
whether, eluding his pursuers, he managed to get safely 
out of England. 

O' Flaherty, who was also wanted on various charges 
of felony, succeeded in escaping to Denmark, where 
there was no extradition treaty, and thence to New 
York. What subsequently became of him is not known. 

Keogh, undoubtedly the worst of the lot, was pre- 
sumably within the law ; anyhow, he managed to 
extricate himself, even though, as some thought, he 
could only have done so by playing the part of informer. 

To everyone's surprise, he was appointed a Judge, 
and as Mr. Justin McCarthy remarks, " was conspicuous 
for the rest of his life for his unfeeling and unaltering 
hostility to any and every Irish National Party." He 
died insane at Bingen, 30th September, 1878. 

Of this notorious quartette only one — O'Flaherty — 

THE IRISH IN LONDON (Continued) 79 

was a pure Celt ; the rest were, respectively, of 
Anglo-Irish and of Scotch-Irish descent. 

The removal of these four unsalubrious characters 
from the platform of politics saw the Irish Tenant 
Leaguers in possession of a much sounder and less 
theatrically eloquent a leader in Mr. Frederick Lucas, 
the owner of The Tablet. Mr. Lucas, stepping into the 
gap that had been so unhappily created, by his perse- 
verance and unswerving devotion to the cause did much 
in restoring the confidence and equanimity of his party, 
which the recent rupture had so badly shaken. At this 
time the Catholic soldiers in the English Army were 
petitioning to have their grievances, which were many, 
enquired into, and it was pointed out by those interested 
on their behalf, that the two essentials on which the 
Army depended for its existence, namely, recruiting and 
discipline, would be seriously affected unless some 
attention was paid to their requests. 

In a Vigorous speech in the House of Commons, Mr. 
Lucas, on whom the Irish Catholics depended as their 
spokesman, laid bare the fact that on 3rd June, 1853, 
the actual strength of the British Army was 128,495 
men, and not 200,000 as had been represented on paper. 
Of these, he stated, only 78,000 were Protestants — 
Church of England, as they were asked on enlistment 
to style themselves — in reality, the majority, many of 
whom were unbaptised and unconfirmed, were nothing ; 
12,765 were Presbyterians ; and 44,400 were Irish 
Roman Catholics. In the Navy at least one-quarter 
of the men were Irish Roman Catholics. It was only 
reasonable, Mr. Lucas said with emphasis, that, taking 
into consideration their large percentage, the Irish 


Catholics should have places of worship of their own 
when on shore, but, though they had frequently petitioned 
for such, their requests had been steadily ignored. But 
this was not all. The few Roman Catholic chaplains 
there were in the Services — a number out of all proportion 
to that of the Roman Catholic laity — only received one- 
seventh of the pay due to them, and the children of 
Roman Catholic parents were compelled to learn the 
Protestant Catechism and to attend Protestant schools. 

But, despite the strength of Mr. Lucas's arguments, 
and the number of well-authenticated cases he introduced 
to support them, he could make no impression on the 
Protestant Whigs — they would consider nothing that 
suggested tolerance to, or reform for, the Catholics, and 
the debate ended in futility. 

As a last resource, Mr. Lucas appealed to Rome for 
help, and then, worn out with his labours, he became 
seriously ill, and retiring to Staines, died there, 22nd 
October, 1853. 

The foundation of Fenianism in America soon saw 
branches of its chief organisation, the Clan-na-Gael, also 
started in London ; but the whereabouts of the head- 
quarters of these branches, together with the identity 
of their members, were kept rigorously secret. During 
the great Fenian outbreak of 1867, the Irish population 
of London kept quiet, but in 1868, as has been previously 
stated, a quite unjustifiably cruel and foolish attempt 
was made by a weak-minded and hysterical member of 
the Order to blow up Clerkenwell Prison and set some 
Irish prisoners free. The perpetrator failed to accomplish 
his object, but, as several people were killed in the 
explosion, he was very properly tried and executed. 

THE IRISH IN LONDON (Continued) 81 

A rumour was now spread abroad that the Fenians, 
intending to destroy the whole of London with dynamite, 
were already undermining it, and, although the impossi- 
bility of effecting such a scheme is obvious, many believed 
it would " come off." Extraordinary police precautions 
were taken, and for a long time half London lived in a 
chronic state of terror. Happily, however, there was 
no foundation for these fears, and beyond a few isolated 
outrages, such, for instance, as those at the Local Govern- 
ment Board Offices in 1883, at the Tower, and the House 
of Commons in 1885, and at one of the bridges, and public 
buildings in the early nineties, none of which, there is 
good reason to believe, was authorized by the I.R.B., 
the Fenians in London have kept quiet, thus comparing 
more than favourably with the English Women's Suffrage 
movement, which has distributed — and been allowed to 
distribute — its bombs with impunity. 

Apart from the doings of the Fenians, few other events 
connected with the Irish collectively in London have made 
any great stir. Chief interest has, perhaps, attached 
itself to the Irish Members of Parliament, who have 
generally contrived to make their presence in the House 
felt in one way or another. 

In July, 1877, Mr. Charles Stewart Parnell, who had 
for some time past attracted the notice of all parties in 
the House, for the first time became known to " the man 
in the street." He had already done much to render 
the Irish Home Rule Party, founded by Mr. Butt, entirely 
independent of any English political party, and he now 
proceeded to give it considerable prominence by organizing 
a series of manoeuvres to obstruct all business in the 
House, till Irish affairs should have received due attention. 

6— (2339) 


Immense sensation was caused in London in the ranks of 
those who followed politics, by the announcement in the 
papers of the 28th and 29th July, 1877, that, owing to 
obstruction on the part of Mr. Parnell and his ninety 
followers, the debate on the South African Bill, begun 
on the morning of the 27th, had been protracted for 26 
hours. " However amusing such tactics may appear to 
Mr. Parnell and his followers," one critic wrote, " the 
poignancy of their humour is somewhat lost on their 
English colleagues, who come to the House for serious 
business and not to sky-lark." 

But a few repetitions of these impediment ary methods 
must have convinced even that critic that the Parnellites 
were not merely at play, but that they were, just as much 
as any other members of the House, out for business, 
grim and dour. As a matter of fact, Mr. Parnell did not 
invent the obstructive policy ; it was of English origin, 
and so long ago as a century had been practised — though 
not successfully — in the House of Commons. Since 1877 
it has been frequently used, and has proved a veritable 
thorn in the flesh to both Tory and Radical party. 

The best known of the Irish Members — past and 
present — in England, whose doings in Westminster have 
caused them to be most discussed, are the following : 
Charles Stewart Parnell, Michael Davitt, Patrick Egan, 
William Shaw, John Dillon, J. Sullivan, Frank Hugh 
O'Donnell, William O'Brien, Tim Healy, Joseph Devlin, 
and John Redmond. 

Much has been written, and more said, of the noisy 
and riotous behaviour of the Irish in Parliament, and of 
the disturbances they have at times created there. But 
even a cursory examination will show that they have 

THE IRISH IN LONDON (Continued) 83 

been grossly exaggerated by the press for the purpose 
of party politics, and that upon every occasion of actual 
disorder extenuating circumstances were universally 
admitted. Moreover, disturbances have been by no 
means confined to the Irish ; Radicals and Tories alike 
have shown themselves adepts in it ; and for wild, 
vindictive disorderliness, the scene in the House of 
Commons during the debate on the Parliament Act — 
when some one from the Opposition benches threw a 
missile at the Right Hon. Winston Churchill — a scene in 
which the Irish took no part — has never been surpassed. 
At intervals, public feeling has been roused against 
the Irish, as, for example, at the time of the Phoenix 
Park murders in 1882, and the various alleged Fenian 
dynamite outrages ; but their popularity has, never- 
theless increased, and to-day the Irish population in 
London, in all probability, numbers between four and 
five hundred thousand. The original settlement near the 
Old Fleet Market lost its national identity soon after the 
Market was pulled down, and in time a new settlement, 
consisting of the poorest element of the Irish, all of 
whom were engaged in some kind of manual labour, was 
formed in Whitechapel. But the Irish working-man is 
no longer confined to one quarter ; he is now to be found 
in every part of London, and is just as familiar a figure 
in the suburbs as he is in the neighbourhood of the City. 
Thousands of Irishmen are employed in the docks, 
thousands as carters, carriers, masons, and bricklayers, 
and being, on the whole, stronger physically than the 
English Londoners, despite the reputation he has been 
given for over-indulgence in alcohol, the Irishman makes, 
as a rule, a better labourer. 


Of the educated Irish in London — professional, literary 
and artistic — numbers have gained distinction within the 
past thirty or so years ; and with regard to science — the 
department in which the Irish for so long lagged behind — 
the London Irishman now figures in the foremost ranks, 
as prominently, if not as frequently, as he still figures in 
the foremost ranks of soldiers and sailors. 

The Irish population in London to-day is specially well 
provided with clubs and societies, and there is no truer 
or finer indication of the keenness and strength of Irish 
sentiment and patriotism than the sound financial 
condition of the majority of these organizations. For 
the Irishman of literary achievement and tastes there is 
the Irish Literary Society of 20 Hanover Square, W. 
It was founded in 1892, almost simultaneously with its 
sister society, the National Literary Society of Dublin, 
out of the ashes of several similar societies ; its two 
main objects being the formation of a centre of social 
and literary intercourse for persons of Irish nationality, 
and the promotion of the study of the language, literature, 
history, drama, music, art, and economics of Ireland. Its 
inaugural meeting took place on a stormy December 
evening in 1891 at the house of the great Irish poet, 
Mr. William Butler Yeats, in Bedford Park. The 
presidents of the Society have been Sir Charles Gavan 
Duffy, the Rev. Stopford Brooke, Mr. Barry O'Brien, Mr. 
Alfred Perceval Graves, and Dr. Sophie Bryant. All these 
names speak volumes, and testify to the manner of men 
and women the Society has attracted, and is still 
attracting. It started in Bloomsbury, moved thence to 
Adelphi, and finally settled in Hanover Square. 

The Irish Literary Society offers many advantages to 

THE IRISH IN LONDON (Continued) 85 

Irish men and women — for it is not restricted to either one 
sex — through its lectures, concerts, plays, social functions, 
original nights, Irish classes, and discussions. Among 
those who lectured before the Society in 1912-14 were 
Dr. Sophie Bryant, Miss Eleanor Hull, Miss Ethel Rolt- 
Wheeler, Mrs. J. R. Green, the Right Hon. Sir Horace 
Plunkett, Messrs. A. P. Graves, T. W. Rolleston, Conal 
O'Riordan, Frank Hugh O'Donnell, Patrick Kirwan, 
R. P. Farley, Philip Wilson, Hugh A. Law, M.P., R. E. W. 
Flower, F. J. Bigger, and the Rev. W. H. Drummond. 
Mr. A. P. Graves, author of the immortal " Father 
O'Flynn," has shown himself to be one of the most 
indefatigable and useful members of the Society. 

Out of the Irish Literary Society have sprung the 
Irish Texts Society and the Irish Folk Song Society. 
The Irish Texts Society, in whose foundation the late 
Professor York Powell took a prominent part, has done 
an immense amount of work in resuscitating and popu- 
larising the use of the Celtic language. It has published 
— to quote from the Souvenir Programme of the Coming 
of Age of the Irish Literary Society, in 1913 — thirteen 
volumes of Irish texts with translations, including 
historical works, folk-lore, Ossianic and bardic poems, 
romance, and mediaeval translations from classical works 
into Irish. It has, in addition, published two modern 
Irish-English Dictionaries. 

Every year the Society brings out hitherto unpublished 
Texts in Irish, and by a remarkably good management of 
its finance has produced a number of valuable works, 
which give the lie direct to the assumption that Ireland 
has no literature of its own. 

One of the people who have done most work for the 


Irish Text Society is Miss Eleanor Hull, authoress of The 
Cuchullin Saga in Irish Literature, and other publications. 

The Society now numbers 650 members and is known 
in many parts of the world. 

The Irish Folk Song Society was initiated in 1904, 
chiefly through the instrumentality of Mrs. Milligan 
Fox. It may surprise the average Englishman, who 
has been brought up to look upon Ireland as a land of 
pigs and potatoes only, to hear that Ireland possesses a 
folk music of its own, compared with which, both in range 
and quality, that of England counts as nothing. Indeed, 
for the beauty of its melodies, the Irish folk music has no 
equal in Europe, a fact well recognized by Mrs. Milligan 
Fox, to whose indefatigable efforts the Folk Song Society, 
which has as its primary object the dissemination of the 
more recently discovered folk airs through the medium of a 
journal published periodically, as well as by well organized 
entertainments, owes its origin and its success. Mr. 
Alfred Perceval Graves in his article on " Ireland's Share 
in Folk Song Revival," that appeared in the Souvenir 
Programme of the Coming of Age of the Irish Literary 
Society of London, tells how Mrs. Milligan Fox, calling 
one day at Morley's, the harp maker, learned that one of 
Mr. Morley's customers had a grandfather who had 
amassed a wealth of Irish music. Mrs. Fox, being at 
once interested, enquired the name and address of this 
customer, who turned out to be Dr. Louis Macrory, of 
Battersea. Dr. Macrory placed at her disposal the 
collection of his grandfather, James Bunting, the famous 
Belfast musician and composer, which collection com- 
prised a large number of original airs. These had lain 
neglected for so long, Mr. Graves explains, because their 

THE IRISH IN LONDON (Continued) 87 

collector, Patrick Lynch, had betrayed his employer 
Russell, who was sent to the gallows, and no one would 
publish or have anything to do with the manuscripts of 
a traitor. By Mrs. Milligan Fox, however, they were 
regarded as a veritable godsend — a godsend that would 
very materially add to the library of the Folk Song 
Society. Miss Alice Milligan, Mrs. Milligan Fox's sister, 
is now translating them into English, and later on they 
will undoubtedly be published. 

On the Committee of the Society appear many well- 
known names in the musical and literary world. They 
include the Earl of Shaftesbury, Sir Charles Villiers 
Stanford, Dr. P. W. Joyce, Dr. H. H. Grattan Flood, 
Dr. Charles Wood, Dr. J. Todhunter, and Mr. A. P. 

It is not uninteresting to note that the birth of the 
Irish Literary Societies of London and Dublin, and of 
another extremely valuable Society, namely, the Gaelic, 
took place at a period when Irish politics were at their 
lowest ebb, and all hope of Ireland obtaining a Parlia- 
ment of its own seemed at an end. The Irish party in 
the House of Commons, split to pieces by the unhappy 
episode in Parnell's life, gave no indication of strength or 
union in the future, and though, outside politics, there 
was plenty of talent, this talent was so scattered and 
diversified that it was more identified with the individual 
to whom it belonged, than with any particular nation. 
Irishmen, in fact, had depended too much on Parnell. 
Content with his leadership in Parliament, and proud of 
his representation as Ireland's strong man, they had 
allowed the field of politics to become the only national 
field — the only exercising ground for national genius and 


sentiment ; and when Parnell died all Ireland, and all 
that was Irish, seemed to die with him. 

It was at this critical period that the golden idea of 
generating an interest in something outside politics was 
conceived by the originators of the Irish Literary Societies, 
who thought that, by re-awakening in the Irish people 
their latent love of art, music, and literature, they might 
see them again welded together in a strong bond of 

Directly after the creation of these two Societies, the 
National Literary and the London Irish Literary, was 
started the Gaelic League (with a branch in Lamb's 
Conduit Street, Holborn), whose object was to revive 
Gaelic, and an interest in all things Gaelic ; the Irish 
Industries Association, to preserve such Irish handicrafts 
as lace making and corsage weaving ; the Feis Ceoil, to 
spread the culture of music in Ireland ; the Irish Folk 
Song Society ; the Irish Text Society ; and, lastly, the 
Gaelic Athletic Association, to stimulate and encourage 
the Irish in all parts of Ireland in outdoor games. With 
regard to the latter, one cannot help thinking it a trifle 
superfluous. The Irish take to boxing and football as 
ducks take to water, and, therefore, need little stimulation 
where anything in the nature of sport is concerned. 

In addition to these organisations and associations, 
most of which have their representative branches in 
London, are many other Irish societies and clubs. The 
most important are : " The Union of the Four Provinces," 
at 16 John Street, Adelphi, a non-political Club, whose 
main object is " to form a Union of Irishmen in London, 
in order that they may know and help one another in 
their various business and professional interests " ; " The 

THE IRISH IN LONDON (Continued) 89 

Irish Association," originally " The Leinster Association," 
which is purely social, and specializes in dances and 
whist-drives ; " The Ulster Association," once non- 
political, but now the reverse ; " The Ulster Society " ; 
and " The Irish Club," at 28 Charing Cross Road, which 
specializes in Sunday and weekday concerts, and is the 
rendezvous of a number of Irish Members of Parliament. 
These institutions, all more or less strong, point not 
only to an enormous increase in the Irish population of 
London, but to a very ardent spirit of nationalism, 
observable at no other period of Irish history and in no 
other existing race. 



Though London, Liverpool, Manchester and Bristol can 
point to the largest Irish colonies, the Irish are now 
distributed in varying numbers all through the Provinces. 
They are to be found in the greatest numbers, perhaps, 
in Lancashire, where they are employed extensively in 
nearly all the factory towns, and in Birmingham where 
the bulk of the police is made up of them. There are 
fewest Irish in Northamptonshire, Worcestershire, Leices- 
tershire, Rutland, and Cornwall — and in all these counties, 
saving the last, they are still looked upon more or less as 

In Northampton, which is so closely associated with 
Bradlaugh, one of the most advanced and enlightened 
Englishmen of his period, one would expect to — and one 
does to a certain extent — find more liberal views, and a 
profounder knowledge of the Irish, but with the masses, 
even of this town, it is very much the same as in the 
villages — overruling prejudice and the most profound 
ignorance regarding all matters which are primarily 
connected with Ireland. Belief in the stage Irishman — 
the man with the tattered tail coat, short trousers, top 
hat, and shillelagh — the man who drinks whisky by the 
gallon, sleeps with his pigs, says " Begorrah," at every 
other word, and " the top of the morning " to you — the 
belief in this journalistic fabrication is just as prevalent 
to-day in these parts as it was fifty years ago. 

One very favourite accusation levelled against the 



Irish, and frequently propounded by agents from the 
electioneering platforms in the Midlands, is that the Irish 
peasants are utterly devoid of education, and that this 
deficiency is due to the priests, who, under Home Rule, 
would soon reduce all classes in Ireland to the same 

Such statements are, of course, false. In no districts 
in Ireland, however remote, is there anything like such 
ignorance to be found among the peasants as is to be 
met with in the rural districts of the English Midlands. 
There are few, if any, Irish peasants who can neither 
read nor write, and, with regard to the history and 
geography of England and the characteristics of its 
people, there are none who show such a lamentable 
ignorance as is displayed by the English Midlanders. 
The true Irish peasant — the Celtic peasant — is nature's 
gentleman ; he has an innate love of the beautiful. He 
can speak glowingly of the beauty of the Western sun- 
sets — in no mincing and affected way, but in language 
that rings true ; of the great wind-swept cliffs of Galway, 
of the grey beating rain clouds, of the rich emerald grass, 
of the brown, peat-stained waters of his lough or river. 
He will tell you, that is to say, if he recognises in you 
the same gentlemanly instincts he himself possesses — he 
hates the nouveau riche tourist, with his loud checks and 
vulgar " side " — of the many secrets he believes the 
woods and waters to contain ; of fairies and fairy music, 
and of the groaning and wailing of the death-foretelling 
Banshee. He is musical, too ; in the singing of the birds, 
in the babbling of the brook, he interprets love songs 
and lullabies ; and in perfect unison with nature he plays 
upon the pipe. But, perhaps, his most extraordinary 


faculty is for telling tales. He is both a historian and a 
romanticist ; he can expound facts as well as fiction — and 
if he sees you are genuinely interested, he will tell you 
wonderful stories of the old Red O'Donnells and their 
kinsmen the Tyrone O'Neills, and of the galleons that 
were wrecked off the Galway coast, and of the gallant 
Humbert and his brave Frenchmen. He is naturally 
the most friendly and communicative when approached 
by his own countrymen — by members of the old clans 
he loves and venerates — but the English travellers who 
understand him, and there are many who do, will also 
understand and excuse his impenetrable silence when 
faced with the Anglo-Saxon tourist armed with a Cook's 
Guide-book, a spy-glass, and a tooth-pick. 

The art of the average Anglo-Saxon middle and lower 
classes, as exemplified by the Midlander, is usually 
acquired, it is very rarely innate. He, unlike the Celt, 
has no innate sense of the artistic and beautiful, no 
idealism, no imagination, no natural love of music, or 
of poetry. Nature affects him only inasmuch as it 
touches him physically. He can see no beauty in a 
grey cloud, he can hear no singing in the brook, nor can 
he trace any tune in the tumbling, twisting and twirling 
of the wind-shaken leaves. All is meaningless that is 
not transparent and immediate : imagination to him is 
imbecility, and idealism folly. 

It is owing to these dissimilarities of character, perhaps, 
that the Irishman is an unwelcome asset in the Midlands ; 
he is not so unpopular in the Eastern counties of England. 
In Norfolk and Lincoln there are many Irish engaged in 
agricultural pursuits, or on the roads, and here they are 
tolerated if not actually liked. Formerly many came 


from Connaught, and their landing in Liverpool caused 
some sensation. According to a contemporary writer who 
witnessed their disembarkation, " They were dressed in 
tail coats and knicker-bockers, white shirts, and high 
collars, and carried blackthorns." 

When first they came over, they occasionally had 
rows with the English labourers, the cause of the distur- 
bances being invariably religion. The English taunted 
them with being Papists, and the Irish, incensed at 
hearing the Pope and all they held dear and sacred 
insulted, retaliated. These scuffles were not confined to 
one locality — they took place all over England. Thus, 
in 1761 we read of a fight at King's Langley between the 
Irish and English reapers ; in 1768, of a mob of English 
Protestants attacking a Roman Catholic Mission in 
Preston ; and, in the same year, of a battle between Irish 
coal-heavers and English sailors in London, which 
resulted in the hanging at Tyburn of two Irishmen, 
Murphy and Duggan, though no Englishmen were 
arrested ; and of a scuffle at Shadwell between Irish 
coal-heavers and a mixed English mob. During this 
affair, Mr. Green, master of the Sun Tavern in Shadwell, 
was killed, and this accident furnished an excuse for the 
execution of seven Irishmen, who, after a farcical trial at 
the Old Bailey, were taken to a field at the back of the 
Sun Tavern and hung in a line on gibbets. 

When railways were first introduced into England, a 
large number of Irish navvies were engaged in laying the 
metals, and rows between them and their English fellow- 
labourers — nearly always due to the same cause, religion 
— were incessant. In the " '40's " one really desperate 
encounter is alleged to have taken place on the G.W.R. 


main line, in which picks and shovels were used to such 
effect that troops had at length to be summoned, and not 
until their arrival did the combat cease. And many 
other fracas occurred, more especially in Lancashire and 
Yorkshire, where most of the Irish were employed. 

The good feeling shown towards the Irishmen in the 
Eastern counties of England may be variously accounted 
for. In all probability, it is partly because the inhabitants 
of these counties being nearer to the coast see more of 
the outside world, and are consequently less insular and 
prejudiced ; partly because they have had longer acquain- 
tance with the Irish, and have thus got to know them 
better ; partly because they do not inherit the same 
intensified religious views as the Midlanders ; and partly 
because there is in them a strong infusion of Danish 
blood. Between the Irish Celt and the Dane there has 
always been — and still is — much natural sympathy and 
kindred feeling ; the Danes have more in common with 
the O's and Macs than any other nationality in the 
world ; and in no country in Europe does the genuine 
Irish Celt feel himself so much at home as in Denmark. 
In the East Anglians the Danish strain may be slight, 
but it is, nevertheless, no inconsiderable factor for the 
greater popularity of the Irish in those regions. For 
many years past the Southern counties, and Kent in 
particular, have been annually visited by large numbers 
of Irish hop-pickers, chiefly from Tipperary ; and as 
permanent residents in the Southern counties the Irish 
are also to be found, following the ordinary vocations. 
As in most parts of England, the Irish in these counties 
are generally more or less liked by the upper classes, who 
have seen something of them in their native environments, 


and merely tolerated by the middle classes, who are still 
somewhat inclined to regard them as wild and uncivilized, 
and, consequently, on an altogether inferior footing to 

In the Forest of Dean, in Plymouth, and round Taunton, 
as well as in Bristol, a large percentage of the miners and 
quarrymen are Irish. 

In Staffordshire a large number of Irishmen work in 
the coal mines, but few are employed in the potteries. 
In Herefordshire many of the hop-pickers are Irish. 
Lancashire claims more Irish than any other county in 
England, and Liverpool more than any other town in 

In Yorkshire hundreds of Irish are engaged in coal 
mining and on the railways. Yorkshire comes next to 
Lancashire in the number of its Irish residents. In North- 
umberland and Durham the Irish are fairly numerous ; 
many finding occupation in the docks, the coalfields, and 
on the railroads. 

On the whole, the Irish get on tolerably well with the 
Northerners, whose rugged good nature and democratic 
tendencies render them more amiable to strangers. 
They have progressed very much more in general intelli- 
gence and enterprise than the Midlanders, and are, 
consequently, much broader-minded, and less hedged in 
by conventionalities and that dread of infringing the 
superficial laws of gentility and respectability found to 
such a degree in the middle classes in the Midland and 
Southern counties. Moreover, being socialistically inclined 
they have fewer prejudices regarding creed, and are 
inclined to tolerate any denomination so long as it is 
not too obtrusive. The wild and lonely Cumbrian hills, 


and the great, far-stretching Pennines ; the shadowy, 
silvery waters of Grasmere and Windermere ; and the 
broad, breezy Yorkshire Moors and Wolds cannot fail 
to inspire the Northerners — practical and hard-headed 
as they are reported to be — with some sense of poetry 
and romance, and only a touch of such sentiment is 
needed to bring them into sympathy with the Celtic Irish. 
To this sentiment of poetry and romance embodied in 
his fairies — his dreamland princesses — the Celtic Irishman 
owes his life, his soul, his past, his future, his all. He 
lacks what is called practicality, that is to say, the 
faculty of making money ; but for this deficiency those 
who understand him can easily account. He still lives 
in the past, in the days of the great Septs, when love- 
making and war were the mode, and anything in the 
nature of commerce was despised. It is the fashion 
nowadays to disparage these old warriors, and to call 
them robbers ; but it must be recollected that they robbed 
openly, and plundered in accordance with the universally 
recognized law of conquest. To-day people are robbers 
all the same ; only they act covertly ; they lie, swindle 
and cheat in direct opposition to the universally admitted 
principle ; and in accordance with a corrupt code current 
in the so-called civilized countries, and designated busi- 
ness, hypocritically practise all that is base and deceitful. 
Apart from his day dreams and ideals which prevent him 
amassing money, the Celtic Irishman is poor in his own 
country on account of its climatic conditions ; the soft, 
enervating atmosphere of the South and West of Ireland 
inducing lethargy and slackness, just as in Spain and Italy 
somewhat similar climatic conditions produce a similar 


The true reason of a certain section's antipathy to the 
Irishman is not so much his religion as his poverty. 
Good broadcloth and a well-lined purse are the passports 
of piety. There can be no virtue, as far as they can see, 
in the owner of a shabby suit and an empty coffer. And 
no matter whether artist, writer, politician, or heaven- 
born genius, unless his heels are sound and his hat of 
silk, he is assuredly both mad and bad. It is only when 
awakened to the fact that the world in general decrees 
this sort of thing a vulgar snobbery, those who are most 
bitter in their denunciation of the Irish peasant disguise 
the real source of their antipathy by simulating religious 
fanaticism. They designate the Irishman a hopeless 
Papist, the willing tool of a cruel, and intriguing priest- 
hood, even more abandoned than he is himself. There 
may be, and undoubtedly are, a few people who genuinely 
believe that, should Ulster come under the dominion of 
an Irish Parliament, a terrible religious persecution of 
the Protestants would at once begin, but the majority 
do not even pretend to any such conviction. For them 
the question is entirely one of money, and because 
Belfast is a wealthy town — and wealth is the criterion of 
righteousness — the Belfast people should rule and not be 

7— (2339) 



There are some nations, only a few, that retain their 
individuality no matter what vicissitudes they undergo. 
The Jews are one, the Irish are another ; and, although 
forming an antithesis to each other in character, these 
two peoples have one point in common — irrepressible 
caste peculiarity. Race will out with them — it can 
hardly be modified, still less concealed. The Englishman 
will go to France, the Frenchman to England, and will 
have so assimilated themselves with their surroundings, 
that in the course of a generation or so their descendants 
will be wholly nationalized. It is not so with the Jews ; 
it is not so with the Irish. No lapse of time will extin- 
guish the former's deep-rooted veneration of money, nor 
the latter's unswerving devotion to the land of his fathers. 
The Jew carries with him into whatever calling he adopts 
— the bar, business, painting, or the stage — not merely 
an innate reverence for pecuniary remuneration, but an 
extraordinary faculty for obtaining the same. In him 
may be seen an altogether abnormal combination. He 
can be a good artist, and at the same time a successful 
financier. The Irishman, on the contrary, is more often 
than not penniless ; but no matter whether an eloquent 
preacher, a brilliant actor, a bricklayer, or a tramp, his 
sympathies are always pro-Irish, and seldom will a day 
pass by that he does not wish himself a politician, albeit 
his politics are invariably against the Government. 


Persecutions on the Continent brought the Jew, per- 
secutions in Ulster brought the Irishman, to England, 
and although both had migrated to London long before 
the seventeenth century, nevertheless, the commencement 
of that period marked an enormous increase in their 
numbers. It may not be strictly true to say that the 
coffers of the English exchequer gained as much by the 
advent of the Jew as Art gained by the advent of the 
Irishman ; yet it must be acknowledged that of those 
who won distinction in England at the shrine of the 
Muses during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, 
a large percentage came from Ireland. 

Immediately after the Boyne, and during the subse- 
quent ten or twelve years, the Irish migrated to the 
extent of over a hundred thousand. Of this number, 
over 30,000, or practically all those who followed the 
vocation of the sword, sought service in the armies of 
France, Spain and Austria. About 20,000 of various 
occupations went to America, and, roughly speaking, the 
remainder came to Great Britain. Amongst those who 
settled in England few were actors — for at that time the 
stage in Ireland had little vogue ; still fewer were soldiers, 
and as Roman Catholicism was extremely unpopular in 
England — though the majority of Irishmen were Catholics 
— there were very few priests. The law, always as a 
profession beloved of the Irish, possibly because therein 
lies a fair field for " the gift of the gab," was alone well 
represented, and nearly all the more educated of the 
emigrants entered at the Middle Temple. However, as 
most of those barristers continued briefless, chiefly on 
account of the bitter prejudice against the Irish, they 
were forced to take to writing for a living. Hence, the 


preponderance of distinguished Irish writers — as com- 
pared with the number of distinguished Irishmen in other 
walks of life — in England, during this period. 

One of the first of those immigrants, who were subse- 
quently destined to rise to fame in the land of their 
conquerors, was James Ussher. Born in Dublin in 
1581, the son of a local lawyer, Ussher was one of the 
first students to matriculate in Trinity College. In 1614 
he took the degree of D.D. ; in 1624 he was appointed 
Archbishop of Armagh ; and in 1641, on the outbreak 
of war in Ireland, he went to England and speedily rose 
to fame by the force and eloquence of his sermons. 

Though a staunch Royalist, he was free from molesta- 
tion by the Parliamentarians, partly owing to the tolera- 
tion he had always displayed to the Nonconformists, and 
partly to the influence of the Countess of Peterborough, 
with whom he had formed a great friendship. 

He died in 1656, and was buried in Westminster Abbey. 
The best known of his many publications — most of 
which dealt with church history — was Britannicarum 
Ecclesiarum Antiquitates, published in 1639. 

Sir James Ware, born in Castle Street, Dublin, 1594, 
and educated at Trinity College, first visited England as 
private secretary and confidential agent to the Marquis 
of Ormonde. Taken prisoner twice by the Parliamen- 
tarians, he temporarily became an exile in France, staying 
at St. Malo, Caen and Paris. Returning to London in 
1651, he devoted himself to writing, and in 1654 pub- 
lished De Hibernia et Antiquitatibus ejus Disquisitiones. 
His subsequent works, Rerum Hibernicarum Annates, 
published in 1665, and De Praesulibus Hiberniae Com- 
mentarius, which established his reputation as an Irish 


historian, were written in Dublin, where he died in 

Lodowick, or Ludowick, Barry, the date of whose birth 
is uncertain, was supposed to have been born in Ireland, 
but came to London when very young and made his debut 
as a writer in 1610, publishing a play called Ram Alley, or 
Merry Tricks, which was performed for the first time by 
the Children of the King's Revels in 1611. It had an 
extraordinarily long run, continuing almost uninter- 
mittently at one threatre or another from 1611 to 1630. 
Barry died almost directly after its first production. 
He is chiefly remarkable as the first Irish dramatist who 
wrote in English. 

Richard Flecknoe, born in the South of Ireland, 
somewhere about 1600, came to London in his thirtieth 
year and lodged there for awhile. About 1640 he visited 
the Continent, where he spent eight consecutive years 
roaming about and being entertained with the greatest 
hospitality by the French and Italian nobility. He 
returned to England about 1648, and died in London 
about the year 1678. He published a number of miscel- 
laneous works, the most important of which are Travels 
in Europe, Asia, Africa and America (1656), which 
Dryden satirized most unmercifully in a poem called 
" MacFlecknoe " ; Loves Kingdom, a comedy ; and A 
Quaker's Meeting, an essay, to which Charles Lamb has 
prefixed some highly attractive verses. 

Sir John Denham was born in Dublin in 1615, and was 
educated first in London, and then at Oxford, where he 
matriculated in 1631. Denham varied his occupation by 
alternately writing, gambling and fighting. During the 
Civil War of 1642-1649 he fought on the side of the 


King, was several times taken prisoner and condemned 
to death, each time effecting a marvellous escape, and 
followed the Royal Family into exile on the Continent, 
where his fidelity to Henrietta Maria won for him the 
name of "The Queen's Irishman." On his return to 
London at the Restoration, Charles II rewarded him with 
many posts, one of which was that of " Sovereign of 
General Works," which, seeing that Denham had no 
knowledge whatever of architecture, caused the witty 
Rochester to observe " that Charles had been sore put 
to it, as to which he should appoint, Denham or his 
butcher in Cheapside — to whom he owed much money — 
but had eventually decided in favour of Denham, who, 
if not quite so skilled as the butcher in architecture, had 
been much more loyal." The latter years of Denham's 
life were most unhappy ; much mystery was attached to 
the death of his young wife, whom he was suspected by 
some of poisoning, and he died, deserted by practically 
all his old friends, in 1669. Despite, however, the 
unpopularity into which he had fallen, he was buried, 
by the express wish of Charles II, in Westminster Abbey. 

Among the works he published the best known are 
The Sophy (1642), an historical tragedy, acted with some 
success at Blackfriars ; and Cooper's Hill, probably, 
his most original production. 

Though not born in Ireland, Thomas Duffet was of 
Irish parentage, and first made his appearance as a writer 
when he was about 30, publishing a play entitled The 
Mock Tempest, which was produced with great success 
at the Theatre Royal. His subsequent plays were : 
The Empress of Morocco, The Spanish Rogue — dedicated 
to Madame Eleanor Gwyn, to whose beauty he had 


succumbed, — Beauties Triumph, Psyche Debauched, and 
The Amorous Old Woman. He also published poems, 
songs, prologues, and epilogues set to music " by the most 
eminent musicians about Town, 1676," and a broadsheet 
ballad, undated, entitled A mintors Lamentations for Celias 
Unkindness. The date of Duffet's death is unknown. 

Nahum Tate, who was born in Dublin about 1652, 
went to England soon after taking his degree at Trinity 
College, and in 1692 was appointed Poet Laureate. 
Among the best known of his works are : The New 
Version of the Psalms, in metre, written in collaboration 
with Dr. Brady ; the hymns " While shepherds watched 
their flocks by night," and " As pants the hart " ; 
" Panacea, a Poem on Tea " ; a revision of Shakespeare's 
King Lear; and three dramas, entitled respectively, 
Brutus of Alba, or the Enchanted Lares, The Loyal General, 
and The Sicilian Usurper. The two first named of these 
three plays were acted at Dorset Garden Theatre, the 
last at the Theatre Royal, and all with indifferent success. 
He assisted Dryden in the Second Part of Absalom and 
Achitophel (of which he wrote all but 200 lines) and in 
the Miscellanies and Translations of Ovid and Juvenal. 

After hiding from his creditors for many months in a 
cellar in Southwark, Nahum Tate died in Newgate gaol, 
1715. One of the saddest, and assuredly most unmerited, 
deaths in the world's history of authorship. 

George Farquhar, born at Londonderry in 1678, and 
educated at Trinity College, Dublin, came to London 
when he was about 19 years of age, and, in 1698, wrote his 
first play, Love and a Bottle, which was produced at 
Drury Lane in 1699. His subsequent plays were : The 
Constant Couple, in which Anne Oldfield — whom he had 


discovered serving in the Mitre Tavern, kept by her 
aunt — took the principal part ; Sir Henry Wildair ; The 
Inconstant, or the Way to Win Him ; The Twin Rivals ; 
Love and Business ; The Stage Coach ; The Recruiting 
Officer ; and The Beaux' Stratagem. Though reputed 
to be deeply in love with Anne Oldfield, Farquhar married 
someone else, and serving abroad in the Army in Holland 
incurred a disease, of which he eventually died — much 
harassed by his creditors — in 1707. 

Charles Molloy, born in Dublin in 1646, and educated 
at Trinity College, entered at Lincoln's Inn, London, 
about 1663. In 1676 he published De Jure Maritimo et 
Navali, which continued to be the best English book on 
maritime law till that published by Lord Tenterden. He 
died in London, 1690. 

Henry Dodwell, born in Dublin about 1641, was 
educated at Trinity College, Dublin, and at Oxford, and, 
refusing to take the oath of allegiance to William and 
Mary, was deprived of his living in Ireland, and went to 
live first of all at Cookham and then at Shottesbrook. 
He published a number of works, chiefly history, one of 
the most important of which was a Chronology of Roman 
Authors and History, which Gibbon regarded as of 
immense value. He died at Shottesbrook in 1711, 
leaving behind him a reputation for great uprightness, 
sincerity and simplicity, as well as for sound learning. 

Dr. Nicholas Brady was born at Bandon, Co. Cork, 
and educated at Westminster, Christ Church, Oxford, 
and Trinity College, Dublin. He went to England in 
1690, was chosen lecturer at St. Michael's, Wood Street, 
and held the livings, successively, of St. Catherine's 
Cree, and Richmond. He also obtained the appointment 


of chaplain to the Sovereign, as well as to the Duke of 
Ormonde's Regiment of Horse. He was a versatile 
writer, compiling books of a religious nature, as well as 
plays. The best known of his works are : An Ode for 
Cecilia's Day, and Proposals for the Publication of a 
Translation of Virgil's Aeneid in Blank Verse, together 
with Specimen of the Performance. He collaborated 
with Nahum Tate in compiling a metrical version of the 
Psalms, called " The New Version." He died at Rich- 
mond in 1726, and was buried there in the old churchyard. 

Thomas Southerne was born near Oxmantown in 1660, 
and after taking his degree at Trinity College, Dublin, 
came to London and entered at the Middle Temple. 
Law failing to interest him, he soon turned his attention 
wholly to play-writing, and was extremely successful. 
Among the many plays he wrote, the following are the 
best known : The Loyal Brother ; The Spartan Dame ; 
The Fatal Marriage or the Innocent Adultery ; Oroonoko ; 
and The Pate of Capua. Most of his plots were based 
on the novels of Mrs. Behn, and his work, though coarse 
in parts, showed considerable wit, pathos, and power of 
expression. Southerne was an extraordinarily popular 
man, especially with Society ladies. He died in 1746, 
and was buried in Westminster Abbey. 

Thomas Parnell, another Trinity College graduate, was 
born in Dublin in 1679, and visited England for the first 
time about 1711, when he lost his wife who died at Bath. 
Parnell never actually lived in England, though he spent 
much of his time in Bath and London, in the company of 
George Berkeley, Charles Ford, Congreve, Oxford, Gay, 
Arbuthnot, and other members of " The Scriblerus 


Parnell chiefly published poetry, though he also wrote 
essays and miscellaneous articles. The works by which 
he is best remembered are a poem The Hermit, 
an Essay on Life, and a " Prefix to Vol. I of Pope's 
Iliad." He died in Chester in 1718, and was buried there 
in the churchyard of Holy Trinity. By Pope and Swift 
he was considered second to none amongst the poets of 
the day. 

Of the famous writers in England during the eighteenth 
century, Ireland can lay claim to at least four of the 
greatest, namely, Richard Steele, Laurence Sterne, Oliver 
Goldsmith, and Richard Brinsley Sheridan. 

Steele and Sheridan were born in Dublin, Sterne in 
Clonmel, and Goldsmith in Pallas, Co. Longford. 

Sterne alone of this quartette was not a dramatist, 
neither was he, like the other three, a prolific writer. He 
appears only to have published two sermons, namely, 
" Elijah and the Widow of Zarephath," and " The Abuses 
of Conscience," and two novels, The Life and Opinions 
of Tristram Shandy, Gent, and the Sentimental Journey ; 
but these novels, for excellence of characterization, pathos, 
and humour, have, perhaps, never been surpassed. 

In disposition all four possessed various of the qualities 
popularly assigned to the Irishman — Steele, Goldsmith 
and Sheridan, perhaps, in a greater degree than Sterne. 
Sheridan was probably the most typically Irish — certainly 
the most all-round brilliant. His plays, The Rivals and 
The School for Scandal, have been exceeded in popularity 
only by the plays of Shakespeare, while certain of his 
speeches rivalled those of the immortal Burke. 

Steele died at Carmarthen in 1729, and was buried 
there in St. Peter's Church. Sterne died in poverty in 

From a painting by .Thomas Gainsborough 


{See p. 106 


Bond Street, London, 1768, and was buried in St. 
George's Cemetery, Bayswater. He was subsequently 
disinterred and his remains were recognized, when too 
late, on the dissecting table in the Medical School at 
Cambridge. Goldsmith died in London in 1774, and 
when Lord Shelburne, Lord Louth, Sir Joshua Reynolds 
and other eminent people flocked to pay their last respects 
to his remains, they are said to have found on his coffin a 
little bunch of flowers. The flowers were not worth more 
than a penny, but they were all the donor, a poor workgirl 
whom Goldsmith, with his usual generosity, had once 
befriended, could afford to give. Sheridan, equally dear 
to the poor, died in London in 1816, and was buried in 
Westminster Abbey. 

Besides these greatest of Irish writers, there were many 
others worthy of note in England during the eighteenth 

Henry Brooke, born in Ireland about 1703, and edu- 
cated at Trinity College, Dublin, spent nearly all his life in 
London, where he published most of his works. He 
wrote poems, essays, plays and novels, the most note- 
worthy of which were : Gustavus Vasa, a tragedy ; a 
series of letters to the Protestants of Ireland ; The Fool 
of Quality, or the History of the Earl of Moreland, a novel ; 
and Juliet Grenville, a novel. He died in Dublin in 1783. 

Charles Molloy was born in Dublin about 1720 and 
educated at Trinity College. He entered the Middle 
Temple, London, but soon forsook law for literature. He 
wrote several plays and contributed largely to Fog's 
Journal and Common Sense. He died in London, 1767. 

Unlike Molloy, Arthur Murphy, who was born in 
Ireland in 1727, and educated at St. Omer's College, 


combined his work at the bar with that of dramatic 
writing, and excelled in both. Among the best known 
of his plays — most of which were produced in London 
and enjoyed some measure of success — are : The Appren- 
tice ; The Englishman Returned from Paris ; The Citizen ; 
and Zenobia. He died in London in 1805. 

Sir Philip Francis, famous as the supposed writer of 
the Junius Letters, was born in Dublin in 1740, and 
educated at St. Paul's School, London. He shone not 
only as a writer, but as a politician. A clear, forcible 
speaker, he convinced his hearers by his earnestness and 
obvious sincerity, and showed to the greatest advantage 
in the House of Commons when attacking Warren 
Hastings. He hated corruption, and, in his endeavours 
to expose it, he — the quintessence of all that was 
disinterested and fearless — allowed nothing to stand in 
his way. And surely, for this alone Ireland should be 
proud of him. He died in 1818, and was buried at 

Hugh Boyd, born in Dublin, 1746, was educated 
first of all at the Rev. William Ball's school, and then 
at Trinity College. He was called to the bar in London, 
and gained much notoriety through his able defence 
of the forgers, Robert and Daniel Perreau. Owing 
to his publication of some letters under the title of " The 
Whig " in the London Courant, which were thought by 
some closely to resemble in style the Junius Letters, he 
was accredited by many people with the authorship of 
the latter. He founded and edited The Indian Observer, 
(the first number of which he called The Hircarrah) and 
The Madras Courier. He died in Madras, 1794. 

Born at Maidstone, William Hazlitt was of Irish 


parentage. Educated at the Unitarian Academy at 
Hackney, he first of all took to painting and then to 
literature. Among the best known of his works, charac- 
terized by their profound knowledge of metaphysics, 
and by their philosophy, are : The Life of Napoleon 
Bonaparte ; an essay on The Principles of Human 
Action; an introduction to Tucker's Light of Nature; 
The Eloquence of the British Senate ; and Characters of 
Shakespeare's Plays. As theatrical critic for The Morning 
Chronicle, Hazlitt was the first person to insist strenuously 
on the merits of Kean, the actor. He also contributed to 
The Times and The Encyclopaedia Britannica. He died 
in Frith Street, Soho, 1830. 

The large increase in the migration of Irishmen to 
England during the nineteenth century included a 
proportionate increase in the number of those who gained 
distinction. The majority of these, as in the seventeenth 
and eighteenth centuries, were writers. 

The greatest of nineteenth century Irish poets, Thomas 
Moore, was born at 12 Aungier Street, Dublin, in 1779, 
and educated first of all at Mr. Malone's school, and then 
at Mr. Samuel Whyte's, where Sheridan and many other 
distinguished Irishmen received their early training. 

It is unnecessary, considering the many and voluminous 
memoirs already written of Moore, to make more than a 
passing allusion to him here. He was no hybrid Irish- 
man — he wrote of the old Irish chieftains, the Blakes and 
the O'Donnells, as no one but a full-blooded Irishman 
could have written of them. His poetry appeals to every 
Celt throughout the world — it is sublimely sweet and 
musical — sublimely Irish. He died at Sloperton, 26th 
February, 1852. 


The work of the Irish novelists in England during the 
nineteenth century was characterized by its originality, 
freshness, strength and marvellous vividness. These 
distinguishing features are partly attributable to the 
Celtic temperament — with its extraordinary imaginative 
faculties — and partly to the fact that none of the Irish 
novelists had been to the University, whence genius, if 
it issues at all, issues with its body weighted, and its 
wings clipped. Their style, singularly free from imitation, 
is absolutely their own. 

The sons of a small shopkeeper, the brothers Banim, 
Michael and John, were born in Kilkenny, in 1796 and 
1798, respectively. Michael lived in Ireland, but John, 
removing to London, took up his abode at 7 Amelia 
Place, Brompton, where he did most of his writing. 
Among the best known of his many publications are : 
The Tales of the O'Hara Family, written in collaboration 
with Michael ; The Boyne Water, and Windgap Cottage ; 
two plays, entitled respectively, Turgesius and Damon 
and Pythias; and a poem "The Celt's Paradise." He 
died in Kilkenny in 1842, and was buried there in St. 
John's graveyard. 

Though born in England, the Brontes — Charlotte, 
Emily and Anne — were of Irish parentage, their father, 
the Rev. Patrick Bronte, being a native of County Down. 
Like the Banims, their genius is not confined to one 
branch of their art — it embraces characterization, as well 
as incident ; and portraiture of the weird and harrowing, 
as well as of the pretty and peaceful. Their works 
included : Jane Eyre ; Villette and Shirley (Charlotte 
Bronte) ; Wuthering Heights (Emily Bronte) ; and Agnes 
Gray and Wildfell Hall (Anne Bronte). 


Thomas Crofton Croker, who was born in Buckingham- 
shire Square, Cork, in 1798, spent most of his life in 
England. He revelled in the beauty of woods, moon- 
beams, and fairies, and his stories, if not altogether true 
to Celtic life, are, at any rate, some of the most charming 
and fanciful productions ever penned. His works include : 
Fairy Legends and Traditions of the South of Ireland; 
Memoir of Joseph Holt, and Popular Songs of Ireland. 
He died at 3 Gloucester Road, Old Brompton, 1854. 

The Rev. George Croly, born in Dublin, 1780, published 
a large number of works, mostly fiction, the best known 
of which is Salathiel the Immortal. He died in London 
in 1860, and was buried in the churchyard of St. Stephen's, 

Like the Brontes, Maria Edgeworth, though born at 
Black Bourton, Oxfordshire, in 1767, was of Irish extrac- 
tion, being a descendant of the Edgeworths who had 
settled in County Longford in 1583. Her first novel, 
Castle Rackrent, published in 1800, was a huge success, 
and at once established her in the foremost rank of 
novelists of the day. Her subsequent works were : Essay 
on Irish Bulls ; Ennui and Leonora, and Harry and Lucy. 
She died at Edgeworthstown, County Longford, in 

Mr. and Mrs. Samuel Carter Hall, both born in 1800, 
and both of Irish origin, enjoyed a long career of popu- 
larity in England. Mr. Hall edited The Art Journal; 
whilst Mrs. S. C. Hall, in addition to writing a large 
number of serials in popular weekly and monthly maga- 
zines, wrote The Buccaneers, a successful drama. Mrs. 
Hall died in England in 1881 ; Mr. Hall in 1889. 

Annie Keary, born of Irish parentage at Bilton Rectory, 


near Wethcrby, Yorkshire, in 1825, is best known to 
posterity by her novel, Castle Daly. She died in 1879. 

Samuel Lover, born in Dublin in 1797, made his first 
great hit with " Rory O'More," a song written at the 
suggestion of Lady Morgan, and set to an old Irish air. 
He subsequently wrote about forty other songs, all 
characterized by the same arch humour, pathos and 
rollicking dash ; and published Handy- Andy (a highly 
amusing novel that proved immensely popular), and 
several plays, including The Olympic Premier ; The White 
Horse of the Peppers and The Happy Man ; all of which 
were staged and met with a fair amount of success. 
Apart from writing, Samuel Lover won a certain amount 
of fame by his painting, his last picture, " The Kerry 
Post on Valentine's Day," exhibited in 1862, calling forth 
much comment from the press. He died in London in 
1868, and was buried in Kensal Green Cemetery. 

Lady Morgan, who was born in Dublin between 1780 
and 1786, spent most of her life in London and on the 
Continent. She is chiefly known by her novels, St. Clair 
or the Heiress of Desmond ; The Wild Irish Girl ; O'Donnel ; 
and Ida of Athens; all of which exhibited much subtle 
portrayal of character, chiefly Irish. She died at 11 
William Street, London, 1859, and was buried in Brompton 

Irish authors of prose works, other than and besides 
fiction, in England during the eighteenth and nineteenth 
centuries were — 

Dion Boucicault, born in Ireland, 1822, died 1890. 
Author of Colleen Bawn ; Arrah-na-Pogue, and other 
famous plays. 

John Wilson Croker, LL.D., F.R.S., born at Galway, 


1780 ; buried at Hampton, near London, 1857. Author 
of Stories for Children selected from the History of England, 
and contributor to the Quarterly and Edinburgh Reviews. 

John Philpot Curran, born at Newmarket, Co. Cork, 
1750 ; died in London, 1817. Author of miscellaneous 
Essays and Reviews. 

Sir Aubrey De Vere, Bart., born at Curragh Chase, 
Co. Limerick, 1788 ; where he also died, July, 1846. 
Author of Mary Tudor, a drama, and miscellaneous 

Matthew James Higgins, better known as " Jacob 
Omnium," born in England about 1810 ; died in England, 
1868. Contributor, chiefly of articles relative to Colonial, 
military, educational and social matters, to The Times; 
Quarterly and Edinburgh Reviews, and the Cornhill 

James Sheridan Knowles, born in Cork, 1784 ; died at 
Torquay, 1862. Author of the following dramas : Brian 
Boroihme ; Caius Gracchus ; Virginius ; William Tell ; The 
Hunchback ; The Wife ; Alexina ; The Beggar's Daughter, 
and others. Editor of Walker's Pronouncing Dictionary. 

William Maguire, LL.D., born in Cork, 1794 ; died at 
Walton-upon-Thames, 1842. Author of Homeric Ballads ; 
Chevy Chase (a translation into Latin), and contributor 
to Blackwood's, Eraser s, and other magazines. 

Marmion W. Savage, born in Ireland, 1803, died 
at Torquay, 1872. Author of The Falcon Family ; The 
Bachelor of the Albany ; My Uncle the Curate; Reuben 
Medlicot, and other novels ; but better known for his 
scholarly work whilst Editor of the Examiner. 

Richard Lalor Sheil, born at Drumdowney, near 
Waterford, August, 1791 ; died at Florence, May, 1851. 

8— (2339) 


Author of Adelaide; The Apostate; Bellamira ; Evadne, 
and other plays. Contributor to The New Monthly, and 
other magazines. 

Lady Wilde, born in 1826; died in 1896. Wrote, 
under the name of " Speranza," many poems, and 
contributed to The Nation. 






Although the majority of Irish soldiers during the 
seventeenth, eighteenth, and nineteenth centuries sought 
service in the armies of the Continent, there were still a 
goodly number who preferred joining English regiments. 
Of the latter, the most famous is, of course, Arthur 
Wellesley, the great Duke of Wellington, the most 
successful general, with the exception, perhaps, of Marl- 
borough, who has ever led British troops to battle. It 
is hardly necessary to mention — so many lives have been 
written of this great man — that he was born at 24 Upper 
Merrion Street, Dublin, in 1769, and was the grandson 
of Richard Colley, whose aunt married Garrett Wesley, 
of Dangan, Co. Meath. The Wesleys had been in Ireland 
from the reign of Henry II, and, therefore, were as much 
Irish as the Butlers or Geraldines ; whilst the Colleys 
dated their advent to the time of Henry VIII. This 
aunt of Richard Colley had a son, Garrett Wesley, who, 
dying childless in 1728, bequeathed to Richard Colley 
all his real estate, upon condition that " he and his sons, 
and the heirs male of his body, assumed and took upon 
him and them the surname and coat-of-arms of Wesley." 
Hence, Richard Colley became Richard Wesley, and his 
descendants in 1796 changed the name again to Wellesley. 
Though the Duke showed no sympathy whatever with 



his fellow-countrymen in their abhorrence of the Union 
with England, and although he was equally un-Irish in 
his subsequent opposition to many Reform measures, 
yet there was much in his character — in his high integrity, 
his lofty aspirations, his passionate regard of morality, 
his keen interest in and veneration of the Arts, his love 
of righting, travel and adventure, and his bent for politics 
— that most emphatically proclaimed him Irish. More- 
over, in selecting a wife, he chose one, Lady Catherine 
Pakenham, whose ancestors had settled in Ireland as 
far back as 1576. Wellington died at Walmer Castle, 
in England, on 14th September, 1852, and was buried in 
St. Paul's. 

Other prominent Irish soldiers in the service of England 
during these three centuries were — 

Brigadier-General Richard Kane, born in County 
Down in 1666 ; died in Minorca, 1736. Entering the 
Royal Irish Regiment in 1689, Kane served throughout 
the Anglo-Irish War of 1689-1691. He subsequently 
took part in the siege of Namur, 1695 ; and was succes- 
sively made Lieut. -Governor of Gibraltar and Governor 
of Minorca. His tenure of office in the latter island was 
characterized by the most violent controversies with the 
Spanish clergy. He was buried in the grounds of St. 
Philip's Castle, a cenotaph with bust being put up to 
him in Westminster Abbey. 

William, Lord Blakeney, born at Mount Blakeney, 
Co. Limerick, 1672 ; died in England, 1761. He took 
part in the siege of Carthagena, the storming of Bochachia, 
the defence of Stirling Castle, and the defence of Minorca ; 
and for the share he took in the last-named was raised 
to the peerage. He was buried in Westminster Abbey. 


General William Haviland, born in Ireland, 1718 ; died 
in England, 1784. He is chiefly to be remembered as 
the commander of the successful expedition which 
reduced Isle-aux-Noix, St. John's and Chambly ; for 
his skill in navigating the rapids of the American rivers ; 
and for his share in the capture of Martinique and 

General Sir Henry Johnson, Bart., G.C.B., born in Co. 
Dublin, 1748 ; died in England, 1835. He is famous for 
his defence of New Ross against his compatriots under 
Bagenal Harvey — an act that undoubtedly saved the 
cause of England in the South of Ireland. 

Sir Henry Torrens, K.C.B., born in Londonderry, 
1779 ; died at Welwyn, in Hertfordshire, 1828. He saw 
a great deal of active service, but distinguished himself 
most in the military operations against Buenos Ayres in 

Col. Robert Torrens, born in Ireland, 1780 ; died in 
England, 1864. He is chiefly to be remembered for his 
services against the Danes in 1811, and under Wellesley 
in the Peninsular War, when he commanded a Spanish 
legion. He published several books, including Celibia 
Choosing a Husband, a novel ; and Tracts on Finance 
and Trade. 

Lord John Keane, born at Belmont, Co. Waterford, 
1781 ; died in England, 1844. He had a long career of 
active service, greatly distinguishing himself in the 
Peninsular War, in the American War of 1812-14, and 
in the Afghan War of 1839-40, when he successfully led 
the English army to Cabul, entered that city, and captured 
the hitherto impregnable fortress of Ghuznee. 

William Carr Beresford, Viscount Beresford, born in 


Ireland, 1768; died at Bedgebury Park, Kent, 1854. 
He served with the greatest distinction under the Duke 
of Wellington in the Peninsular War. 

General Sir Robert Brownrigg, Bart., born in Ireland, 
1759 ; died, near Monmouth, 1833. Famous for his 
conquest of Ceylon in 1815, which was then annexed to 
the British Crown. 

Colonel David Collins, born in Ireland, 1756 ; died at 
Hobart Town, Tasmania, 1810. He fought with distinc- 
tion for England in the American War of Independence, 
and was subsequently made Governor of Tasmania. 

Sir George De Lacy Evans, born at Moig, Co. Limerick, 
1787 ; died in England, 1870. He served with distinction 
in the Peninsular and Crimean Wars, but was chiefly 
noted for the part he played in Spain, where, in aid of 
Queen Isabella, he led the English Brigade of 10,000 
men against Don Carlos. 

Viscount Gough, G.C.B., born at Woodstone, Co. 
Limerick, 1779 ; died at St. Helens, Booterstown, near 
Dublin, 1869. He saw more service and commanded in 
more battles than any British officer of his period, saving 
Wellington. His greatest achievements were the victories 
of Maharajpoor, Moodkee, Ferozeshah, Sobraon and 
Guzerat. He also held commands at Talavera, Barrosa, 
Vittoria, Nivelle, Cadiz and Taufa. 

Major-General Sir Robert Rollo Gillespie, born at 
Comber, Co. Down, 1766 ; killed while leading an 
attack on the fort of Kalunga, Nepaul, 1814. He gained 
great distinction for his service in St. Domingo against 
Toussaint L'Ouverture, and in suppressing the mutiny of 

Brigadier-General Sir Henry Montgomery Lawrence, 


K.C.B., born at Matura, 1806 ; killed during siege of 
Lucknow, 1857. Renowned for his remarkable achieve- 
ments in the Punjaub, 1846, and for his brilliant defence 
of Lucknow, 1857. His four brothers also gained dis- 
tinction in the Service. They were : Major-General 
Alexander W. Lawrence (born 1803, died 1868) ; Lieu- 
tenant-General Sir George St. Patrick Lawrence (born 
1804) ; Sir John L. M. Lawrence (born 1811), created 
Lord Lawrence in 1869, Viceroy of India, 1863-1868 ; 
and Major-General Richard C. Lawrence (born 1817). 

General Sir William Francis Patrick Napier, K.C.B., 
born at Celbridge, near Dublin, 1785 ; died at Clapham, 
1860. He served with great distinction all through the 
Peninsular War, and is also famous for his History of the 
War in the Peninsular and South of France, 1807 to 

Lord Napier of Magdala, born in Ireland, 1810 ; died 
in England, 1890. Celebrated for his leadership in the 
Abyssinian Campaign of 1868, for which he received his 

General Sir Charles Routledge O'Donnell, K.C.B., born 
at Trough, Co. Limerick, Ireland, 1794 ; died at Dony- 
land, near Colchester, 1870. He served for many years 
in the 18th Hussars, of which he was Colonel, and was 
Secretary to the Commander-in-Chief in Canada. He 
married Katherine Anne, eldest daughter of Major- 
General James Patrick Murray, C.B., and cousin to the 
eighth Baron Elibank. 

Sir Edward Michael Pakenham, born in Ireland, 1778 ; 
killed while leading the unsuccessful attack on New 
Orleans, 1815. 

Major Eldred Pottinger, born in Co. Down, 1811 ; 


died at Hong Kong, 1843. Famous for his defence of 
Herat against the Persians when only 26 years of age, 
and for his heroism in the Afghan War of 1839-41. 

Francis Rawdon, Earl of Moira and Marquis of Hastings, 
born in Ireland, 1754 ; died on board ship in Baia Bay, 
1826. He served with distinction in the American War 
of Independence, and under the Duke of York in Flanders, 
in 1794. As Governor-General of India he was thanked 
by Parliament for his subdual of the Nepaulese, Pindarees, 
and other native Powers. 

Sir Charles William Vane Stewart, third Marquis of 
Londonderry, born in Ireland, 1778 ; died at Holdernesse 
House, London, 1854. Famous as being the youngest 
person ever appointed to the position of Assistant- 
Quartermaster-General, which he held when 16 years of 
age only, during the British Expedition to Holland of 
1791. He is also to be remembered for the part he 
played in the Arrangements of Peace after the Battle of 

Ireland has played a far more important role in the 
British Navy than most people imagine. During the 
seventeenth century there was only one Irishman of note 
in the English Navy, but during the eighteenth and 
nineteenth centuries there were several. The following 
is a list of distinguished Irishmen in the British Navy 
during these three centuries — 

Admiral Sir John Norris, born in Ireland, 1660 ; died 
in England, 1749. He greatly distinguished himself at 
the Battle of Beachy Head, 1690, and under Sir Cloudesley 
Shovel in Spain. 

Admiral Philip Cooly, born in Ireland, 1730 ; died at 


Bath, 1808. Marine Aide-de-Camp to General Wolfe, 
and distinguished for his share in the capture of Corsica 
and Toulon. 

Captain Francis Rawdon Moira Crozier, R.N., born at 
Banbridge, 1796 ; perished in the Sir John Franklin 
Expedition to the North Pole, 1848. Sir John Franklin 
had two ships with him, the Terror and Erebus. Crozier 
commanded the former. 

Peter Dillon, R.N., born in Ireland, 1785 ; died in 
England, 1847. Noted for his discovery of the fate of 
La Perouse, the French warship that had disappeared in 
the neighbourhood of the Queen Charlotte Islands. 

Admiral Sir Josias Rowley, Bart., born in Ireland, 
1765 ; died in Co. Leitrim, 1842. He rendered good 
service to England in the East during the Napoleonic 
Wars of 1800-1815. 

Captain Sir Francis Leopold McClintock, K.C.B., R.N., 
born in Dundalk, 1819 ; died in London, 1907. He won 
great renown as Commander of the Fox, which was 
dispatched in search of the Franklin Expedition, 1857. 
McClintock named the extreme west point of King 
William's Island " Cape Crozier," after Franklin's gallant 
Irish comrade. 

Rear- Admiral Sir Robert John Le Mesurier McClure, 
K.C.B., born in Wexford, 1807 ; died in London, 1873. 
Famous as the Commander of the Investigator in the 
Franklin Relief Expedition of 1850. After being im- 
prisoned for three years in the Bay of Mercy, 74° North 
Lat., 118° West Long., he was rescued by Captain Kellet, 
in command of parties from the crews of H.M.S. Resolute 
and Intrepid. 

Among the many notable Irish clergymen in England 


during the nineteenth century, the following two were, 
perhaps, the most distinguished — 

William Connor Magee, Archbishop of York, born 
1821 ; died 1891. He was one of the greatest orators 
and most witty conversationalists of his time. 

Arthur O'Leary, D.D., a prominent Irish patriot and 
author of many patriotic and theological works, born in 
Co. Cork, 1729 ; died in London, 1802. He was a great 
friend of Burke, Sheridan, Fox and Fitzwilliam. 

Two also of the many Irish lawyers in England during 
the nineteenth century were conspicuously eminent — 

Sir James Shaw Willes, Judge of the English Court of 
Common Pleas, born in Cork, 1814 ; died near Watford, 
Herts, 1872. 

Lord Russell of Killowen, Chief Justice of England, 
born in Ireland, 1832 ; died 1900. 

The Irish scientists of distinction in England during the 
seventeenth century were very few. William Brouncker, 
Viscount Castlelyons, was, perhaps, the only one of any 
great note. Born at Castlelyons, Co. Cork, in 1620, he 
migrated to England about 1642, and first came into note 
in 1645, when Charles I created him a Viscount for 
distinguished service in action. After the fall of the 
Monarchy he fled to France, but, receiving an assurance 
from Cromwell that no harm would be done to him, he 
returned to London. At the Restoration he was appointed 
Chancellor to the Queen, Lord of the Admiralty, Master 
of St. Katherine's Hospital, and first President of the 
Royal Society. The best known of his works are : The 
Quadrature of a Portion of the Equilateral Hyperbola, and 
a translation of Descartes's Musicae Compendium. He 
died at Westminster, 1684. 


Though a large number of Irishmen achieved distinction 
in medicine and other branches of science in their own 
country during the eighteenth century, but few rose to 
any eminence in England. It is difficult to account for 
this, saving by the fact that the majority of educated 
Irish emigrants in those days joined one or other of the 
Continental armies, or pursued literature — the Arts, 
perhaps, even more then than now, appealing much 
more strongly to the Celtic temperament than Science. 

The most eminent Irish physician and surgeon in 
England during the eighteenth century was Sir Hans 
Sloane, M.D., F.R.S., who was born at Killileagh, Co. 
Down, 1660 ; and died at Chelsea, 1753. 

Whilst occupying the post of physician to the Duke 
of Albermarle in the West Indies, Sir Hans Sloane inves- 
tigated the fauna and flora of the islands, and on his 
return to England he brought with him a quantity of 
Cinchonia bark, the use of which as a drug he showed for 
the first time in London, and published a Natural History 
of Jamaica. He was elected President both of the Royal 
Society and the College of Physicians. In claiming Sir 
Hans Sloane as one of her illustrious sons, Ireland may 
not only claim as her own the most eminent physician 
and naturalist of his time in England, but may also 
point to him as the founder of the British Museum, since 
his collection, consisting of books, manuscripts, drawings 
and curios, which he left the nation, was designed to 
form the nucleus of that institution. Sloane Street, 
close to where he lived, is named after him, whilst the 
present Cadogan family are connected with him through 
the marriage of one of his daughters. 

Thomas Henry, F.R.S., born in Antrim, 1734 ; died in 


London, 1816. He is chiefly to be remembered for his 
article in the Transactions of the Royal College of Physicians 
entitled " An Improved Method of Preparing Magnesia 
Alba " ; for his introduction into England of the writings 
of Lavoisier ; for his work dealing with the preservation 
of fresh water at sea, and for his series of lectures before 
the members of the Manchester Literary and Philosophical 
Society on the then little known arts of bleaching, dyeing, 
and calico-printing. 

Dr. Barry Edward O'Meara, born in Ireland, 1786 ; 
died in London 1836. Dr. O'Meara was physician to 
Napoleon I during the early period of the latter's incar- 
ceration in St. Helena, but was obliged to resign his post 
owing to his disapproval of Sir Hudson Lowe's treatment 
of the ex-Emperor. On the death of Napoleon Dr. 
O'Meara published a book of reminiscences entitled 
Letters from St. Helena, which had a very large sale. 

Sir David Barry, F.R.S., born in Roscommon, 1780, 
died in London, 1835. Sir David Barry served as 
surgeon to the Portuguese forces during the Peninsular 
War, and on his return to England was appointed one 
of the Commissioners in the investigation that led to 
the Factory Act. Among his published works the best 
known are those relative to hydrophobia and venomous 
bites, and to the absorption of poison, and the means 
of counteracting it by the application of cupping-glasses. 

Most conspicuous amongst the Irish engineers of note 
during the eighteenth century was John Armstrong, 
F.R.S., who was born at Ballyard, King's County, 1673 ; 
and died in England, 1742. He collaborated with 
Thomas Badeslade in the publication of " A Report with 
Proposals for draining the Fens and amending the Port 


of King's Lynn, and of Cambridge, and the rest of trading 
towns in those parts, and the navigable rivers that have 
their course through the great level of the Fens called 
Bedford Level." He is best remembered, however, as 
the founder of Woolwich Arsenal. 

Among the many eminent Irish scientists in England 
in the nineteenth century were — 

William Henry Felton, M.D., F.R.S., geologist, born in 
Dublin, 1780 ; died in London, 1861. James Sheridan 
Muspratt, an eminent chemist, born in Dublin, 1821 ; 
died at West Derby, near Liverpool, 1871. Jones Quain, 
M.D., the author and editor of several standard medical 
works, born at Mallow, 1796 ; died in London, 1865 ; 
and Sir Edwin Richard Windham Quin, third 
Earl of Dunraven, of Celtic origin, and a prominent 
archaeologist, born in Ireland, 1812 ; died at Great 
Malvern, 1871. 

Before naming the more noted of the Irish patriots 
and politicians in England, it may be stated that the 
average Irishman is just as unthinkable apart from his 
patriotism, as the soldier is apart from his uniform, or 
the money-lender, apart from his promissory notes. 
Patriotism is the lodestone — the guiding star of every 
Celtic Irishman's life. He loves, he adores, he idolizes 
his country ; when occasion arises, he sacrifices all his 
worldly possessions for it ; he even dies for it — not merely 
under the limelight of the battlefield, but on the grim 
bareness of the dreaded scaffold. The Englishman 
cannot understand this ; to him, with his deep-rooted 
veneration of law — no matter how unjust — and property 
— no matter how wrongfully acquired — patriotism is 
anarchy ; and to the Jew, it is madness. But bad or 


mad, it is there all the same — a force to be reckoned with ; 
for the real Irishman without it does not exist. 

The eighteenth century, particularly the latter part of 
it, saw a vital crisis in the fate of Ireland, and patriotism 
called loudly to the sons of Erin. Nor did it call in vain. 
On both sides of the water men battled fiercely for Irish 
independence and freedom, and the struggle developed 
much that was great and noble. 

The following are brief biographical notices of the most 
distinguished of the Irish patriots and politicians in 
England, from the beginning to the end of the eighteenth 

Sir George Macartney, Earl Macartney, born at 
Lissanoure, Co. Antrim, 1737 ; died at Chiswick, 1806. 
He was both soldier and statesman, and gained con- 
siderable renown for his gallant but unsuccessful defence 
of Granada against the French Admiral D'Estaing, for 
his expulsion of the Dutch from the Coromandel Coast of 
India during his Governorship of Madras, and for the 
tact and bravery he displayed whilst filling the post 
of British Ambassador to China between the years 

Edmund Burke, born in Dublin, 1729 ; died at Beacons- 
field, 1797. A point that seems to have escaped the 
notice of most of Burke's latter-day biographers is that 
he was in an unusual degree physically as well as morally 
courageous — which combination of virtues is rarely seen 
in one man, and scarcely ever in a man of letters. In 
support of this assertion, at the time of the Gordon Riots, 
Burke, who, as one of the leading advocates for Catholic 
Relief measures in Parliament, had been caricatured as 
a friar, in the act of trimming the fires of Smithfield ; 

From an etching after a sketch by Sayer 


[See p. 126 


nicknamed Neddy St. Omers ; and threatened with all 
kind of horrible punishments, — not deterred by any 
menaces, and anxious only to save further pillage and 
bloodshed, boldly faced the mob and, telling them who 
he was, pointed out to them the cruelty and injustice of 
what they were doing. 

Richard Hely-Hutchinson, Earl of Donoughmore, 
born in Ireland, 1756 ; died in Ireland, 1825. He is 
chiefly famous for the speeches he made in the House of 
Lords in support of the petition for the Emancipation of 
the Irish Roman Catholics. 

George Tierney, born at Gibraltar, 1761 ; died in 
London, 1830. From the time he entered Parliament as 
Member for Southwark in 1796, George Tierney utilized 
his great natural powers of wit and sarcasm in constantly 
attacking Pitt, who was at last goaded into fighting a 
duel with him on Putney Heath, 27th May, 1798. " A 
case of pistols was fired without effect ; a second case was 
also fired in the same manner, Mr. Pitt firing his pistol 
in the air ; the seconds then jointly interfered, and 
insisted that the matter should go no further, it being 
their decided opinion that sufficient satisfaction had been 
given, and that the business was ended with perfect 
honour to both parties." Tierney was Treasurer of the 
Navy and member of the Privy Council during the 
Addington Ministry of 1803, and Master of the Mint 
when Canning was Premier. 

Robert Stewart, Viscount Castlereagh, second Marquis 
of Londonderry, born in County Down, 1769 ; died by 
his own hand at North Cray, in England, 1822. Shortly 
before his death he visited Bulwer Lytton's father at 
Knebworth. Unknown to him, he was assigned a room 


seldom occupied, owing to its being haunted by the 
apparition of a boy, which appeared to anyone sleeping 
in the apartment, and by pantomimic gestures revealed 
to them the manner and nature of their approaching 

Being very tired after his long journey, Lord Castlereagh 
soon sank into a deep sleep, but awoke with a violent 
start about 2 o'clock in the morning to see the quaintly 
dressed figure of a boy, with long yellow hair, seated by 
the fire. Lord Castlereagh stared in astonishment, and, 
as he did so, the figure slowly turned round, revealing a 
very white face and two large, dark, luminous eyes. 
Rising from its seat, it glided swiftly to the foot of the 
bed, and, drawing its hand three times across its throat 
with a significant gesture, gazed sadly at Lord Castlereagh, 
and vanished. Convinced that what he had seen was 
a genuine phantom, Lord Castlereagh at once got out of 
bed and, going to the writing-table, made a memorandum 
of the occurrence. A few weeks afterwards — on the 12th 
of August, 1822 — he terminated his unfortunate career 
by committing suicide at North Cray, his country residence 
in England. Whether the idea was actually suggested 
to him by the apparition — there have been several 
authentic instances of ghosts having connived at murder 
and suicide — must, of course, remain a matter of con- 
jecture. One might well suppose that he was pursued 
throughout his life by some particularly malevolent 
apparition, which not only gloated over the manner of 
his death, but over the scene that attended his funeral — 
a scene which, making all due allowances for his well- 
merited unpopularity, was scarcely a credit to any 


Theobald Wolfe Tone, born in Dublin, 20th June, 
1763 ; died in Dublin, 1798. Although Wolfe Tone is 
chiefly associated with doings in Ireland, he nevertheless 
spent two years at least of his life in England. In 1784, 
whilst still at College, he fell in love with Matilda Wither- 
ington, a beautiful girl of sixteen, and eloped with her ; 
but after his marriage returned to Trinity, where he 
eventually took his B.A. degree. After leaving the 
University, he and his wife spent some time with his 
father at Bodenstown, and then came to London. He 
entered the Middle Temple, took chambers in Hare Court, 
and supported himself mainly by writing for The European 
and other magazines. In collaboration with J ebb and 
Radcliffe, he wrote an amusing novel, entitled Belmont 
Castle. A year later he was joined by his brother William, 
and the two of them conceived the highly original plan 
of a military settlement on one of the islands that had 
been recently discovered by Cook, " in order," as they 
expressed it, " to put a bridle on Spain in time of peace, 
and to annoy her grievously in that quarter in time of 
war." They forwarded a memorial of this scheme to 
Pitt, who, with the lofty disdain that has ever been the 
characteristic of English Ministers towards the unknown 
and non-influential, ignored it. Being in desperate straits 
for money, they then applied to the India Office to be 
sent out as volunteers to the war, but were curtly 

At this crisis, Theobald's wife, to whom he was ever 
passionately attached, came into a little money, which 
enabled them to shake the dust of London off their feet 
and to return to Ireland. 

The impression Theobald Wolfe Tone had received of 



the English during his stay in London was not a good 
one. Had they been a little more sympathetic, a little 
more hospitable towards him, much in his subsequent 
career might have been mollified, or might, even, never 
have existed. He came to London without bias, and he 
left it " full of disgust at the cold apathy and exclusive- 
ness of the aristocracy, the selfishness and vulgarity of 
the new rich, and the utter squalor and ignorance of 
the masses." A year after his return to Dublin he 
resolved that Ireland should at all costs be freed from 
English government and influence. To quote from his 
own words : "I made speedily what to me was a great 
discovery, though I might have found it in Swift and 
Molyneux, that the influence of England was the radical 
vice of our Government, and, consequently, that Ireland 
would never be either free, prosperous, or happy, until 
she was independent, and that independence was 
unattainable whilst the connection with England 
existed. ..." 

With the exception of the time he spent in visiting 
France and America, Theobald Wolfe Tone passed the 
whole of his subsequent eventful life in Ireland, so that 
for details of his career, from the date of his having left 
England to settle in Dublin, the reader must be referred 
to his various biographies, of which the best is, probably, 
that edited by his son, William, and published in 
Philadelphia, U.S.A., in 1826. 

The most eminent nineteenth century Irish statesmen 
were — 

Sir Gore Ouseley, Bart., F.R.S., born in Limerick, 
1770 ; died at Beaconsfield, near London, 1844. Famous 
as a diplomatist, especially for his work in Persia, where 


he was Ambassador Extraordinary ; and for his success- 
ful efforts in preventing war between Persia and Russia 
he was decorated by the Czar. 

Sir William Ouseley, the brother of Sir Gore, born 
in Monmouthshire, 1767 ; died in England, 1842. He 
was private secretary to Sir Gore in Persia, and published 
a number of works on the East, the best known of which 
were : Persian Miscellanies (1795), Oriental Collections 
(1797-1800), Ancient History of Persia (1799), and Travels 
in Various Countries of the East. His sons all held high 
offices — Sir William Gore, who was born in London in 
1797, and died there in 1866, was attache at Stockholm 
and Washington ; whilst John, Richard, Ralph, and 
Joseph, all held good positions in the British Army 
in India. 

Sir Thomas Wyse, K.C.B., M.P., born Co. Waterford, 
1791 ; died at Athens, 1862. Noted for his useful work 
as one of the Secretaries of the Board of Control under 
Lord Melbourne from 1839 to 1842, and as British 
Minister at Athens during the Crimean War. 

Sir George Thomas Michael O'Brien, K.C.M.G., who 
filled the post of Colonial Secretary in Cyprus in 1891, 
and in Hong Kong from 1892 to 1895, and in 1895 was 
appointed Governor of the Fiji Islands. 

The Right Hon. Sir Nicholas Roderick O'Conor, 
G.C.B., G.C.M.G., who, in 1883, was made Secretary of 
the Legation, and in 1892 British Ambassador at Pekin, 
and was remarkable for the wonderful amount of tact 
and firmness he displayed when dealing with the Chinese. 
He was created a K.C.B., and in 1895 was appointed 
British Minister at St. Petersburg. 





Ireland contributed very largely to the number of 
distinguished actors and actresses in England during the 
eighteenth century. 

James Quin, Charles Macklin, and Spranger Barry 
were eclipsed, only, by David Garrick ; Kitty Clive and 
Elizabeth Farren, only, by Mrs. Siddons ; whilst Peg 
Woffington, defying criticism and comparison alike, 
stands alone. Her acting, though no whit inferior to 
that of Sarah Siddons, was of a style so different that, 
unless all association is impossible, they can only be 
bracketed together as the two greatest actresses of their 

As well as these celebrities, there were many other 
Irish players of more than mediocre talent, who, had it 
not been for the age of greatness in which they lived, 
would have occupied prominent positions. 

The Irish are unquestionably more dramatic than the 
English ; their naturally emotional and sympathetic 
temperament lending itself more readily than that of 
the phlegmatic English to the study and portrayal of 

At the end of the seventeenth century English acting 
was at a very low level. With few exceptions, it was 



stilted and unnatural ; coarseness was mistaken for 
humour, and horse-play of the roughest description for 
the more subtle elements of tragedy. The actors them- 
selves were mostly uneducated, and the audience — dull 
and apathetic. The arrival of the Irish brought about 
a decided improvement. Then, and then only, the 
general staleness and air of decadence gave way to a 
new life and vigour ; wit, vivacity, and originality took 
the place of crude vulgarity and mere offensive 
lewdness, and players and dramatists became stimulated 
alike to give clever representations of decent, possible 
characters. It was a renaissance that was most necessary, 
that came not a moment too soon, but that, for reasons 
very easily understood by an Irishman, has never had 
due or just recognition of English chroniclers. The more 
eminent of the eighteenth century Irish actors and 
actresses in England were — 

Charles Macklin, born in County Wicklow about 1697 ; 
died in England, 1797. Macklin, said to be one of the 
only two actors of whom David Garrick was jealous, 
acquired most fame in his portrayal of " Shylock," and 
" Sir Archy McSarcasm " in Love d la Mode. 

James Quin, born of Irish parentage in King Street, 
Covent Garden, 1693 ; died at Bath, 1766. Quin was 
the first actor in England till the arrival of David Garrick, 
who introduced a new school of acting. Though excellent 
in the roles of " Cato," " Juba," " Sir John Brute " and 
" Heartfill," he was seen to most advantage as " Falstaff," 
in which part he was undoubtedly without a rival. 

Dennis Delane, born in Dublin about 1710 ; died in 
London, 1750. Prior to the advent of David Garrick, 
Delane was, next to Quin, the most popular actor in 


London. He played many roles well without shining in 
any one especially. 

Catherine Give, born in London, 1711 ; died at Straw- 
berry Hill, 1785. Known to the general public as Kitty 
Give, she was one of the most versatile actresses of the 
day, and enjoyed a popularity second only to Margaret 
Wofhngton. She chiefly excelled in low comedy and 
farce. The roles in which she scored most success were : 
" Nell," in the comic farce The Devil to Pay, or the Wives 
Metamorphosed ; " The Fine Lady," in Garrick's Lethe; 
and " Lady Fuz," in Peep Behind the Curtain. She also 
appeared in Oratorio, and sang so finely as " Dalilah " 
in Samson, that Handel repeatedly expressed the hope 
that she would devote herself entirely to this branch of 
art. She wrote several clever sketches. 

Spranger Barry, born in Dublin, 1719 ; died in London, 
1777. In the opinion of many authorities, Barry was 
the greatest Shakespearian actor of his time, and he 
established such a reputation as " Hamlet " and 
" Macbeth," that Garrick, at that time the manager of 
Drury Lane, became jealous of him and compelled him 
to resign. According to The Dramatic Censor, " Garrick 
commanded most applause, and Barry most tears." 
Macklin said he was the best " Romeo " he had ever seen. 

Thomas Sheridan, born at Quilca, Co. Cavan, 1719 ; 
died at Margate, 1788. He was a capable all-round actor, 
his best impersonation being that of " Cato." He 
succeeded David Garrick as manager of Drury Lane. 

Margaret Wofhngton, better known as " Peg " Wofhng- 
ton, born in Dublin, 1720 ; died at Teddington, 1760. 
Possessed of considerable beauty and charm of manner, 
Peg Woffington enjoyed a popularity few actresses, if 

From an engraving by Jackson, after the painting by Gwinn 

[See p. 134 


indeed any, have ever acquired. In her impersonation 
of high-born ladies — women of dash, spirit and elegance — 
also homely, humorous women, she was far and away the 
greatest actress of the century. Among her chief roles 
were those of " Lady Townley," " Maria," in The Non- 
Juror, " Sir Henry Wildair," and " Lady Betty Modish." 

John O'Keeffe, born in Dublin, 1747 ; died at South- 
ampton, 1833. He was chiefly celebrated for his portrayal 
of Irish characters. 

Elizabeth Farren, Countess of Derby, born in Cork, 
1759 ; died at Knowsley Park, Lancashire, 1829. She 
is chiefly to be remembered for her clever and refined 
style of acting. In the roles of " Miss Hardcastle " and 
" Lady Teazle " she had no equal. 

Andrew Cherry, born in Limerick, 1762 ; died at 
Monmouth, 1812. He was a good all-round actor, 
without being particularly brilliant in any one part, and 
was the author of the popular Irish song, " The Dear 
Little Shamrock." 

The number of famous Irish actors and actresses in 
England during the nineteenth century did not equal 
that of the preceding century, probably owing to the 
raising of the general standard of acting throughout the 
country, which made it more difficult for the individual 
to shine. The best known were — 

Miss O'Neill, born in Drogheda, 1791 ; died at Bally- 
giblin, 1872. Her great parts were "Juliet," "Belvidera," 
and " Isabella." She married Sir W. Becher, Bart. 

Julia Glover (nee Betterton), born at Newry, 1779 ; 
died in England, 1850. Chiefly famous for her Shakes- 
pearian acting and for her association with Edmund 


John Henry Johnstone, born in Tipperary, 1749 ; died 
in London, 1828. The greatest impersonator of Irish 
characters. His chief roles were " Sir Lucius O'Trigger," 
"Callaghan O'Brallaghan," " Maj.O' Flaherty," "Teague," 
and " Tully." 

Dorothea Jordan, born near Waterford in 1762 ; died 
at St. Cloud, 1816. She made her debut in Mr. Daly's 
Company in Dublin as Miss Francis, and by reason of 
her talent, no less than for her beauty of face, voice 
and manners, was speedily recognized as one of the 
leading actresses on the British stage. In 1790 she 
became the recognized mistress of the Duke of Clarence 
(afterwards William IV), by whom she had nine children, 
and with whom she lived happily for twenty years. At 
the end of that time, owing to her extravagance, a 
separation took place, and she went to France, where she 
lived on an annuity of £4,400 till the day of her death. 
One of her greatest impersonations was that of " Lady 

Edmund Kean, who was born in Ireland, 1787, and 
died in 1833, was descended on his mother's side from 
George Saville, Marquis of Halifax. He was quite one 
of the best actors of his day, and Kemble, when asked if 
he had seen him, replied, " I did not see Mr. Kean but 

Charles John Kean, son of the above, who was born 
at Waterford in 1811, and died in 1868, is too well known 
to be discussed here. Full particulars of him may be 
read in his biographies, which can be obtained at any 
public library. He was without doubt the finest 
all-round actor of his day in England. 

Next to Charles John Kean, perhaps, in order of merit, 


came Tyrone Power, who was born in Waterford, in 1797, 
and was lost in the steamer President, which left New 
York, 11th March, 1841, and was never heard of again. 
His chief part was " Paddy O'Halloran." He also 
excelled in drawing-room entertaining, and wrote several 
books, and novels, including Impressions of America. 

What has been said of the influence of Irish actors in 
England during the eighteenth century cannot be said in 
a like degree of Irish painters. The Irish temperament, 
somehow, does not seem to lend itself very readily to this 
branch of art. Painters, as a rule, are much more exclusive 
than either actors or writers. Painting is not only their 
sole occupation, but it is their world, and they " think 
the world " of it. They are interested in the other arts, 
inasmuch as they discuss and criticize them, but they do 
so, perhaps, with a sense of superiority rather than of 
sympathy ; and mankind, apart from furnishing material 
for painting, does not interest them at all. As a rule, this 
exclusiveness is usually accompanied by a pettiness of dis- 
position, which, together, form the most emphatic charac- 
teristics of the artistic temperament. Now, such qualities 
are more alien, perhaps, to the Irish than they are to 
most other nationalities. The Irishman is essentially large- 
minded, with a generous appreciation of his fellow- 
creatures, amongst whom he loves to " move and have 
his being/' His religion, if anything, might tend to 
make him exclusive, but only in rare instances, when, 
contrite for past offences, he seeks palliation thereof in 
the seclusion of monasterial cloisters. Temperamentally, 
the Irishman is the reverse of exclusive, and the qualities 
that go to form the basis of his Celtic character do not 


conform with those that are apparently essential to the 
temperament of a painter. Hence, if not the sole, this 
may be at least one explanation of the fact that the 
painter is a much rarer product amongst the pure Irish 
Celts than he is either in England or elsewhere. 

The Irish artists of any note in England during the 
period 1700-1800 are limited to five : James MacArdell, 
George Barrett, R.A., James Barry, R.A., and the two 

James MacArdell, born in Dublin about 1729 ; died 
in London, 1765. MacArdell executed plates from 
paintings by Vandyck, Murillo, Rembrandt, as well as 
from those of the principal painters of the day, and was 
generally deemed the most skilful mezzotint portrait 
engraver of his time. 

George Barrett, R.A., born in Dublin, about 1732 ; 
died at Paddington, 1784. Barrett held the appoint- 
ment of Master Painter to Chelsea Hospital, and was 
one of the originators and first members of the Royal 

James Barry, R.A., born in Cork, 1741 ; died in 
London, 1806. Barry was unquestionably one of the 
greatest British geniuses of his day. He invariably 
chose for his subject one that gave unlimited scope 
to his powerful imagination. Some of the most famous 
of his paintings are : "St. Patrick baptising the King 
of Cashel," " Philoctetes in the Isle of Lemnos," " Venus 
Rising from the Sea," " Jupiter and Juno," and " The 
Victors at Olympia," which was generally deemed his 
best work. He was buried in St. Paul's Cathedral, close 
to the last resting-place of his friend and contemporary, 
Sir Joshua Reynolds. 


Nathaniel Hone, R.A., born in Ireland about 1718 ; 
died in London, 1784. Nathaniel Hone was chiefly 
famous for his miniature portraits. 

Horace Hone, born in Dublin about 1756 ; died in 
London, 1825. Like Nathaniel Hone, Horace was one 
of the most eminent miniature painters of his day. 

During the nineteenth century there was a slight 
increase in the number of famous Irish artists in England. 
They included — 

Francis Danby, A.R.A., born near Wexford, 1793 ; 
died at Exmouth, February, 1861. His greatest work 
is generally deemed " The Opening of the Sixth 
Seal." " In the power of accumulating his subjects — 
whether masses of men or masses of architecture and 
other inanimate objects — he was equal to Martin or 

John Doyle, best known as " H.B.," born in Dublin, 
1797 ; died at Clifton Gardens, London, 1868. Famous 
for his political cartoons in Punch. 

Daniel Maclise, R.A., born in Cork, 1806 ; died in 
London, 1870. The paintings by which he is best known 
are: "All HaUow Eve" (1833), "The Meeting of 
Wellington and Blucher after Waterloo," and " The 
Earls of Desmond and Ormonde." 

Michael Kean, born in Dublin about 1758 ; died in 
London, 1823. He is chiefly known as a miniature 
painter, and was a constant exhibitor at the Royal 
Academy from 1780-1790. His best known work is 
" Lunardi the Aeronaut." Apart from his painting, he 
was engaged in commerce and was co-partner with 
William Duesbury in the proprietorship of a china 
factory in Derby. 


William Henry Kearney, born in Ireland in 1800 ; 
died in Holborn, London, in 1858. He was Vice-President 
of the Institute of Painters in Water Colours, and a 
frequent exhibitor at the Royal Academy. Among his 
best known works are " Love's Young Dream," and 
" Ruins of the Sallyport, Framlingham." 

William Mulready, R.A., born at Ennis, in 1786 ; died 
in London, 1863. In its obituary notice of him, the 
Art Journal wrote : " . . . There is nothing in the whole 
range of Dutch and Flemish art that can be brought 
into comparison with most of his paintings for truth of 
drawing, elaborate finish, and splendour of colouring. . ." 

J. A. O'Connor, born in Dublin in 1791 ; died in 
London, 1841. He was a natural genius, and self-taught, 
but his work — chiefly rustic Irish landscape — put to 
shame the paintings of many of the members of the 
Royal Academy. 

Sir Martin Archer Shee, P.R.A., born in Dublin, 1769 ; 
died in Brighton, 1850. He had a far-reaching reputation 
as a fashionable portrait painter, and, in addition, 
achieved some note by his novel, Old Court. 

Clarkson Stanfield, R.A., born in England, but of 
Irish parentage, 1793 ; died in London, 1867. He 
was famous as a landscape painter. Among his best 
known works are : " Market Boats on the Scheldt," 
" Battle of Trafalgar," " Guidecca," " Venice," " Como," 
and " Sands near Boulogne." 

Prior to the nineteenth century there were no Irish 
musicians of any note in England. During the nineteenth 
century there were two- 
Michael William Balfe, born at 10 Pitt Street, Dublin, 
1808; died at Rowney Abbey, Herts, 1870. He is 


famous as the composer of the celebrated operas : / 
Rivali ; The Light of Other Days, and The Bohemian 

William Henry Kearns, born in Dublin, 1794 ; died 
in England, 1846. He was a well-known musical com- 
poser in his day, was for thirty years a member of the 
orchestra at Her Majesty's, Covent Garden, and was 
organist of the Verulam Episcopal Chapel, Lambeth. 

In addition to the foregoing list of actors and actresses, 
artists and musicians, Ireland can lay claim to two of 
the most beautiful and two of the most remarkable 
women of the eighteenth century, namely, the Gunnings, 
and Lady Eleanor Butler and Miss Sarah Ponsonby. 

Maria Gunning, born in 1733, and Elizabeth Gunning, 
born in 1734, natives of Co. Roscommon, were the 
daughters of John Gunning, of Castlecoote. Coming to 
Dublin when they were 16 and 15 years of age, respec- 
tively, with the intention of going on the stage, they 
were introduced to Thomas Sheridan, who provided them 
with dresses and was instrumental in getting them 
presented at the Castle. Their extraordinary beauty 
causing a great sensation in Dublin, they came to London 
with introductions to various leaders of Society, and 
were immediately the sole topic of conversation at Court. 
Never before had such loveliness been seen in England. 
When they entered the presence of Royalty, members 
of the nobility, usually so haughty and reserved, behaved 
like schoolboys, scrambling and pushing and even climbing 
on chairs and tables to get a sight of them. Seven 
hundred people on one occasion sat up all night outside 
an inn to see them ride by in the morning ; whilst Maria 
was obliged to have a guard of soldiers to keep the 


crowd back whenever she appeared in public. At her 
death over 10,000 people besought permission to see the 
outside of her coffin. 

Horace Walpole, as great a connoisseur of women as 
he was a politician, wrote of them thus : " ... two 
Irish girls of no fortune, who made more noise than any 
of their predecessors since the days of Helen, and who 

are declared the handsomest women alive " In 

February, 1752, Elizabeth Gunning married the Duke of 
Hamilton, and in March of the same year Maria married 
the Earl of Coventry. Of the many stories told of these 
two sisters, the following is perhaps the most amusing. 
On being asked by the old and ever-ogling George II 
if she were not sorry there were to be no more masquerades, 
Maria replied artlessly, " No, I am tired of them. Indeed, 
I am surfeited with most London sights. The only thing I 
have not seen and that I really want to see is a coronation." 
Maria did not live to have her wish gratified ; she died 
exactly a fortnight before George II, from blood poisoning, 
due to the over-use of white paint as a cosmetic. Elizabeth 
became a widow in 1758, but speedily consoled herself by 
marrying John Campbell, who became Duke of Argyll in 
1770. She died 20th December, 1790. 

In character, though highly virtuous, neither of the 
Gunnings was particularly interesting, and Boswell, in 
his Tour of the Hebrides, complained bitterly of the cold 
and almost rude way in which Elizabeth treated him, 
when he and Dr. Johnson visited her and her husband, 
the Duke of Argyll, in Norway. Owing to such defects 
of disposition, it cannot be said that these sisters were 
any great credit to Ireland. Only one small service did 
they render to their country, namely, they made the 


English realize — what all Europe had long before acknow- 
ledged — that, where beauty was concerned, the Irish 
women had no superiors, and few, if any, compeers. 

Lady Eleanor Charlotte Butler, daughter of the 
sixteenth Earl of Ormonde, born in Ireland, about 1745 ; 
died in Wales, 1829 ; and Miss Sarah Ponsonby, born in 
Ireland, about 1745 ; died in Wales, 1831. These two 
ladies are notorious as the female Damon and Pythias, 
having formed a romantic attachment for each other 
in Ireland, and together with Betty Caryll, their Irish 
maid, eloped to Llangollen in 1778, where they lived 
till their deaths. They were universally known as " The 
Ladies of Llangollen." No instance of a more remark- 
able, a more devoted, friendship, than that of these 
three for each other, has ever been recorded. 



Of the Irish men and women of note in England to-day, 
none are more active than the authors and actors. 

As has already been stated, the literary movement in 
Ireland began with the creation of the National Literary 
Society in 1891, which gave birth, in 1899, to the Irish 
Literary Theatre. To say for certain who actually 
started the idea of an Irish Literary Theatre is obviously 
impossible, since a variety of persons — amongst whom 
no one in particular stands out — are all equally associated 
with its foundation. Those who had most to do with it 
in its initial stage were : Messrs. W. B. Yeats, Edward 
Martyn and George Moore, Miss Maud Gonne (whose 
extraordinary ardour, ability and beauty would surely 
make any cause go strong), and Lady Gregory. As one 
will rightly conclude from this list of illustrious names, 
the Irish Literary Theatre was not instituted primarily 
as a money-making project. It was intended to be 
purely literary and artistic — to specialize in plays wholly 
Irish in substance and broadly National in treatment ; 
and to act as a counterfoil to the poor class of English 
play performed in Ireland by travelling companies of 
mediocre talent. Among those who came forward as 
guarantors to the enterprise were : John O'Leary, William 
O'Brien, Miss Maud Gonne, Lord Ardilaun, Lord O'Brien 
and Lord Dufferin. 

The opening performance was given on May 6th, 



1899, at the Antient Concert Rooms, Dublin ; and the 
piece performed on that occasion was The Countess 
Cathleen, by Mr. Yeats, which Mr. George Moore, in his 
introduction to The Heather Field and Maeve, by Edward 
Martyn (London : Duckworth, 1899), in somewhat 
exaggerated language describes asa" play possessing all 
the beauties of the Princess Maleine, and the beauty of 
verses equal to the verses of Homer." 

The production of the play did not bring about the 
happy result that was expected. The mere fact of its 
being performed by an English Company was disappoint- 
ing ; and those who had hoped to see Irish players 
would not accept the excuse that no such players could 
be found, since in London alone there were Irish actors 
galore, who would gladly have offered their services had 
they only been informed in time that there was need of 
them. As a matter of fact, it was not until this first 
performance was over that any information with regard 
to it was published, and the question why, in the produc- 
tion of a so-called National piece, English instead of Irish 
performers were engaged, was immediately discussed. 
At the same time, Cardinal Logue and many other 
Roman Catholics objected to the play on the score that 
it was Anti-Catholic, and, to quote from Maurice 
Bourgeois' Life of J. M. Synge (Constable & Co., 1913), 
" Public feeling ran so high that the police had to be 
brought in, and the unlooked-for attacks were renewed 
five years later in a pamphlet published by an ex-M.P." 
The pamphlet referred to was The Stage Irishman of the 
Pseudo-Celtic Drama, and the ex-M.P., Mr. Frank Hugh 
O'Donnell. There were many who agreed with Mr. 
O'Donnell, and considered his scathing criticisms by no 

10— (2339) 


means undeserved. Subsequent performances, however, 
met with greater success — such plays as The Heather 
Field and The Bending of the Bough, by Edward 
Martyn and Geo. Moore respectively, and The Last of 
the Fianna, by Miss Alice Milligan, proving immensely 

But, unhappily, as time went on, the same extra- 
ordinary disinclination to secure Irish players was 
noticeable, and this, coupled with the fact that the bulk 
of the plays were as foreign as the players themselves, 
soon estranged the audiences. 

If an Irishman, who is told a National Theatre has been 
started, goes to that theatre, he naturally expects to see 
Irish players as well as Irish plays, and if, instead, he 
sees Mr. Jones, who is English, in Diarmuid and 
Grania, which is Irish, he is naturally a trifle irritated ; 
hence the Irish Literary Theatre, started with all the 
best intentions in the world, was a comparative failure, 
and lasted only three years. It was then, when the 
National Literary Theatre was no more, that Mr. Frank 
Fay, and his brother, Mr. William G. Fay, according to 
Mr. Bourgeois, first conceived the idea " of forming a 
company of Irish-born players." Mr. Frank Fay was 
at the time a writer for The United Irishman, and Mr. 
W. G. Fay, who had been a professional actor but had 
temporarily quitted the stage, was following the vocation 
of an electrician. Both brothers were very keenly 
interested in the drama, and acted in amateur companies. 
In 1902, Mr. W. G. Fay's " Irish National Dramatic 
Company " — composed of amateurs — acted Mr. W. B. 
Yeats' Kathleen ni Houlihan at St. Teresa's Hall, Claren- 
don Street, Dublin. No play that is purely Irish has 


perhaps a greater and more distinctive charm than this ; 
and no professional actress could have played the title 
role more perfectly than Miss Maud Gonne, who was in 
every way suited to the part. Shortly afterwards, 
Kathleen ni Houlihan, with Deirdre, was produced at the 
Samhain Festival. The Irish National Dramatic Com- 
pany, still under the management of the Fays, then 
removed to the Antient Concert Rooms, where it pro- 
duced in turn The Racing Lug, by Seumas O'Cuisin ; A 
Pot of Broth, by W. B. Yeats > and The Laying of the 
Foundations, by Fred Ryan. Further developments 
were in progress. The Irish National Dramatic Company 
became " The Irish National Theatre Society " ; it 
again removed its headquarters — this time to the Moles- 
worth Hall, Camden Street, Dublin ; and for its first 
President elected Mr. W. B. Yeats. 

It was at the Molesworth Hall, that Mr. J. M. Synge 
made his debut as a dramatist ; The Shadow of the Glen 
and Riders to the Sea being the first of his plays to 
be performed. Several other of his pieces were also 
produced with more or less success ; and then Miss 
A. E. F. Horniman, an English actress, well-known in 
connection with her Repertory Companies, came forward, 
and not only allowed the Irish National Theatre Society 
a small yearly sum, but, at her own expense, renovated 
the old theatre of the Mechanics' Institute in Abbey 
Street, Dublin, and lent it rent free to the Irish National 
Theatre Society. This theatre now goes by the name of 
the Abbey Theatre, and its reputation has been estab- 
lished, not only throughout the British Isles, but all over 
the Continent. It has always aimed — and still aims — 
at the highest standard of acting ; and, if it has not yet 


quite succeeded in reaching that standard, it shows every 
sign of doing so at no very distant date. 

The chief desire of the actors of the Abbey Theatre is 
to be natural — to be life-like. The English stage calls 
in the aid of stage accessories — much scenery and magni- 
ficent costumes — to bolster up its acting ; the Abbey 
Theatre dispenses with all but the absolutely scenic 
essentials, and relies solely on the ability of its 

A London audience, much influenced in its taste by 
the large Jewish element, looks for fine clothes ; hence, 
English actresses are not only supposed to act, but are 
expected to be models of fashion — and grand stage effects. 
If it does not get them, it is bitterly disappointed and 
the play is at once damned. A production to be successful 
in London must show signs of opulence. In Ireland it 
is otherwise. An Irish audience sets its heart on good 
acting ; it regards a spectacular display on the stage as 
out of place, and superfineness in costumes as vulgar and 

In London no manager will engage an actor whose 
trousers are frayed and whose heels are worn down. He 
considers the clothes first and the acting afterwards — he 
cannot do otherwise — his audience makes him a snob. 
In Abbey Street, Dublin, the actor comes first, his clothes 
are merely secondary. With regard to the plays at the 
Abbey Theatre, they are national — national, but not 
political, that is to say, they deal for the most part with 
Irish rural life and with any Irish subjects that are non- 
controversial. The founding of the Abbey Theatre was 
soon followed by that of other Irish dramatic organiza- 
tions all over Ireland. The best known of them are : 


" The Theatre of Ireland," " The Leinster Stage Society/' 
" The National Players," " The Ulster Literary Theatre," 
and " The Gaelic Repertory Theatre." This year a 
company of Irish players from the Abbey Theatre visited 
England, and delighted audiences at the Court Theatre 
with their inimitable representations of Irish life and 

Among those who at one time or another were members 
of the Abbey Theatre, and who are now well known in 
London are : Miss Sara Allgood, Miss Maire O'Neill, 
Miss Eileen O'Doherty and Mr. W. G. Fay. Mr. Fay's 
rendering of the Irish Editor in Mr. George A. Birming- 
ham's (the Rev. J. O. Hannay) amusing play General 
John Regan, at the Apollo Theatre, London, in 1913, 
was a masterpiece. It is difficult to conceive that anyone 
could have performed it better. Among the many other 
Irish actors and actresses in England to-day whose 
acting deserves special notice are : Mr. Leonard Boyne, 
who will never cease to charm, and who never acted 
better than he did last year in General John Regan ; 
Miss Cathleen Nesbitt, one of the prettiest and most 
talented actresses on the British stage to-day, who, 
before she appeared in England, was acting with con- 
siderable success at the Plymouth Theatre, Eliot Street, 
Boston, U.S.A. ; Miss Ellen O'Malley, an actress of great 
ability, who is now appearing at the Criterion Theatre, 
London ; Miss G. L. Robins, who combines great beauty 
with talent, and who, in addition to acting, has written 
several plays, including Makeshifts ; Realities ; and The 
Home-Coming ; Mr. Sheil Barry, a brilliant actor who 
has appeared with signal success in a number of plays in 
London; Miss Lilian McCarthy (Mrs. Granville Barker), 


who is one of the leading actresses in London and has 
played innumerable leading roles, including " Lady 
Norma," in The War God ; " Jocasta," in Oedipus Rex, and 
" Judith Main waring," in The Morals of Marcus (she is 
now appearing in Mr. Arnold Bennett's play, The Great 
Adventure, at the Kingsway Theatre) ; and Miss Marion 
McCarthy, sister of Miss Lilian McCarthy, and herself a 
distinguished actress, who is now preparing pupils for 
the stage. 

In the musical world there is a large increase of Irish 
composers and performers — too large to enumerate here. 
It will be sufficient to say that among the better known 
are Sir Charles Villiers Stanford, the great composer ; 
Mr. John MacCormack, who has made a big name in 
Opera ; Miss K. Barry, musical and lyrical composer ; 
and Mr. Harry Plunket Greene, famous as a singer. 

Of present-day Irish writers, whose works or plays 
have been published or performed in England, or who 
have visited or resided in England, Mr. W. B. Yeats and 
the late Mr. John Millington Synge are the best known. 
Mr. W. B. Yeats, who is, perhaps, Ireland's greatest 
present-day poet, is author of innumerable plays, in- 
cluding the beautiful and symbolic Kathleen ni Houlihan ; 
On the King's Threshold, and A Pot of Broth. Mr. Yeats 
is second to no British dramatist of the day, either in 
characterization, incident or dialogue ; and in beauty of 
sentiment he stands practically alone. Of his poems, 
the general standard is so excellent that it is difficult 
to point out any special one ; in his volume of lyrics, 
In the Seven Woods, he has given us something of surpass- 
ing loveliness — something without a rival in present-day 


The late Mr. John Millington Synge is the author of 
In the Shadow of the Glen ; Riders to the Sea ; The Tinker's 
Wedding, and several other plays. Much of Mr. Synge's 
work deals with tramps and peasant life, and, though no 
doubt he had an intimate knowledge of both, the charac- 
terization must strike a Celt as somewhat exaggerated 
and unnatural. From the dramatic point of view, the 
plays are wonderfully effective — indeed, if effect was 
what inspired the author, he succeeded admirably — and 
there is much in the dialogue that denotes great genius, 
and gives the actor fine opportunities ; but one looks 
for more than that in a first-class production ; one looks 
for truth. Mr. Synge presents a side of life with which 
we are not acquainted — peasant women who marry with 
an eye to money or property, and who, before the breath 
is out of their first husband's body, again try to marry 
someone rich, and, not succeeding, run off with a tramp. 
Indeed, Synge's women possess little of that fidelity and 
true love that most of us, who have lived among the 
Celtic peasants, have seen in them in such a marked 
degree. There is also too much horror, too much of the 
super-gruesome in some of his pieces, and his characters 
are not Celtic but Italian. Mr. Bourgeois, in his Life of 
Synge, gives us to understand that the latter made an 
especial study of Irish peasant life, and, after seeing one 
of Mr. Synge's plays, one must certainly admit that what 
Mr. Bourgeois has led us to think is correct. Mr. Synge's 
plays give one the impression of study. One would like 
to see in them less suggestion of study and more evidence 
of nature. Yet, withal, Mr. Synge's work has in it much 
that is poetical and beautiful, much that recalls to us 
the soft, moist atmosphere of the Irish hills and moors, 


and he must certainly be classified in the front ranks 
of twentieth century British dramatists. 

Then there is the Rev. James O. Hannay, who, under 
the pseudonym of " George A. Birmingham," has given 
us that wholesome and amusing play, General John 
Regan, which, if a little burlesque and exaggerated, 
reveals a sly humour and abounds in cleverly farcical 
situations. Canon Hannay is a novelist and essayist, too. 
His novel, Spanish Gold, compares very favourably in 
literary merit with most of the better class works published 
in England to-day, whilst his articles in the newspapers 
are witty and entertaining. 

Mr. George W. Russell, more familiarly spoken of as 
" A.E.," is a poet, dramatist, journalist, painter, artist, 
and a great psychologist. He is editor of the Irish 
Homestead, has great ideas concerning the possibilities 
of the Irish peasant, and is generally deemed one of the 
most able all-round writers at the present moment in 
Ireland, where he has even more admirers than he has 
in England. 

Another brilliant all-round Irish writer is Mr. George 
Moore, novelist, poet, dramatist, essayist. Among his 
many works the following are especially conspicuous : 
Flowers of Passion; Pagan Poems; A Modern Lover; 
Confessions of a Young Man; Esther Waters; and his 
essays The Untilled Field. 

Yet another Irish writer, who is well known on both 
sides of the Channel, is Lady Gregory, who, in addition 
to several plays, has published a variety of works, 
touching mostly upon Irish topics. 

Then there are : Mr. Frank Frankfort Moore, dramatist 
and novelist, author of A March Hare (play) ; The Secret 


of the Court (novel), and innumerable other plays and 
novels ; Mr. Stephen Gwynn, M.P., essayist, critic and 
poet, whose numberless works include Highways and 
Byways in Donegal and Antrim; To-day and To-morrow 
in Ireland ; A Lay of Ossian and Patrick, and John Max- 
wells Marriage : Mr. P. W. Joyce, whose Social History 
of Ancient Ireland is a very scholarly production : the 
Right Hon. Thos. J. Macnamara, M.P., P.C., contributor 
of many essays and articles to the Contemporary , Fort- 
nightly, Nineteenth Century and other leading magazines ; 
Martin Ross (Miss Violet Martin), who, in collaboration 
with Edith Somerville, has written many charming tales 
and sketches of Irish life, including An Irish Cousin; All 
on the Irish Shore, and The Silver Fox : Seumas MacManus, 
author of The Leadin' Road to Donegal ; 'Twas in Dhroll 
Donegal ; Donegal Fairy Tales, and many other books and 
tales, mostly dealing with Ireland : Padraic MacCormac 
Colm, author of Broken Soil : Mr. Alfred Harmsworth, 
now Lord Northcliffe, famous as the organizer and head 
of the biggest journalistic combine in the world : Mr. 
Douglas Hyde, author of Love Songs of Connacht ; A 
Literary History of Ireland, and The Tinker and the 
Fairy (to show his zeal for the advancement of Irish 
literature, Mr. Douglas Hyde has made considerable use 
of the national language in his poems) : Mr. Coulson 
Kernahan, author of A Dead Man's Diary ; Captain 
Shannon ; The Red Peril, and many other novels : Richard 
Barry O'Brien, author of Fifty Years of Concessions to 
Ireland ; Irish Wrongs and English Remedies ; Thomas 
Drummond ; Life of Charles Stewart Parnell, and many 
other works : Miss Moira O'Neill, author of The Elf- 
Errant; Songs of the Glens of Antrim, etc. : Mr. T. P. 


O'Connor, M.P., late editor of the Sun and Weekly Sun, 
editor of M.A.P., and T.P.'s Weekly, and author of a 
large number of books and articles (his works include 
Lord Beacons field ; The Parnell Movement, and Gladstone s 
House of Commons) : Frank Hugh Macdonald O'Donnell, 
ex-M.P., author of The Message of the Masters ; The Ruin 
of Irish Education and the Irish Fanar, and Paraguay on 
Shannon (Mr. Frank Hugh O'Donnell is one of the prime 
movers in the " Clean Government League ") : C. J. 
O'Donnell, ex-M.P., and author of various books, prin- 
cipally on India, including The Causes of Present Dis- 
content in India : Mrs. B. M. Croker, who has written a 
large number of novels, several on Indian life, including 
Pretty Miss Neville ; Diana Barrington, and The Spanish 
Necklace : Miss Katherine Tynan (Mrs. Katherine Tynan 
Hinkson), poetess, and novelist, who includes in her 
numerous publications The Dear Irish Girl ; A Union of 
Hearts ; That Sweet Enemy ; Collected Poems, and New 
Poems : Miss Petronella O'Donnell, whose volumes of 
poems published a year or two ago, met with such a 
favourable reception at the hands of the critics : Mr. D. 
J. O'Donoghue, editor of Poems of Clarence Mangan ; 
Mr. Michael Macdonagh, author of Life of Daniel O'Connell; 
The Book of Parliament, and numerous other books and 
articles : Mr. Standish O 'Grady, deemed by many to be 
the finest prose writer at present in the British Isles, who, 
among many other works, all characterized by their 
simple, straightforward strength and conciseness, has 
published The History of Ireland, Heroic Period ; The 
History of Ireland, Crit. and Philos. ; Finn and His 
Companions ; The Chain of Gold, and The Coming of 
Cuculain ; Mr. James Stephens, poet and novelist, whose 


work is of a very high literary standard, and who is 
expected to make for himself an even greater reputation 
than he has already achieved (he is at present best known, 
perhaps, in England by his novel, The Crock of Gold) ; 
the late Oscar Fingal O'Flahertie Wills Wilde, poet, 
essayist, and dramatist, author of The Importance of 
Being Earnest ; De Profundis, and many other works of 
a world-wide reputation ; the late Mrs. Charlotte Eliza 
Lawson (better known as Mrs. J. H. Riddell), one of the 
most prolific novel writers of the day, the best known of 
her publications being The Moors and Fens, and Austin 
Friars ; the late Mrs. Elizabeth Thomasina Toulmin 
Smith (better known by her nom de guerre, L. T. Meade), 
the most prolific writer of girls' stories, novels, and serials, 
and at one time editress of Atalanta ; the late Mrs. K. C. 
Thurston, author of several novels, the best known of 
which, John Chilcote, M.P., proved widely popular ; the 
late Justin McCarthy, M.P., author of Fair Saxon ; Dear 
Lady Disdain, and other novels, as well as many works, 
chiefly historical, including A History of Our Own Times ; 
Sir William Howard Russell, LL.D., famous as the first 
Times War Correspondent, and author of Dr. Brady, and 
other novels ; E. Temple Thurston, the author of many 
plays and novels, including The City of Beautiful Non- 
sense ; The Apple of Eden, and The Greatest Wish (the 
latter performed at the Garrick Theatre, was a drama- 
tization of his wife's phenomenally successful novel, 
John Chilcote, M.P.) ; Sir Arthur Conan Doyle, author of 
The White Company and Rodney Stone, but best known 
by his series of short detective stories, entitled The 
Adventures of Sherlock Holmes ; Mr. Bryan O'Donnell, 
author of many books, chiefly historical, and translations, 


and a brilliant speaker ; and Mr. Bernard Shaw, who is 
certainly the most widely-discussed writer of this — and 
perhaps of any other — period. Indeed, if popularity is 
any criterion of literary merit, then Mr. Shaw's plays 
have reached a degree of excellence surpassing that of 
any other writer, hardly, even, excepting Shakespeare ; 
for not merely half London, not only half England, but 
nearly all Europe goes to see them. Whether the Bernard 
Shaw vogue, which has now become universal, will last, is 
another question, and one that posterity alone can settle. 
There are many other well-known Irish writers, a list 
of whose works may be seen in The Literary Year Book. 
The main characteristic of Irish twentieth century 
literature is its tendency to be national. Apart from the 
fact that every year sees a slight increase in the number 
of books written in Gaelic, most of the books written by 
Irishmen deal with Irish character, situations and senti- 
ment. The average literary standard of the Irish author 
has never been higher than it is to-day. It compares 
more than favourably with that of the English and 
American, even if it does not quite come up to that of 
the French author. But, whilst in the dialogue and 
characterization of the Irish author there is spontaneity 
and brilliance, whilst there is music and poetry in many 
of his most popular productions, there is in them some- 
thing one does not expect to find in the works of a Celtic 
Irishman — and what one did not find in the Banim's, nor 
Carleton's, nor Lever's — namely, an unpleasantness in the 
love-making and in the women. The modern craving 
for independence — spiritual, mental, physical, and social 
independence — is, undoubtedly, responsible for this un- 
pleasantness. To be independent, absolutely independent 


of everyone and everything, is the motto of the twentieth 
century, and nowhere has it " caught on " more readily 
than in Ireland and England, where it is everywhere 
reflected in books and plays. It is a selfish motto, a 
demoralizing motto ; and it may become a dangerous 
motto — dangerous to the happiness of the individual and 
to the State. 

Besides the tendency in much of the literature of 
to-day to shock and break down the old-time principles 
and conventions of morality, there is in it a dearth of 
real originality and naturalness ; and, although many 
of the less popular of the Irish writers possess these 
qualities, those that command the biggest public do not 
possess them, and seek to cloak their deficiency by 
" over-smart " dialogue and " over-clever " character 

These remarks apply only to the novelists and drama- 
tists ; with the essayists it is otherwise. They are, for 
the most part, merely too academic ; too much influenced 
by the university. Their work, though often faultlessly 
correct in composition, is too full of classicisms — too 
stilted, too imitative, too unnatural. It lacks ease and 
freshness ; it is highly literary, but it is not creative. 
Only in the non-academic Irish essayists — who are, 
unfortunately, few — is there the richness of creation one 
ought to find in every Irish author. 

The most popular, if not the most meritorious, of the 
Irish artists in England at the present time are : John 
Lavery, R.S.A., R.H.A., A.R.A., H.R.O.I., a native of 
Belfast, whose pictures are hung in galleries all over the 
world ; and William Orpen, A.R.A., R.H.A., a prominent 
member of the New English Art Club. 


Of present-day Irishmen in England distinguished in 
other walks of life, there are many, far too many to be 
mentioned in this work. Possibly the majority of these 
are Anglo-Irish, but the Celtic element, as a reference to 
Who's Who will attest, form a very large proportion. 

Apropos of the war with Germany now in progress — a 
war which is as warmly supported in Ireland as in England 
— it may be remembered that, as in the past so in the 
present, a large percentage of the officers and men in the 
English Army and Navy are Irish. The best known 
among them are : Admiral Lord Charles Beresford, 
Admiral Sir George Astley Callaghan, Admiral Beatty, 
the late Field-Marshal Earl Roberts, Field-Marshal Sir 
John French, Major-General Sir Luke O'Connor, K.C.B., 
V.C., and General Sir F. R. Maunsell, K.C.B. The late 
Field-Marshal Lord Wolseley and Field-Marshal Sir 
George White, who performed such meritorious service 
in the Egyptian and South African Wars respectively, 
were also Irish ; Lord Kitchener of Khartoum, who is now 
officiating at the War Office, was born in Co. Kerry, 
but, unhappily, the Irish cannot claim him as their 
countryman, since his parentage is undoubtedly English. 



The date of Ireland's earliest associations with the Welsh, 
a remote one, may even be assigned to pre-missionary 
days, when the Irish chieftains used to land in Wales 
merely to maraud, to hunt, and to make love. The 
first of the well-authenticated visits of an individual 
Irishman to Wales is that of Niall of the Nine Hostages, 
recorded in the works of the Four Masters. This visit 
was made between the years a.d. 379-400, and was 
followed by the visits of various missionaries — St. Finen, 
St. Columcille, St. Finan, and others, who passed through 
Wales on their way to Iona, Lindisfarne, and Glastonbury. 
In the wars which at various times were waged by 
the inhabitants of Wales against the Anglo-Saxons, 
several Irish chieftains rendered great assistance in 
driving back the invaders ; thus helping to maintain 
Welsh independence. In 1243, however, when Ireland 
had established a more or less friendly intercourse with 
England, Felim O'Connor, Prince of Connaught, Maurice 
Fitzgerald, and Richard Mac William Bourke headed an 
expedition, chiefly consisting of Norman-Irish, to aid 
the English in their attempt to annex Wales. In this 
campaign the Irish distinguished themselves greatly at 
the siege of Gannocke, where Bourke was killed. In 1277 
more Irish landed in Wales, and fought against Llewelyn 
in the South and David in the North ; but owing to the 
popularity of Richard II in Ireland, due to his considerate 



treatment 1 of her people, the Irish aided Owen Glen- 
dower in his rising against Henry IV, and contributed 
in no small measure to the success of Owen Glendower's 
long and desperate struggle. 

After this the Irish were not seen again in a military 
capacity in Wales, excepting when passing through it 
on their way to England to take part in the risings of 
Warbeck and Simnel, in the Wars of the Roses, the 
Civil War of 1642-1649, the " 1715," and the " 1745." 
Nor were they again particularly associated with Wales, 
till the end of the eighteenth century, when coal-fields 
were opened up in the South, and Cardiff and Newport, 
beginning to grow into something like towns, attracted 
the attention of Irish traders. The latter then came 
over, and, settling in these towns, started businesses and 
shops ; and the Irish labourer, following in their wake, 
sought and obtained employment in the mines and docks. 

One of the only serious cases of friction — there have 
been several minor ones — that have occurred in Wales 
between the natives of the country and the Irish, was 
that at Tredegar on 8th July, 1882. For a long time 
previously the labouring classes in South Wales had been 
jealous of the Irish employed in the colliery districts, and 
in the Cardiff and Newport Docks ; and taking advantage 
of the intense indignation roused throughout England at 

1 In order to ascertain the causes of discontent in Ireland, Richard 
spent nine consecutive months in the country, and in a letter to his 
Members in England, wrote thus : " In our land of Ireland, there are 
three kinds of people — wild Irish (our enemies), Irish rebels, and 
obedient English. To us and our Council, it appears that the Irish 
rebels have rebelled in consequence of the injustice and grievances 
practised towards them, for which they have been afforded no redress, 
and that, if not wisely treated and given hope of grace, they will most 
likely ally themselves with our enemies." — (Richard.) 


the murder of Lord Frederick Cavendish and Mr. Burke 
a Welsh mob attacked the Irish Colony in Red Lion 
Square, Tredegar. 

The riot lasted for some time, and many Irish were 
injured and their houses wrecked. Thanks to Mr. 
Parnell, who took the question up in Parliament with 
even more than his accustomed vigour, and insisted 
upon Mr. Harcourt taking immediate steps, the distur- 
bance was at last quelled ; but a considerable time 
elapsed before the ill-feeling entirely blew over and the 
Irish could go about their business without fear of moles- 
tation. Mr. Sullivan, brother to the Irish poet, added 
to his reputation by his brilliant defence of two Irish 
labourers, who were charged with being aggressors in 
the riot. 

Since 1882 matters have remained tolerably tranquil. 
The Irish have gone on slowly increasing in numbers, 
and to-day the colony is a very large one. 

In all, there are probably close on 100,000 Irish — the 
majority Anglo, or Scotch-Irish — in South Wales ; in 
North Wales there are nothing like so many. The 
majority are still engaged in the South Wales coal mines, 
and in the docks at Cardiff, Newport and Barry. 


If Ulster owes its present prosperity mainly to Scot- 
land, Scotland at any rate owes its name to Ulster, for 
from Ulster, somewhere about a.d. 250, came the Picts 
and Scots to the country then known as Alba ; and 
Alba subsequently took the name Scotland from Scotia, 
the home of the Scots in Antrim. 

The object of these visitors from Ulster was colonization, 

n— (2339) 


and they took a piece of territory in Argyle, which 
they named Dalriada, after one of their chieftains, Carbie 
Riada, of the Cinel Conaill. In or about a.d. 498, Fergus, 
son of Ere, King of Dalriada (also of the House of Niall 
of the Nine Hostages, and ancestor of the O'Neills, 
MacNeills, O'Donnells, MacDonnells, O'Connells, Fargus 
and others) went over from Ireland to help the settlers 
in their struggles with the natives. Finding the country 
much to his liking, Fergus sent for his brothers Lorn and 
Angus ; and all three decided to remain. Fergus took 
possession of Cantire, Lorn of the district which yet 
bears his name, whilst Angus seized Islay. Gradually 
these chiefs and their descendants extended their con- 
quests until the whole of the land north of the Clyde 
fell into the hands of these Ulstermen, who changed the 
name of the country they had conquered from Alba to 
Scotia Nova. In course of time these Picts and Scots 
became known only as the Scots, and then only as the 
Highlanders, which name was adopted in order that they 
might be distinguished from the Lowlanders, who were 
entirely of Anglo-Saxon origin and had migrated North 
from England. It will be thus seen that the Highland 
Clans, the various Macs, the Stuarts, the Ogilvies, 
Campbells, Camerons, are all of Irish descent, and came 
from precisely the same stock as the O's and Mc's. The 
Royal House of Stuart traces its genealogy to Niall of 
the Nine Hostages. 

After the arrival of Fergus, son of Ere, the next event 
of any great importance was the advent of St. Columcille, 
or Columba. Accompanied by twelve of his disciples, 
he came to visit his relative, Conal of the Cinel Conaill, 
son of Congal, King of the Scots, who, at his request, 


gave him the Island of Iona on which to build a monas- 
tery. Having accomplished this project, Columba first 
of all converted Brude, King of the Picts, and then set 
about his great task of converting the whole country. 
He and his disciples travelled across the Pictish mainland, 
the Western Islands and the Orkneys, establishing 
monasteries on their way, and not desisting from their 
work until the whole land had been traversed from end 
to end, and all its inhabitants made Christians. The 
parent House of Iona retained supreme authority not 
only over these monasteries, but over those Columba 
had established in Ireland, and those founded by his 
followers in the North of England. 

One of the many acts done by Columba in Scotland 
was that of consecrating Aidan, the successor of Conal, 
an authentic record of which is inscribed on the Lia Fail, 
or Stone of Destiny, brought from Ireland to Alba by 
Fergus of the Cinel Conaill, first King of the Scots. It 
is now under the Coronation Chair in Westminster 
Abbey. One of the most important events in Scottish 
history is connected with Columba. During the early 
part of Aidan' s reign, a meeting was held by the Cinel 
Conaill in Drum-Ceath, Ireland, to consider the question 
of levying an annual tax on the Scots in Alba, as it was 
adjudged by some only right and proper that they should 
do something for the mother country, in return for all 
the mother country had done for them. The tax was 
strongly opposed by Aidan, who referred to St. Columba, 
and the latter gave his verdict in favour of Aidan. So 
highly was Columba esteemed by his relatives, that his 
counsel was at once accepted, and Alba was pronounced 
freed from Ireland. It was thus due to the great Irish 


saint and his relatives, the Cinel Conaill, that the Scots 
first gained their independence and became a separate 
nation. There were at that time four tribes in Scotia 
Nova — the Picts and Scots holding the greater part of the 
country, the Britons still retaining Strathclyde, and the 
Anglo-Saxons Northumbria. 

To the end of his life St. Columba continued to visit 
various parts of Scotland, particularly the neighbourhood 
of the Clyde. In 593 his health began to fail, but so 
great was his vitality, that, though hardly able to move, 
he lived on to the year 597, when he died, a little after 
midnight, as he knelt before the altar of his church in 
Iona. The identical copy of the Psalms alleged by some 
to have been the cause of the rupture between St. Columba 
and St. Finnian, and the subsequent battle of Cuildrevne, 
a.d. 561, has remained ever since St. Columba's death in 
the possession of the O'Dohmnaills (O'Donnells) ; Sir 
Richard O'Donnell, Bart., of the branch of Niall Garv 
O'Donnell, presenting it to the National Library in 

This copy of the Psalms, one of the oldest manuscripts 
in existence, is supposed by many to have been compiled 
by St. Columba, and also in connection with the latter 
may be mentioned the Banshee, which is thought by 
some to owe its origin to the battle of Cuildrevne, and 
to have been the spirit, either of the mother or wife of 
one of the chieftains killed in it. Those, however, who 
have actually seen the Banshee, describe the head as of 
a type one cannot imagine contemporary with Columba, 
and are inclined to attribute it — if at all to anything that 
was ever human — to a type belonging to a prehistoric 


After St. Columba's death the friendly relationship 
between Alba and Ireland was continued. In 843 the 
two tribes of the Picts and Scots amalgamated, and 
Kenneth — a lineal descendant of Fergus — was elected 
King. Alba then, for the first time, became known as 
Scotland. The Danes were now a great trouble to the 
Scots ; neither coast was free from them ; they landed 
on the East direct from Scandinavia, and they came to 
the West from their settlements in Ireland ; which 
country they had begun to infest in a.d. 795. The Irish 
were too much harassed themselves to be of much assis- 
tance to the Scots, but several small expeditions were, 
from time to time, dispatched from Ulster, and these 
met with varying fortunes. 

In 937 Constantine, King of the Scots, made friendly 
overtures to the Danes, and, together with the Strath- 
clyde Welsh, assisted Anlaff and his Irish Northmen 
against the English at Brunanburgh. This good turn 
on Constantine's part met with ill-response, for in a.d. 
985, the Danes invaded Iona, and on Christmas Eve, 
when the bells of the monastery were ringing out tidings 
of " Peace on earth and goodwill towards men," suddenly 
burst in on the affrighted priests and slew, in the most 
barbarous fashion, the abbot and fifteen of his servitors. 
So indignant were the Scots and Irish at this massacre 
that a joint expedition was got up between the two 
countries. Iona was re-taken and 300 of the Danes 
were killed. The vacancies caused by the death of these 
monks were mostly filled by men direct from the mother 
country, which had never ceased keeping in close touch 
with Iona. Among those who had recently gone over 
from Ireland to fill posts in the Alban church 


were Kentigern, Bishop of Glasgow, and Maldulf, who 
afterwards went South and founded Malmesbury Abbey. 

The year 1014 was made memorable by the total 
defeat of the Danes by Brian Boroihme (Boru) at Clontarf, 
a victory that caused almost as much rejoicing in Scotland 
as in Ireland. On the Northmen's side there had fought 
every available Dane in Ireland, the Orkneys, and the 
Hebrides, together with Danes from Scandinavia, and 
certain Irish chieftains dissatisfied with the regime of 
Brian. Among the latter were Maelmordha, King of 
Leinster, Dunlaing (ancestor of the O'Tooles) and 
Brogarbhan, tanist of Offaly. On Brian's side had 
fought Malachy, Brian's former enemy and late King of 
all Ireland, with all the forces of Munster and South 
Connaught, and levies from the Eo-ganachts of Scotland. 
The two armies, consisting of the flower of Denmark, 
Ireland and Scotland, met on Good Friday, April 23rd, 
a sinister day, according to astrologists, and a titanic 
contest ensued. The Danes and their allies lost close on 
7,000 killed ; but for full particulars of the battle reference 
should be made to a work entitled The Wars of the 
Gaedhill with the Gaill. 

Other events tending to show the friendly feelings that 
existed between the Irish and the Scots were the sending 
of an Irish expedition to Scotland to help Somerled, 
Lord of the Isles, and ancestor of the MacDonalds, in his 
struggle against the feudal system ; and the visit, in 
1250, of Donnell Oge, the son of Donnell More O'Donnell, 
to Scotland, to the Court of his kinsman, the Scottish 
King, to complete his education. On his return to 
Ireland, Donnell Oge was elected Chief of the Cinel 


In 1295, and again in 1298, Irish expeditions went 
over to Scotland to help the Scots against Edward I ; 
and in 1315, Robert Bruce, as the oldest living descendant 
of Fergus, son of Ere, and thus the rightful representative 
of the old Irish-Scottish Colony, was invited by the Irish 
in Ireland to be their King. He refused, but transferred 
the invitation to his brother Edward, who went over to 
Ireland, accompanied by the Earl of Moray and 6,000 
men, and took the field against the Anglo-Irish, or Pro- 
English party under Richard de Burgh, the so-called 
Earl of Ulster. The chief events of the campaign were 
briefly these : The occupation of Dundalk by Bruce and 
the patriotic army in August ; the defeat of De Burgh by 
Bruce at the battle of Connor, on 10th September ; the 
fruitless siege of Carrickfergus, whither part of De Burgh's 
force had retreated, which lasted from 30th September 
to the end of the year ; the defeat of Edmund Butler, 
the Anglo-Norman justiciary and forbear of the Ormondes, 
at Ardskull, near Athy, by Bruce, in the spring of 1316 ; 
the wholesale rout of Sir Roger Mortimer, another Anglo- 
Norman, at Kells, by Bruce, also in the spring of 1316 ; 
the crowning of Bruce at Dundalk by the great clans as 
King of all Ireland, May, 1316 ; the arrival of Robert 
Bruce with reinforcements from Scotland, in or about 
June, 1316 ; the capture of Castleknock by the two 
Bruces, 24th February, 1317 ; the capture of Dublin, 
prevented through the skill and bravery of the Mayor, 
Robert de Nottingham, March, 1317 ; the victorious 
career of the Bruces through the English pale, where the 
name of Bruce struck such terror in the hearts of the 
Anglo-Norman settlers that many of them fled to England, 
April, 1317 ; the return of Robert Bruce, who had lost 


heart at the lack of unity among the Irish chieftains, to 
Scotland, May, 1317 ; and the defeat and death of 
Edward Bruce at the battle of Faughart, 14th October, 
1318. The Anglo-Norman force, under Sir John Berming- 
ham, numbered just three times as many as that of 
Bruce's, but, in spite of this, the contest was fierce and 
protracted ; nor is it by any means certain the Anglo- 
Normans would have won, had it not been for the killing 
of Bruce at the outset of the fray by John de Maupas. 
On receipt of this news, Robert Bruce hastened to Ireland, 
but he was too late ; all that remained of his brother was 
his headless, mutilated trunk, nailed by his enemies over 
the gateway of Faughart Castle. 

After the death of Edward Bruce, and the return of 
Robert to Scotland, the next event of any note associated 
with the two countries was the arrival in Scotland of a 
Norman-Irish Brigade, officered chiefly by " Fitz's," to 
help Edward III. They took part in the battle of 
Halidon Hill, 1333, where they did no little to secure 
Edward the victory. 

From the time of St. Columba, the Cinel Conaill had 
been most constant in its visits to Scotland ; and to the 
Scottish Court. Godfrey O'Donnell, chief of the Cinel 
Conaill in 1248, invariably sojourned in Scotland, when 
he was not fighting in his own country against the 
Fitzgeralds and O'Neills ; his brother, Dohmnaill Oge, 
who succeeded him as " The O'Donnell," and was respon- 
sible for the well-known message to The O'Neill, go 
mbriadh a domhan fein ag gach fer — in English, " Every 
man ought to have his own world," — was educated in 
Scotland ; and in 1495 Hugh Duv O'Donnell paid a visit 
to James IV, who welcomed him most effusively. Between 


these two young men a compact was made that, should 
either ever be in need of help, the other should render 
him immediate assistance. They were in every respect 
kindred spirits. Both were young, romantic and chival- 
rous ; both adored women ; both loved the beauty and 
freedom of the hills and forests, and abhorred the artifi- 
cialities of their life at Court ; and both lived by the 
sword and died by the sword — James IV being slain at 
Flodden, and Hugh Duv receiving his death wounds in 
action against the O'Neills. 

The next of the O'Donnells to visit Scotland was 
Manus, Lord of Tirconnell, the son of Hugh Duv, who 
went to see his father's old friend, James IV, and took 
back to Ireland, as his third wife, the daughter of 
MacDonnell of Islay. 

His son Calvagh, with whom he quarrelled, went to 
Scotland to seek aid from his uncle, James MacDonnell, 
elder brother of Sorley Boy, whose ambition in life was 
to go back to the original cradle of the Scots and settle 
in Antrim. James MacDonnell received Calvagh favour- 
ably, and lent him troops and artillery, with which he 
returned to Ireland, and which he used so successfully 
against Manus, that he made him capitulate. Whilst in 
Scotland, Calvagh married Catherine Maclean, widow of 
Archibald Campbell, fourth Earl of Argyll, and she it 
was, who, when Calvagh was defeated and taken prisoner 
by Shane O'Neill, became the latter's mistress. 

Hugh Roe O'Donnell, grandson of Manus O'Donnell, 
and better known to history as " Red Hugh," frequently 
visited the MacDonnells of Islay, as well as the Scottish 
Court, as also did his brother Rory. Between the 
O'Neills and the Scottish branch of their Cinel, the 


MacNeills, and between the O'Neills and the Scottish 
Court, there does not appear to have been the same 
intimacy as there was between the O'Donnells, and Mac- 
Donnells, and the Kings of Scotland. Hugh, Shane, and 
Owen Roe O'Neill are all said to have visited Scotland, 
but the authentic records of their visits are few and 
meagre in the extreme. 

The Irish did not again figure prominently in Scotland 
till the great Civil War was well in progress, when an 
Irish expedition landed on the banks of the Clyde to 
support Montrose. 

This Irish Brigade rendered conspicuous service at 
Tippermuir, 1644, where their charges demoralized Lord 
Elcho's soldiers, and finally led to their rout ; at the 
capture of Perth, 1644 ; at Inverlochy, 1645, where 
Montrose defeated Argyll ; at Aldern, 1645 ; at Alford, 
1645, where they chased Baillie's grenadiers from the 
field ; at Kilsyth, 1645, where they again struck terror 
in the heart of Baillie's " crack " regiments ; and at 
Philiphaugh, 13th September, 1645, where, in the general 
rout of Montrose's army, most of them were killed. In 
this battle the remnant of Prince Rupert's Irish Brigade, 
who had fled northwards after Naseby, also took part. 
The survivors of the Irish still stuck to Montrose, and 
perished in his defeat at Corbiesdale, 21st May, 1650. 

The occasion on which the Irish next figured in Scottish 
history was the Rebellion of 1715, when a small party of 
Irishmen crossed the water and joined the Earl of Mar. 
They took part in the battle of Sheriff Muir, in which 
battle there also fought, but on the side of the English, 
a regiment of Anglo-Irish troops, chiefly recruited in 


In 1722 six Anglo-Irish regiments were sent over from 
Ireland to England, to be held in readiness for even- 
tualities in Scotland, which eventualities, however, did 
not happen ; and the great Rebellion of 1745 was wholly 
pioneered, officered and financed by the Irish, the Scots 
preferring to wait till it had progressed " a wee bit tie," 
before aiding it. The Waterses, father and son, Irish 
bankers at the time in Paris, advanced Prince Charles 
Edward 180,000 livres, whilst a large sum was contributed 
by the officers of the Irish Brigade then serving in France. 
An Irishman named Walsh, at his own expense, fitted up 
La Doutelle, a privateer of 18 guns, for the venture ; and 
the entire planning and arranging of the campaign was 
done by Sir Thomas Fitzgerald, the Prince's agent in 
Paris. Though Prince Charles Edward was nominally 
in command of the expedition, the actual command fell 
on the shoulders of his Irish Adjutant and Quarter- 
master-General, Sir John O'Sullivan, Colonel in the 
French Service. 

Colonel O'Sullivan was born in Ireland about 1700. 
Intended for the priesthood, he was educated in Paris 
and in Rome. On the death of his father he would 
probably have remained in Ireland, but being forbidden 
by the Penal Laws to reside upon his estates, without 
renouncing the Roman Catholic religion, he sold them 
and returned to France. Entering the French Army, 
he rose with remarkable rapidity, subsequently acquiring 
fame through his adoption of guerilla tactics in the 
Corsican Campaign of 1739. It was this success that 
brought him to the notice of Sir Thomas Fitzgerald, 
who recommended him to the Prince as a fitting person 
for the part of Adjutant. 


On 13th July, 1745, Prince Charles Edward and 
O'Sullivan embarked at St. Nazaire on the Loire, in La 
Doutelle. Other Irishmen of note on board La Doutelle 
were Sir Thomas Geraldine, Sir Thomas Sheridan, Colonel 
Lynch and Captain O'Neill ; and in the expedition were 
included two Irish chaplains, namely Fathers O'Reilly 
and O'Brien. 

After encountering wretched weather, which delayed 
them considerably, the small party landed at Loch- 
nanuagh on the North coast of Scotland, the first 
week in August, and on the 19th the Royal Standard was 
unfurled at Glenfinnan. A grey and dismal day, combined 
with a disappointment respecting the Highlanders, who, 
it had been hoped, would have flocked to the Royal 
Standard by the thousands, instead of by ones and twos, 
had a chilling effect on the brave expedition, and even 
the intrepid O'Sullivan, as he gazed from the great, 
gloomy mountains frowning down on them from all 
sides, to the thin, straggling line of Scots in front of him, 
felt some misgivings. That such a bare handful of men 
could turn any cause seemed impossible, and to aid that 
of the Prince, had all Scotland come, there would have 
been none too many. But O'Sullivan, like the brave 
man he was, set aside his apprehensions and prepared to 
do his best. Among the Highland chieftains present 
were Clanronald, Cameron of Lochiel, and the Laird of 
M'Leod, and their total following numbered 1,200. 
O'Sullivan took command of them, and then waited for 
reinforcements from Dunkirk. These came before very 
long — some seven or eight hundred Irish and French in 
one ship, and 1,000 more, under Drummond, in another. 
They disembarked at Montrose and joined the Prince at 


Glenfinnan. The story of the march to and from Derby- 
is well known, and, therefore, need not be recounted 
here. Much of the credit of the Prince's victories at 
Prestonpans and Falkirk lies with O' Sullivan and the 
Irish and French Brigade. O'Sullivan was the actual 
commander on each occasion, and the Irish and French 
contingent came in for the brunt of the fighting. 
Culloden, though a defeat, was far from being a disgrace 
either to O'Sullivan or his army. 

The battle, which took place on 16th April, 1746, was 
fought against tremendous odds. Not only did the 
English outnumber the Prince's force by two to one, but 
their pieces of artillery were three times as many, and 
were also of a much heavier calibre. O'Sullivan, selecting 
the spot he thought most suitable to the Highland method 
of attack, drew up his troops, consisting of 5,000 men, in 
two lines, the O 'Gil vies, Gordons and Murrays in the 
first, the Irish and French in the second line. His 
cannon he arranged as follows : four on each wing and 
four in the centre. Opposed to this array, the English 
army of 10,000 men was formed in three lines, with two 
guns between every two regiments of the first and second 
line. The action began at noon, and before evening 
half the Prince's troops were killed. The English soldiers, 
spurred on by Cumberland, " the butcher," saw red 
that day, and a general massacre of the Highlanders 
would have occurred had it not been for the Irish pickets 
and Lord Gordon's regiment, which covered the retreat 
of their companions by a well-sustained fire. 

Stapleton then led the surviving Irish and French 
from the field to Inverness, where he obtained for them 
fair and honourable terms of capitulation ; whilst 


O'Sullivan, O'Neill, and a Sedan carrier called Burke, 
followed the fugitive Prince. These three men stuck to 
Charles Edward with the most heroic and unswerving 
loyalty. When he was weary, one or the other of them 
carried him ; they foraged for food and cooked it for him ; 
they risked capture to procure wine for him ; when he 
felt the cold they gave him their clothes ; and when he 
was ill they dispensed with their own rest and tended 

Nor did they dream of leaving him until they reached 
Long Island and fell in with Flora Macdonald, in whose 
custody they deemed him safer than in their own. O'Neill 
remained within call of the Prince, whilst O'Sullivan 
hunted around for a means of getting the Prince out of 
the country. Eventually he succeeded, and on 15th 
September, 1746, L'Heureuse, a French vessel, with 
Captain Sheridan, Mr. O'Beirne, and several other 
Irishmen on board, ventured in search of the Prince, 
found him, and brought him safely away. For his 
faithful services on this occasion, O'Sullivan was knighted 
by Prince Charles Edward in 1747. The rest of his life 
passed uneventfully in France, and the exact date of 
his death is unknown. His son, Thomas, after serving 
with some distinction in the Irish Brigade in France, 
went to America, and entered the British Army. Tiring 
of the latter service, he joined the Dutch and, attaining 
the rank of Major, died at The Hague about 1824. 

Since the " 1745," Ireland's associations with Scotland 
have been entirely connected with peace. The Irish 
first began to migrate to Scotland for business purposes 
about the middle of the eighteenth century — and their 
first colony was in Glasgow. Those who were employed 


in the docks and factories congregated by the rivers, 
where their housing accommodation was of about the 
same quality as that afforded them in Liverpool. Their 
relations with the Scotch, however, with the exception 
of occasional disturbances, which, as in 1780 and 1850, 
were due to their difference in creed, have on the whole 
proved amicable, and to-day the Irish in Glasgow are 
still more numerous than in any other town in Scotland. 
One fact with regard to the Irish in Scotland that may 
not be generally known is that a large percentage of the 
rank and file of Highlander regiments are recruited from 
them — chiefly from those residing in the counties of Ayr, 
Edinburgh, and Wigton. Comparatively few High- 
landers^enter the Army nowadays, save in war time, the 
natural tendency of the Scot being to follow a more 
lucrative profession. 




In the spring of 1690, while Patrick Sarsfield was hurrying 
his green-coated battalions along the lanes of Sligo, to 
defend Galway against Ginkel's hybrid legions, there 
landed in France, to serve under Louis XIV, five regiments 
of infantry, the nucleus of what was destined to become 
the famous Irish Brigade. 

The original commanders of these regiments were 
Lieut. -General Justin McCarthy, Lord Viscount Mount- 
cashel, Colonel Daniel O'Brien, Colonel the 
Hon. Arthur Dillon, Colonel Richard Butler, and 
Colonel Robert Fielding. Directly after their disem- 
barkation, however, the force was re-organized and 
formed into three regiments, each regiment consisting 
of fifteen companies of 100 men, giving in all a total of 
about 1,600 rank and file. Lord Mountcashel com- 
manded, and the three regiments were known respectively 
as Mountcashel's, O'Brien's, and Dillon's. In Mount- 
cashel and O'Brien the Brigade had two bond fide Celts, 
members of the very oldest of the Irish clans. 

The MacCarthys belonged to the royal race of Desmond, 
who for 900 years ruled South Munster, and the O'Briens 
to the Dalcassian Princes of Thomond, who, for a similar 
period, held sway over North Munster. Both claimed 
descent from the old King of the South, Olil-Olum — the 



MacCarthys through his eldest son, Eogan, or Eugene 
More, and the O'Briens through his younger son, Cormac 
Cas ; whence it may be seen that Lord Mountcashel and 
Colonel O'Brien were kinsmen, albeit very distant ones. 

The pedigree of Colonel Arthur Dillon was very different. 
His claim to Irish lineage did not extend further than the 
Norman Invasion. The founder of the Dillons was the 
Chevalier Henry Delion of Aquitaine, who, in 1185, was 
sent over to Ireland in company with the De Burghs, 
Fitzmaurices, De la Poers, and other of Henry II's 
rapacious myrmidons. Long before the seventeenth 
century, however, the Dillons had amalgamated to such 
an extent with the old clans, that a casual observer might 
have mistaken them for Celts, and in sentiment, at least, 
they were as truly Irish as any of the O's or Mac's. 

From the moment the three regiments landed in 
France, though virtually in the service of Louis, they 
still looked upon James II as having the prior claim to 
their allegiance. There is, in fact, no more touching 
case to be found in history than the loyalty of these Irish 
soldiers to their fugitive King. 

Deprived of land and home, and forced to flee across 
the waters, they were never known to murmur, and, 
although James seldom even paid them a compliment, 
they were content to go on serving him without any 
hope of reward to the end of their days. Their uniforms, 
arms, etc., were all paid for out of their own private 
purses, for they would not touch a penny of their King's 
money, and, in order to enhance his friendship with 
Louis, they declared themselves willing to accept acknow- 
ledgment of their services in accordance with the French 
system of ordinary pay, instead of receiving the higher 

12— (2339; 


pay of foreign auxiliaries to which they were privileged. 
When this decision was made known to James, he is 
stated to have been moved to tears. It was, if we can 
believe our historians, almost the only occasion in his 
lifetime on which he showed any sign of being genuinely 

Up to the time these Irish soldiers in the service of 
France received their pay, and even to some extent 
afterwards — for the pay was ridiculously small — they had 
to depend for their food on their own private resources, 
those who had incomes generously drawing on the 
same for their less fortunate comrades. In October, 
1691, immediately after the signing of the Peace of 
Limerick, the Assembly was hastily sounded, and they 
were marched to Brest to welcome some 19,000 more of 
their fellow-countrymen, who arrived from various Irish 
ports in a motley assortment of seventy odd ships, 
ranging from three-decked men-of-war to Galway fishing 

The new-comers represented the flower of the Irish 
army that had so valiantly upheld the Stuart cause in 
Ireland throughout the desperate campaign of 1689- 
1691, against Gink el and his Dutchmen. Commanded 
in turn by Richard Talbot (the successor to the O'Donnell's 
Earldom of Tirconnell), Boiseleau, the Duke of Berwick, 
St. Ruth, D'Usson and Patrick Sarsfield, they had borne 
the brunt of the fighting at the Boyne, Athlone, Bally- 
neety, and Aughrim, and, to their everlasting credit, it is 
said that never, in the jubilation of their few well-merited 
victories, were they guilty of excesses, and never, in the 
blackest hour of their long series of hairbreadth defeats, 
were they sullied by cowardice. Irish and English 


historians alike credit them with a bravery rarely equalled 
in modern warfare, and most certainly never excelled. 
Ginkel fondly hoped that on their capitulation at Limerick 
the entire force would enlist in the service of William, 
but, to his intense mortification, only about 1,000 assem- 
bled under his banner, the remaining 19,000 announcing 
their unalterable determination to serve under the French 
flag. Compelled to vacate their homes, but allowed 
sufficient time to collect together their household goods, 
in company with their wives and children, and under the 
leadership of their old general, Sarsfield, they sailed for 
Brest. There they were joined by the three regiments 
already referred to, and the whole force thus united was 
reconstituted by James into the following divisions : 
two troops of Horse Guards, two of horse, two of dragoons 
a 'pied, that were to serve as infantry, eight regiments of 
foot, and three independent companies. To these were 
subsequently added several more infantry battalions 
formed from fresh recruits from Ireland — the Brigade, 
at its fullest strength, numbering about 30,000 men. 
The headquarters of the entire force was at Brest, but 
after a few months it moved to Paris, whence the greater 
portion of it was speedily dispatched on active service. 

Following the career of certain of the regiments, we 
will begin with the history of 


Though not actually the oldest in the Brigade, the 
Regiment of Mountcashel can claim to have been the 
first regiment of the Brigade mobilized in France. It 
was originally formed in 1683 out of a number of Irish- 
men, who volunteered for service in Tangiers, but 


was speedily recalled from Africa and disbanded. In 
1688 it was re-formed by one of its old officers, Colonel 
James Butler, and saw service under him with James's 
Army in Ireland. Butler soon resigned the command, 
Viscount Mountcashel succeeding him, and, on the 
latter's defeat at Enniskillen, what was left of the regi- 
ment, together with fragments of other regiments, took 
ship for France, there to be organized and re-organized 
within a short time of their landing. On the removal of 
the Brigade to Paris, Lord Mountcashel took supreme 
command, his regiment marching at the head of the 
infantry battalions. After remaining in Paris some 
months, just long enough for the soldiers to become 
thoroughly enamoured of that city, the Regiment was 
ordered to the front, and, along with other corps of the 
Brigade, joined the army of the victorious Marshal 
de Catinat, in Piedmont. The fighting had been of the 
most desperate nature, and soon after their arrival the 
Irish underwent their baptism of fire near Saluzzo, in 
August, 1690. On this, as on every subsequent occasion, 
their conduct was remarkable, the fury of their attack 
carried everything before it ; and it was largely owing to 
them that Victor Amadeus was defeated. 

" Ma foi, what soldiers I " he is alleged to have said. 
" If only I had a few thousand such, not only Piedmont 
but the whole of France would be mine to-morrow." 
Nor was Catinat a whit less emphatic in his eulogies. 
He paid a visit to the quarters of the Brigade the day 
after the battle, shook hands warmly with many of the 
officers, and complimented all of them on their exceptional 

The gallant conduct of the Irish, as has been already 


remarked, was not confined to one battle. In every 
encounter of the campaign, at the captures of Urgel and 
Valence ; at Boy, where the Allies were utterly crushed ; 
and at Pratz-de-Mollo, where the Allies retreated, leaving 
behind them half the men of their army either dead or 
dying — in all these contests it was the Irish Brigade 
that first crossed swords and bayonets with the 

" The French are no longer men but devils," one of 
the Allies' generals is said to have remarked to a 
Macdonnell, who was acting as his aide-de-camp, at 
Valence — having, in 1691, after the capitulation of 
Limerick, chosen the Austrian service in preference to 
the French. 

"It is because of my countrymen, the Irish," was 
Macdonnell's rejoinder ; " the crafty Louis, knowing there 
are no fighters like the Irish in the world, has lured them 
into his service. It is they who are responsible for all 
these wild rushes ; the French are trying to keep up 
with them." 

The reputation thus created speedily spread, and long 
before the end of the campaign the valour of Louis's 
Irishmen had become proverbial throughout the Con- 
tinent. On the temporary cessation of hostilities in 
Italy, the Mountcashel Regiment was hurried to Germany, 
and there in one of its first engagements it lost its gallant 
Colonel, Justin MacCarthy, Viscount Mountcashel. Colonel 
Andrew Lee succeeded him. Lee was a veteran who had 
seen many years' service. He had first served in the 
Regiment of Hamilton, levied in Ireland in 1671 by 
Count George Hamilton for service in France. He was 
present at Minden, where he was specially mentioned in 


dispatches ; in Flanders, where he fought under Luxem- 
bourg ; and in Piedmont, where he commanded the 
Regiment of O'Brien. 

The death of Mountcashel was followed by fighting of 
the most desperate nature. The Regiment was present 
at Kehl, Hochstadt and Kempten, where it brilliantly 
enhanced its reputation, but lost so heavily that the slain 
almost outnumbered the survivors. But sad as was the 
fate of those who fell so far from the land they so passion- 
ately loved, infinitely sadder was the lot of those who 
were left to mourn for them. 

" The Irish Brigade daily grows thinner," one of its 
officers is said to have observed ; " pray to God that the 
lot of holding the last wake does not fall on me." And 
again, after Kempten : " The number of our widows 
grows faster than the shamrock round Kenmare ; pray 
to Heaven a few of us will be left to tell them how we 
died — how we thought of them — and of Ireland." 

The Regiment won the golden opinions of Louis. So 
pleased was he at its conduct at Kempten, that he deco- 
rated Colonel Lee with the Grand Cross of the Order of 
St. Louis. 

In 1715, to help fill the large gaps in its ranks, it was 
strengthened by half the Regiment of O'Donnell, the 
other half of the latter Regiment being transferred to 
the Regiment of O'Brien, then under the command of 
Major-General Murrough O'Brien. In 1734, Colonel 
Andrew Lee died, and was succeeded by Count Francois 
de Bulkeley, scion of an old English Jacobite family. 
By this time there were none of the original members 
of the Mountcashel Regiment left in it ; all had either 
been killed on active service, or had died from natural 


causes when too old to fight any longer ; and, although 
fresh recruits had periodically arrived from Ireland to 
take their places, a certain percentage of the privates 
were French. 

In 1743, at Dettingen, under the generalship of De 
Grammont, they had the gratification of meeting their 
hereditary enemies, the English, under their much-hated 
King, George II, and, although ultimately defeated, the 
Brigade rendered such a good account of itself that all 
Europe rang with its praises, and its members were 
immortalized in song and verse. 

Two years later, at Fontenoy, they again encountered 
the English, and this time with a very different result. 
Stampeding in turn the white-coated Austrians and blue- 
tunicked Dutch, they came on at no double, but at a 
speed resembling the rush of a tornado, and, with terrific 
shouts of " Remember the Boyne and Dettingen," 
hurled themselves on the cream of Cumberland's infantry. 
In vain did the English officers bid their men remain firm, 
in vain did their Grenadiers throw grenades, and their 
artillery belch forth grape and canister. The Irish came 
on like an avalanche, the most conspicuous regiments 
being the Dillons, the Mountcashels and the Murrough 
O'Briens. For height and broad shoulders, for strength 
of limb and beauty of face, there were none like them on 
the field, and when the sun's rays caught and burnished 
the gold of their epaulets and sword handles, the steel of 
their cuirasses and bayonets, even the men they were 
rushing on gave vent to exclamations of admiration and 

Before their advance the battle had gone ill with the 
French, and Saxe was in despair ; but the madness of 


their onslaught caused an instant and complete change. 
The English, who throughout had shown themselves to 
be the backbone of the Allies, wavered, broke, fled. 
Fontenoy was won — the Boyne was avenged. Never 
had the Irish Brigade shown to such advantage. Its 
survivors were feted everywhere they went, its fame 
became universal. The Mountcashel Regiment went into 
action several hundred strong, they came out a mere 
handful. They fought again at Merrin and Ypres, in 
Flanders, but, although their courage was as great as 
ever, they were not attended with the same success. 

In 1756, Count Francois de Bulkeley died. His son 
succeeded him as Colonel, but his reign was short. In 
1775, the Regiment, now Irish only in name, ceased to 
have an individual existence, and was incorporated with 
the Regiment of Dillon. 


The Regiment of O'Brien and Clare was the second 
Regiment of the Irish Brigade to be mobilized in France. 
It dates back to the landing in France, in the spring of 
1689, of the first division of Irishmen under Mountcashel. 
It consisted of fifteen companies of 100 men each, 
numbering in all about 1,600 rank and file, and owed its 
arms and accoutrements to the munificence of its first 
Honorary Colonel, Daniel O'Brien, third Viscount Clare, 
who provided them out of his own private purse. 

On leaving Brest, the Regiment moved to Paris, where 
it was strengthened by 200 veterans from Greider's 
Corps — all Irishmen — and placed under the command of 
its first proper Colonel, Andrew Lee. The Regiment 
then proceeded to Piedmont, sharing with the other 


regiments of the Brigade the honours of the campaign. 
On the promotion of Lee to the command of the Mount- 
cashel Regiment, Richard Talbot was appointed Colonel 
of the O'Brien and Clare Regiment, and was almost 
immediately afterwards thrown in the Bastille for offend- 
ing one of the King's mistresses. His place was taken 
first by Charles and then by Murrough O'Brien, of 
Carrigo-gunnell, Co. Limerick, a direct descendant of Conor 
O'Brien, " King of a thousand fights." Under Charles 
the regiment fought at the siege of Valenza, and with the 
Army of the Meuse and in every battle it conducted itself 
with conspicuous valour. It was in Flanders that an 
incident is said to have occurred relating to Villeroi and 
a lieutenant of the Irish Brigade. Seeing one of the 
French regiments in front of him begin to waver, Villeroi 
in vain tried to rally them by his example and command. 
At length, finding it still inclined to retreat, he turned to 
a young officer of the O'Brien Regiment, who was 
hurrying past with a message to the Colonel of the Dillon 

" Come here," he shouted, " see if you cannot infuse 
some of your Irish dash and courage into these 
faint-hearted countrymen of mine." 

" Willingly, sir," the Irish officer replied, and, tearing 
off his sword belt, he threw it into the ranks of the 
onpressing enemy. 

" Now to recover it," he exclaimed, and pushing past 
the faltering Frenchmen, he hurled himself into the 
thickest of the fray. Those who witnessed the feat were 
ashamed to desert him. They followed, leading others, 
for courage is infectious, and what had, at one time, looked 
like a certain retreat, rapidly became an assured victory. 


Villeroi was delighted, and immediately after the 
battle dispatched one of his aide-de-camps to search for 
the heroic Irishman. After a long time away, the aide- 
de-camp returned with the news that the young officer 
was dead. 

" Dead," said Villeroi, bitterly, " a thousand pities. 
Had he but survived to-day he would have lived to be 
a marshal ! " 

This prediction is said to have come true. The young 
Irish officer was, after all, only wounded, and ten years 
from that very day saw him wearing the uniform of a 

On the termination of hostilities in Italy, the Regiment 
was immediately hurried to the Netherlands, where for 
the first time it was pitted against the English. It was 
present at Oudenarde, Malplaquet, the Defence of the 
Lines of Arleux, Douai, Bouchain and Quesnoy, and, in 
fact, at nearly all the engagements of the campaign of 
1708-12. Like the other regiments of the Irish Brigade, 
it had proved a thorn in the side of Marlborough and 
Eugene, who, never knowing when it would prick them, 
owed to it, on more than one occasion, the complete 
failure of their most carefully prepared and preconceived 

" There is no counting on anything when those Irish 
firebrands are about," one of Marlborough's staff is 
alleged to have said. " They appear when least expected, 
do what is least expected, and render tactics, strategies 
and generals equally hopeless and abortive. There is 
one thing to be thankful for, however, their recruiting 
ground is a long way off." 

In 1720, during the piping times of peace, Murrough 


O'Brien died and was succeeded in the Colonelcy by- 
Charles O'Brien, sixth Viscount Clare, son of the Daniel 
O'Brien to whom the Regiment owed its name and 
origin. From the fact that Charles O'Brien was usually 
styled " Mi lord Conte de Clare," the Regiment became 
known as the O'Brien or Clare Regiment. In 1733 it 
took part in the battle of Kehl, and in 1734. in the taking 
of Philippsburg. In 1738 Charles O'Brien assumed the 
title of the ninth Earl of Thomond, which title had 
previously been given to his Protestant kinsman, 
Murrough O'Brien, son of the Earl of Inchiquin, who, 
for some time, fruitlessly disputed it. From 1743-56 the 
Regiment was again at the front, earning for itself 
imperishable glory in the battles of Dettingen, Fontenoy, 
Laffeldt and Bilsen, and so heroically did Charles O'Brien 
lead it, that honour after honour was bestowed on him, 
and he was eventually made a Marshal of France. 

On the conclusion of peace with the Allies, the Regi- 
ment was stationed in the South of France, where the 
whole of the Mediterranean command was entrusted to 
its Colonel, the new Field-Marshal. In 1761 Charles 
O'Brien died. He was buried with great honours, many 
of the highest dignitaries of France, together with all 
the rank and file of the Irish Brigade, attending the 

He was succeeded in the Colonelcy of the Regiment 
by Brigadier James Fitzgerald, who, in 1762, was created 
Marechal-de-Camp, and died in 1763. The next Colonel 
was the Chevalier de Betagh, or Biatagh, of Irish-Danish 
extraction, and grandson of a gentleman whose lands in 
Ireland were seized after the Restoration and given to 
an English settler. Following in the steps of his two 


predecessors, Do Betagh was made Marechal-de-Camp, 
and, on his leaving the regiment in 1770, he was succeeded 
by another semi-Irishman, Colonel de Meave. The latter 
stayed with the regiment till 1775, when it terminated 
its individual existence and became incorporated with 
the quasi-Irish infantry regiment of Berwick. 


The third Regiment of the Irish Brigade to be 
mobilized in France was that of Dillon, raised by Theobald, 
seventh Lord Viscount Dillon, at the same time as those 
of Mountcashel and O'Brien. Its first Colonel was the 
Hon. Arthur Dillon, and it numbered at its formation 
sixteen hundred rank and file. After moving from Brest to 
Paris, it accompanied the rest of the Irish Brigade to Italy 
in 1693, and was present at most of the important engage- 
ments in Piedmont. In 1694, much to its surprise and 
regret, it was detached from the other Irish regiments 
and dispatched to assist the Duke of Berwick in Spain, 
where it increased its fame by performing prodigies of 
valour in the capture of Barcelona, 1697. 

For his conduct at the taking of that town, as well as 
for his skill and bravery in the series of encounters that 
immediately followed, Dillon was made a Marechal-de- 
Camp. In this capacity he was present at the defeat of 
the Allies at Toulon, and had the satisfaction of seeing 
his old enemies, the English, in full retreat. He died in 
1733 and was succeeded in the command of the Regiment 
by his son, Charles. 

Charles's tenure of the Colonelcy, however, was of the 
briefest duration. He had seen much fighting for his 
years and now wanted a spell of peace. Moreover, he 


was head over ears in love with his cousin, whose blue 
eyes and artless smiles proved far more deadly missiles 
than the bullets of the Allies. He left the Regiment, 
married, returned to Ireland, and died in London in 
1741. He was succeeded in the command of the Regiment 
by his brother, Henry. 

From the date of the battle of Toulon to the year 1743 
the Regiment had remained inactive. Plunged in despair 
at the long continuance of peace, at one time garrisoning 
Brest, and at another time Rouen, it had just moved to 
near Paris when it was suddenly ordered to Germany. 
There it joined the rest of the Irish Brigade, from which 
it had been parted for 47 years. It was in the extreme 
front at Dettingen, close beside the regiments of Dillon and 
Mountcashel, and it enjoyed with them the privilege of 
crossing bayonets with the English Grenadiers. 

Shortly after the battle it lost its Colonel, who, on 
account of the new Act of Parliament which forbade any 
British subject to serve in a foreign army under penalty 
of having his land confiscated, retired, and, returning to 
England, married Lady Charlotte Lee, daughter of the 
second Earl of Lichfield. 

The two succeeding Colonels, James and Edward Dillon, 
brothers to Charles, were killed at the head of the regiment 
at Fontenoy (1745) and Laffeldt (1747), respectively. 

Lord Henry Dillon, though in England, was now made 
nominal Colonel of the Regiment, which appointment he 
held till his youngest son, Arthur, was old enough to take 
the actual command. 

From 1748 to 1777 the Regiment was employed in 
garrison duty in France, and then, in 1778, for the second 
time in its career, it was detached from the other regiments 


of the Irish Brigade and sent to North America to assist 
the American Colonists under Washington, in their 
struggle for independence. 

On arriving in America it joined the main American 
Army under Washington, and, although taking part in 
many minor engagements with varying success, does not 
appear to have been in any very important encounter 
till the close of the war, when it formed part of the 
Army that besieged Lord Cornwallis in Yorktown, and 
finally forced him to capitulate. From the United 
States the Regiment went to the West Indies, where it 
aided in the captures of Grenada, St. Eustacia, Tobago and 
Savannah. In 1780, Arthur Dillon retired as Brigadier, 
and was succeeded in the command by Comte Theobald 
Dillon — or de Dillon, as the family was usually called — 
better known as " Le Beau." All the Dillons were 
extraordinarily handsome. 

Returning to France at the conclusion of the war with 
England, the Regiment remained either at Paris or 
Versailles till 1792, when it served under Dumouriez in 
the campaign against the Austrians in Flanders. By 
this time it was Irish only by name and reputation, 
nearly every man in it being French. 

Suspecting Theobald Dillon of being a Royalist and in 
league with the much-hated countrymen of Marie 
Antoinette, the non-commissioned officers and privates 
of the Regiment resolved to get rid of him and the other 
officers. An opportunity soon presented itself. Finding 
themselves suddenly confronted by 3,000 Austrians, who, 
taking advantage of the inattention of the French sentries, 
had crept up unawares, they raised loud cries of " We 
are betrayed ! A bas les Aristocrats ! A la lanterne ! " 

From an engravinn by Ridley, after a picture by Drummond 

{See p. 107 


Some of the officers fought desperately, others were 
taken unawares — nearly all were killed. The fate of a 
few of them has been specially commented on. M. 
Berthon, while hurrying to the stables to find his horse, 
was met by a dozen or more of his privates, spat at, 
insulted, buffeted, then seized from behind and thrown 
on the ground, and finally borne shoulder high to the 
nearest tree and hanged. Theobald Dillon was in his 
carriage when the mob found him. Without evincing 
the slightest sign of fear or emotion, he told them how 
misguided they were, and bid them recollect their first 
duties as soldiers and repulse the Austrians. In reply 
to this they fired on him. Some of their bullets broke 
his thigh bone, causing him the most excruciating pain, 
and in this condition he was allowed to linger, until the 
more humane of his persecutors put an end to his life with 
their bayonets. 

With his death the Dillon Regiment dropped all 
associations with the Irish Brigade, and became known as 
the 87th Regiment of the Line. It was the only Irish 
regiment whose Colonels, for close on 101 years, had all 
been chosen from the same family. By a curious coin- 
cidence the 87th Regiment of the Line in the English 
Army is the Royal Irish Rifles. 

It may be well to say here a few words about the fate 
of Arthur Dillon, who had resigned his command of the 
Regiment in 1780, on being promoted to the rank of 
Brigadier. In 1784 he was made Marechal-de-Camp, 
being shortly afterwards appointed to the Governorship 
of Tobago. At the termination of his office in 1789, 
he was recalled to France and created a Deputy. In 
1792 he was given the command of a division against 


the Prussians, afterwards eliciting great praise from 
Dumouriez by his clever and daring capture of Verdun. 
The following year he was back again in Paris, discussing 
with Lord Edward Fitzgerald the possibilities of a 
French expedition to Ireland to help the Irish in their 
long and keenly anticipated rising. Like Dumouriez 
and one or two other of the more promising young 
generals, Dillon had secret enemies, who, after several 
fruitless efforts, at length succeeded in causing his arrest. 
Accused of conspiring with certain other well-known 
suspects against Danton and the Republic, he was 
subjected to a mock trial and condemned to death. 
In the last few moments of his life the natural character- 
istics of his race were most markedly emphasized. Out- 
side the door of the prison, in which he and a number of 
other aristocrats had been confined, was the scaffold — a 
crude wooden structure, mud-besplashed and blood- 
spattered. Around it, and as close to it as they could 
possibly squeeze, were hundreds of men and women, 
some tawdrily dressed in tolerably decent garments, 
others barely covered in the foulest of mere rags and 
tatters — all inconceivably cruel-looking and depraved. 
In the interval between the executions they laughed, 
chatted, partook of refreshments, and wagered heavily 
as to the sex of the next victim, whose appearance on 
the platform, no matter whether man or woman, was 
greeted with a terrific outburst of groans, hoots and 
jeers, to be followed by every imaginable ribald taunt 
and disgusting epithet. 

It was no wonder, therefore, that the frailer of the 
captives watched the prison door open in abject terror, 
while even the most courageous were seen to turn 


pale and falter. One by one the prisoners had gone 
shrinkingly to their doom, till there were only two 
left, Arthur Dillon and a lady. The latter's name was 

" Oh, Mons. Dillon," she exclaimed, " surely this is 
an occasion on which a woman's privilege may be set 
aside. Will you go first ? " 

" Why, certainly, Madam," Dillon replied with a bow, 
" I am only too happy to oblige a lady." 

He passed out, and, as the hideous clamour rose to 
greet him, he shrugged his shoulders with an air of the 
utmost indifference and accompanied his guards to the 
platform. There his whole demeanour, utterly unlike 
that of the shrinking captives who had preceded him, was 
so entirely unexpected and arrestive, that the cowardly 
mob instantly became silent. What would this extra- 
ordinary man do next, they one and all asked themselves. 
Passing his hands carelessly over his cravat and hair, he 
calmly approached the guillotine, and, contemptuously 
ignoring the executioner, who roughly told him to kneel, 
he drew out a white lace handkerchief and waved it in the 
air. " Vive le roi," he shouted gaily. Then, dropping 
on his knees, he placed his neck fearlessly in the 
reeking nitch of the machine. The knife fell, and the 
bravest of all the gallant Dillons passed into the Great 

A regiment of the Irish Brigade, conspicuous for its 
number of O's, was the Corps of the Horse Guards, 
formed by James II in 1689, almost on the eve of the 
battle of the Boyne. Consisting of two troops only, it 
served through the Irish campaign of 1689-91 with 
distinction, and accompanied Sarsfield to France in the 

13— <*339) 


autumn of 1691. As a consequence of the reduction of 
the Irish Brigade by Louis XIV in 1697, the Horse Guards 
were drafted into the Royal Irish Regiment, and thus 
metamorphosed into infantry. The Royal Irish Regi- 
ment, forming part of the Brigade that fought in Pied- 
mont, Germany and Flanders, lost a very large number 
of men and, being unable to obtain fresh recruits, 
disbanded in 1710. 

Of somewhat later origin than the Royal Irish Regiment 
was the King and Queen's Regiment of Horse. This 
Regiment was formed at the commencement of the year 
1692 out of the remnants of Tirconnell's, Abercorn's, 
Westmeath's, Sutherland's, Purcell's, Lucan's, Luttrell's 
and O'Brien's cavalry regiments, that came over to France 
with Sarsfield. The exact period of its existence is not 
known. Being a small regiment, it probably suffered the 
same fate as the Royal Irish Regiment, and, after serving 
through two or three campaigns, became extinct. 

Of even briefer existence than either of these two 
regiments was that of the King's Regiment of Dismounted 
Dragoons. Created as early as 1685, it earned its 
baptism of fire at the Boyne, and, after taking part in 
several other engagements of the '89-'91 campaign, 
followed Sarsfield to France. In 1698 it was incorporated 
with the Athlone Regiment, otherwise known as Colonel 
Walter Bourke's Regiment of Foot. 

Formed about the same time as the above was the 
Queen's Regiment of Dismounted Dragoons. Commanded 
by Colonel Francis Carroll, or O'Carroll, of the ancient 
clan of Eile, which dates back to Olil Olum, King of 
Munster in the third century a.d., the Regiment fought 
at the Boyne and siege of Limerick, and afterwards 


sailed with Sarsfield to France. In 1698, when serving 
in Piedmont, it was incorporated with Sheldon's 

In point of age, no regiment of the Irish Brigade could 
claim greater antiquity than that of the King's Royal 
Irish Regiment of Foot Guards, created for service in 
Ireland by Charles II in 1662. Its first Colonel was James 
Butler, the first Duke of Ormonde. Seeing active service 
for the first time in 1689, it was present at the sieges of 
Derry and Limerick, and at the battle of the Boyne. 
In 1691 it accompanied Sarsfield to France, and served 
throughout the various campaigns in Flanders and 
Germany, winning great distinction for itself at Landen, 
Charier oi and Hochstadt. Dettingen and Fontenoy 
also figured in its colours. It remained in existence till 
1791, when, no longer Irish save in name, it followed the 
example set by most of the other Irish regiments and 
mutinied against its officers. It thus dissolved itself, 
but was reorganized directly afterwards, when it became 
known as the 92nd Regiment of the Line. It had lasted 
129 years, far longer than any other regiment of the 
Brigade, and, if some of the other corps established 
for themselves a wider reputation, none could point to 
a better record of sound and steady service. The 
Regiment has sometimes been called the backbone of 
the Brigade, an appellation it well merited. 

In striking contrast to this veteran Corps was the 
Queen's Regiment of Infantry, which existed only seven 
years. Raised directly after the siege of Limerick by 
the Hon. Simon Luttrell, its first and only Colonel, it 
accompanied Sarsfield to France, where, in 1698, it was 
amalgamated with Tirconnell's Corps and others, that 


were welded together to form the King and Queen's 
Regiment of Horse. 

Of greater longevity than many of the Irish regiments, 
and remarkable for its vicissitudes, was the Infantry 
Regiment of the Marine. Raised in Ireland in 1689 by 
Lord Henry Fitzjames, and first of all known as Le 
Regiment de la Marina, it rendered yeoman service to 
the Jacobite cause at Drogheda, the Boyne, and Limerick. 
It was then also designated Fitzjames's Regiment. After 
the capitulation of Limerick, Fitzjames was succeeded 
in the Colonelcy by Nicholas Fitzgerald. Accompanying 
Sarsfield to Brest, the Regiment was for two years 
stationed on the coast of Normandy, after which it was 
transferred to Germany, where it remained from 1693-95. 
Its first Colonel, Fitzjames, being created an additional 
Duke of Albemarle by James II, the Regiment changed 
its title to that of the " Regiment d' Albemarle." Under 
that name, with a Fitzgerald still leading, it was moved 
to Italy, where it joined other regiments of the Brigade. 
In 1702, in recognition of the gallantry of its Colonel at 
Luzzara, Brogoforte and Nago, it again changed its 
appellation to that of the Regiment de Fitzgerald. At 
Arco, Vercelli, Ivrea, Verrua, Chivasso, Cassano and 
Turin, it well sustained its reputation, being over and 
over again signalled out for special commendation by 
the Duke of Vendome, Commander of the French, Spanish 
and Piedmontese forces. On the cessation of hostilities 
in Italy, the Regiment was moved to the Netherlands, 
and there its distinguished Colonel was fatally wounded 
while heading a charge at the battle of Oudenarde, 1708. 

Daniel O'Donnell, who had served in the Corps ever 
since its formation, and who had already attained the 


rank of Lieut. -Colonel, succeeded him, and the fickle 
Regiment immediately changed its name to that of the 
Regiment of O'Donnell. Under their new commander, 
the Regiment was present at Malplaquet, Arleux, Denain, 
Douai, Bouchain and Quesnoy, and was frequently 
mentioned in dispatches for its bravery by the Duke 
of Savoy as well as by Villeroi. From Flanders the 
Regiment hastened to Germany, where, forming one of 
the units of the Grand Army under Marshal Villars, it 
took part in the siege of Landau, the battle of Freiburg, 
and the forcing of General Vaubonne's entrenchments, 
which led to the Peace of Rastadt between France and 
Germany, March, 1714. In 1715, the Regiment of 
O'Donnell came to an end, one-half of it being incor- 
porated with the Mountcashels, the other half with the 
Murrough O'Briens. 


In addition to those regiments already mentioned, 
there were several other regiments, some of them, how- 
ever, so small as scarcely to equal in point of numbers 
half a battalion, or even a full-sized company. The names 
of some of these corps were : — the Limerick, Dublin, 
Athlone,Galway, Clancarty,Bourke, Sheldon and Berwick. 
They were mostly infantry, and, dating their origin from 
1689-91, all saw active service either in Italy, Germany, 
or Flanders. Four of them, namely, the Berwicks, 
Galways, Bourkes and Sheldons, fought under the Duke 
of Berwick in Spain, where they acquitted themselves 
most creditably. The bulk of them either were dis- 
banded for lack of numbers, or were incorporated with 
other bodies between the years 1712 and 1715. Only 


a few survived till 1792, when the Brigade, owing to the 
refusal of the Dillons, Major Walsh, and others of its 
officers, to serve under the tri-colour, may be said to 
have terminated its existence, although, according to 
some writers, we may deduce a somewhat eventful and 
melancholy sequel. 


the irish in France (continued) 


About the year 1800 a new Irish Brigade was formed 
out of the nucleus of the old Brigade and the many United 
Irishmen that had settled in France ; but it never 
acquired the reputation of the Old Brigade. During 
the French campaigns in Algiers, between the years 
1830 and 1856, many Irishmen served as officers in the 
Expeditionary Forces under General Berthezene, the 
Duke of Rovigo, General Avizard, General Desmichels, 
General D'Erlon, Marshal Clausel, the Duke of Orleans, 
General Bergeaud, General Canrobert, General St. 
Arnaud, General MacMahon — himself an Irishman — and 
General Pelissier, respectively, and were over and over 
again commended for their bravery, which was especially 
noticeable at the captures of Bona, Mediak and Tlemcen, 
and in the following battles : the River Makta, 28th 
June, 1835, where the French were defeated with great 
loss, and would probably have been totally annihilated 
but for the bravery of some Irish officers ; the River 
Sikak, 6th July, 1836, where General Bergeaud com- 
pletely routed the Arabs under Abd-el-Kadir, and rescued 
a number of prisoners, including several Irishmen, who 
had suffered the most diabolical tortures and were to 
have been buried alive ; and at the River Isby, 14th 
August, 1844, where the Emperor of Morocco, who had 
joined in the war as the ally of Abd-el-Kadir, was totally 



defeated and pursued for miles by the French cavalry, 
led for some distance (till he fell) by an Irish officer. 

The Irish were also conspicuous for bravery in June, 
1845, when General Pelissier, having shut up a whole 
tribe of Arabs in a cave, and blocking up the mouth of 
it with fires, would have suffocated them all to death, 
but was prevented by his Irish officers, who pleaded with 
him on behalf of the victims ; in 1852, when the campaign 
in Eastern Kabylia was commanded by General Mac- 
Mahon, who had on his staff several officers of Irish 
extraction, and was in every way successful ; and in the 
Algerian Rebellion of 1864, when several Franco- 
Irish officers again figured conspicuously, and were 
complimented on the field for their intrepidity. 

At the beginning of the nineteenth century, with 
the establishment of peace and some kind of law and 
order in Paris after the Revolution, a fresh influx of 
Irishmen began. The pioneers of the immigrants were 
Wolfe Tone and Lord Edward Fitzgerald. Wolfe Tone 
sailed from America to France, and landed at Havre de 
Grace on 2nd February, 1796, the object of his visit 
being to persuade the Executive Directory of France to 
send an expedition to Ireland to assist the Irish in a 
rising against the English. Tone had repeated inter- 
views with M. Madgett, M. Carnot, President of the 
Directory, M. De la Croix, and General Clarke, after- 
wards Duke de Feltre, who claimed to be Irish, but was 
utterly ignorant of contemporary Irish affairs. In all 
these interviews Tone was treated with great courtesy, 
but his patience was sorely tried by the vacillation of the 
Ministers, who were at one moment in favour of sending 
a strong expedition, and at another of dispatching one 

THE IRISH IN FRANCE (Continued) 201 

which, in Tone's opinion, would be far too weak to 
accomplish anything. At one meeting it was actually 
proposed by the Ministry that, in order to minimize the 
cost of the expedition, all the Irish prisoners taken in the 
campaign against Great Britain should be granted their 
liberty, and substituted for French soldiers in the pro- 
posed expedition to Ireland. Tone, of course, strongly 
opposed such a preposterous proposition. It was French 
troops, he told Carnot, he wanted, not Irish ; he had 
plenty of Irish at home ; and he was particularly averse 
from utilizing the services of the surviving officers of 
the recently disbanded Irish Brigade — another sugges- 
tion of the Directory — on the ground that they were of 
mixed nationalities and had not displayed any great 
loyalty either to the Brigade, or to France, or to Ireland. 

Despite, however, of its aggravating reluctance to 
arrive at any conclusion, the Directory was undoubtedly 
in favour of Tone's scheme, and, when he had almost 
abandoned all hope of success, it surprised him by 
suddenly informing him that it was prepared to send a 
far greater supply of arms and ammunition than it had 
at first intended, and that it would be glad if Tone would 
accept a commission in the French army. 

This offer Tone joyfully accepted as a safeguard 
in the event of his being taken prisoner ; for he concluded 
the English Government would regard all who took part 
in the Rising as rebels, and, if he were wearing an Irish 
uniform or civilian's clothes, he would stand a very good 
chance of being hanged for treason, whereas, if he wore 
a French uniform, he would have to be treated with the 
honour shown by all civilized nations to a prisoner of 
war. One of the most interesting incidents in connection 


with Tone's stay in Paris was his first meeting with 
General Hoche, who had been appointed by the Directory 
as Commander of the expedition. 

Tone was seated in his little apartment, studying 
tactics, when a knock came at his door and a handsome 
young man, in a brown coat and velveteen knickerbockers, 
entered. Tone took him for a chef de bureau, and was 
none too pleased at being disturbed. Imagine, however, 
his astonishment when the stranger, upon being asked 
his name, quietly observed : "Eh bien, je suis le General 
Hoche ! " Tone was struck dumb with astonishment, 
for Hoche was the man who, the Directory had announced, 
might be sent in command of the expedition. And here 
he was — Hoche, one of the most brilliant of the many 
brilliant leaders in the French Army, a man whose name 
had for some time been on the lips of all Paris ; and he 
looked like a farmer — just a healthy, very ordinary 

He asked Tone many questions, especially on the 
points that had already arisen, namely, the possible 
conduct of the priests, the amount of influence they had 
over the people, especially with regard to prejudicing 
them against the idea of a Republic ; the number of 
English soldiers there were in Ireland, and the resistance 
they might be expected to offer ; and — a matter which 
had not been broached before — namely, the supply of 
bread in Ireland. On all points but the latter, Tone 
had been able to satisfy the General, and he was just 
beginning to explain that, even if there were not enough 
bread, there were plenty of potatoes, when Carnot 
entered, and, knowing Hoche's weakness for rolls, burst 
out laughing. 

THE IRISH IN FRANCE (Continued) 203 

" When you go to Ireland," he said, " you must do as 
the Irish — eschew rolls and chew bacon and potatoes 

Carnot was in excellent spirits. To Tone's delight, he 
informed him that the Directory had fully decided on 
the expedition, and all that remained for him to do was 
to draw up the final plans. He then invited Tone and 
Hoche to dine with him. That night, after having been 
introduced to Madame Carnot and various members of 
the Carnot family, Tone went back to his humble rooms 
almost too excited to sleep. He had met Hoche and 
had been feted by the President of the Executive Direc- 
tory of France — honours enough for one day, and honours 
he had little dreamed would ever fall to his lot. The 
following day still another surprise awaited Tone — he 
was gazetted chef -de-brigade (or colonel) in the French 

The history of the Expedition and of its failure owing to 
fog and storm, and the subsequent events in Wolfe Tone's 
life, have been too often narrated to bear repeating here. 
When he was in prison, daily anticipating his execution, 
he wrote to the Secretary of State of the French Republic, 
commending his wife and three children, who were then 
almost penniless in Paris, to the protection of France, 
and be it to the eternal credit of the French Directory, 
steps were at once taken to gratify his plea. 

The sum of 1,200 francs from the funds of the Navy 
and three months' pay from the War Department were 
sent to his widow. Bruix, Minister of the Marine, offered 
to adopt one of his sons ; Talleyrand, Minister of Foreign 
Affairs, the other ; whilst General Kilmaine expressed 
himself willing to take charge of both. Mrs. Tone, 


however, decided that she could not part with either of 
her children, and Talleyrand, arranging for their educa- 
tion, wrote as follows to Francois de Neufchateau, the 
Minister of the Interior — 

" Dear Colleague, — You are informed that the 
Executive Directory have decreed that the two sons 
of the brave and unfortunate Tone, who died in Ireland, 
a victim in the cause of liberty, should be educated in 
the Prytaneum. I satisfy a duty, dear to my heart, 
in addressing to you the interesting mother of these 
children, who desires to present to you the expression 
of her gratitude in order that you may transmit them 
to the Directory. I have not hesitated to promise 
her the most favourable reception from you, and I 
am convinced that I did not venture too far in doing 

" Health and Fraternity, 

" Talleyrand." 

The two young Tones, William Theobald Wolfe and 
Francis Rawdon, were then placed at the Prytaneum, 
whilst their mother and sister dwelt close by. A great 
many people interested themselves in the Tone family, 
particularly Thomas Wilson, Tone's greatest friend ; 
Jean Frederic Giauque ; three Irish officers, namely, 
General McDonnell, Captain Corbet and Lieutenant 
Hamilton, all of whom held appointments in the French 
Army ; Lucien Bonaparte, President of the Five Hundred, 
who obtained from the French Government the sum of 
600 francs for Mrs. Tone, and 300 for each of her children 
" on the first funds available in the Ministry " ; and the 
Emperor Napoleon himself, who granted Mrs. Tone a 

THE IRISH IN FRANCE (Continued) 205 

pension of 1,200 livres, and each of her children 400 
livres. Indeed, nothing could have been kinder than 
the behaviour of the Bonapartes to this stranded Irish 
family. In certain memoirs of the family we read of 
Citoyenne Bonaparte sending an invitation to Citoyenne 
Matilda Wolfe Tone to dine with her, and of there being 
present at the banquet Lucien and Joseph Bonaparte, 
General Bernadotte (afterwards Charles XIV of Sweden), 
the beautiful Madame Leclerc, and many other distin- 
guished people, all of whom vied with one another in 
their attentions to the Tones. Madame Leclerc, who 
afterwards became the Princess Borghese, took William 
on her knees, just as Francis, recognizing in General 
Bernadotte the object of his hero-worship, ;an up to 
him, crying out, " There is Bernadotte ! Bernadotte, will 
you go and drive the English out of Ireland and kill 
Pitt ? " 

But sad times were in store for Mrs. Tone. In 1813 
her daughter, Maria, died of consumption ; three years 
later, Francis succumbed to the same fate ; and soon 
William showed signs of the same disease. The latter 
was taken to Boston for the sea voyage, and though, 
at the end of a year, he returned to Paris practically all 
right, it was not deemed advisable to keep him too much 
to his lessons. Hence, we read of him and his mother 
taking many walks in the fields about the Boulevards of 
Mont Parnasse. It is interesting to note that among the 
Tones' advisers was Wolfe's old friend, General Clarke, 
who was created Duke de Felt re and made Minister of 
War. He was very anxious that William should join 
the Irish Legion, a revival of the Irish Brigade, which 
had been formed, about the year 1800, out of the nucleus 


of the Old Brigade and the many United Irishmen that 
had settled in France ; but Mrs. Tone, not liking the 
Duke de Feltre's suggestion, and having consulted Mr. 
Wilson, who advised the French cavalry, William left 
the Lyceum and entered the School for Cavalry at St. 
Germain-en-laye. His mother could not keep far from 
him. She took rooms in the Hotel de la Surintendance, 
on the Parterre, where she could see him every day 
exercising beneath her window ; and, whilst she was thus 
occupied, she became imbued with the ambition to see 
the Emperor and to entreat his sympathy on her son's 
behalf. Setting to work, she wrote a long memorial 
relative to her husband and his love of France, and also 
relative to William, his career at the Lyceum, and all 
his hopes and aspirations ; and day after day, in fair 
and foul weather, stood with her missive by the lodge 
waiting for an opportunity to present it to the Emperor. 
At last the chance came. Napoleon, clad in his usual 
costume, namely, his little white great-coat, which he 
wore in all his battles, drove up in his carriage, and, 
quick as lightning, she darted forth and presented her 

One easily understands why Napoleon was so beloved 
by the French, when one reads of his behaviour on this 
occasion. He did not order his coachman to drive on at 
once, or merely reward her with a haughty stare, but he 
took the manuscript from her hands and read it all 
through. Then he said some very encouraging words to 
her, and with the final remark, " Your child shall be well 
naturalized," drove on. The Emperor was as good as 
his word. When Talleyrand Perigord, Prince of Benevent 
(who had always interested himself in the Tones), and the 

THE IRISH IN FRANCE (Continued) 207 

Duke de Feltre mentioned to him that Madame Tone 
had as much as she could do to pay for the education of 
her son, he at once had all the money she had paid for 
William returned to her, and her annuity increased ; 
and, be it again to the credit of Napoleon and France, 
despite the many upheavals through which the nation 
had to pass, Mrs. Tone received her pension right up to 
the day of her death, which took place at Georgetown, 
D.C., in 1849. 

On leaving the Military School, through the influence 
of the kindly Talleyrand, William Tone was gazetted 
sub-lieutenant to the 8th Chasseurs, commanded by 
Talleyrand's nephew, the Count Edmond de Perigord. 

He saw active service in the campaigns of 1813 to 
1815 ; and for his heroic conduct at Leipzig — when he 
was attacked by a number of lancers, whom he fought 
till he fell from his horse and was left for dead — he was 
created a Chevalier of the Legion of Honour. After 
Napoleon's abdication he left the French Army, visited 
Ireland, and, in 1824, settled in America, entering the 
United States Army as second lieutenant. 

In 1825 he married Catherine Anne, daughter of William 
Sampson, a noted Irish lawyer ; and in 1828 he died, 
and was buried on Long Island. He left one child, 
Grace Georgiana, who married Lascelles Edward Maxwell, 
Judge Thomas Addis Emmet giving her away. She 
subsequently resided in Brooklyn, N.Y., where she died 
in 1900. Before going to America, Mrs. Tone, Wolfe's 
widow, married Thomas Wilson, of whom Wolfe had 
said, in his farewell letter to her eighteen years before, 
" I think you have a friend in Wilson who will not 
desert you." 


Shortly after the failure of Tone's expedition, two 
other leaders of the United Irishmen, Lord Edward 
Fitzgerald and Arthur O'Connor, came to France, passed 
through Paris, and interviewed Hoche on the French 

This was Lord Edward Fitzgerald's last visit to the 
Continent ; the following year witnessed the Great 
Rising of 1798, and his untimely death. Arthur O'Connor, 
however, was destined to spend many years of his subse- 
quent career in France. He returned thither in 1802, 
and, as has already been stated, entered the French 
Army, married a French lady, Elisa Condorcet, daughter 
of the great philosopher, bought Mirabeau's old estate of 
Bignon, near Nemours, which he devoted to agricultural 
uses, and remained there, off and on, until his death in 

Another United Irishman hardly mentioned in English 
history, but well enough known to posterity in Ireland 
and France, was Miles Byrne. Byrne, the son of poor 
parentage, was born at Monaseed, Co. Wexford, in 1780. 
An enthusiastic patriot from his cradle, he became a 
United Irishman when he was barely sixteen, and, on the 
outbreak of disturbances in 1798, joined the insurgents 
under the Rev. John Murphy, at Corrigrua, Co. Wexford. 
He was present at the capture of Gorey ; at the un- 
successful attacks on Arklow — where he commanded a 
division of pikemen (the majority of the insurgents were 
only armed with pikes, whereas the English had muskets 
and cannon, and were all highly-trained soldiers) — and 
Newtownbarry ; and at the two crushing defeats at New 
Ross and Vinegar Hill, where they were overwhelmed by 
the most appalling odds. Byrne, who fought with a 

THE IRISH IN FRANCE (Continued) 209 

bravery akin to madness, cut his way through the English 
soldiers with an antique sword, and escaped. Collecting 
a few of the survivors round him, and joined by some 
colliers from Castlecomer, he captured Goresbridge, where 
he was unable to stop his men avenging picketing and 
pitch-caps by killing a dozen or so English prisoners in 
cold blood. At Castlecomer he was defeated and, after 
being engaged in a few skirmishes of varying success, he 
was finally obliged to take refuge in Dublin. There he 
met Robert Emmet, with whom he planned a rising for 
the summer of 1803. This, however, was nipped in the 
bud through treachery. Emmet fled to Rathfarnham, 
whilst Byrne sailed to France to seek aid for Ireland 
from the French Government. He landed at Bordeaux, 
proceeded to Paris, interviewed one of the Ministers, and 
was told that France, having already spent a great deal 
of money on two hopelessly unsuccessful expeditions, 
would attempt nothing more. This was final, and 
Byrne, desisting from any further petitioning, accepted 
a commission in the new Irish Brigade. Everything now 
went well with him ; he served with distinction in Spain, 
the Low Countries and Germany, won the Legion of 
Honour, and rose from rank to rank, till he was appointed 
Chef-de-Bataillon, in 1830, when he retired. He died in 
Paris, 24th January, 1862, and was buried at Montmartre. 
To the last moments of his life his whole thoughts were 
centred on Ireland, and his final utterances were full of 
hope for her eventual emancipation. Few nobler Irishmen 
have ever breathed on French soil. 

Of the many other United Irishmen who visited France, 
the most prominent were the two Emmets, the ill-fated 
Robert and his brother, Thomas Addis. Robert first 

H— (2339) 


visited France about 1800, when he was touring through 
Belgium, Switzerland and Spain, with the purpose of 
sounding the Governments of these countries with regard 
to their attitude towards Ireland, studying at the same 
time their respective military systems. On his way back 
he was joined by Thomas Addis (just let out of prison) 
and the two visited Paris. There, in company with 
other United Irishmen, they were granted an interview 
with Napoleon and Talleyrand, at the Luxembourg. 
Neither of the brothers was at all favourably impressed 
with Napoleon — he appeared to them cold and selfish, 
and although he gave them his assurances in writing 
that, if he aided in effecting the separation of Ireland 
from England, he would guarantee complete Irish 
independence, they mistrusted him. 

They believed that Napoleon merely meant to use 
Ireland as a catspaw, and that, after landing a few 
troops there to aid in a general rising, he would subjugate 
England and Scotland, and then add Ireland to his 
conquests. They resolved, however, to conceal their 
apprehensions, let England be conquered, and then 
protest, if necessary with arms, for their own liberty. 
The rising in Ireland was to take place simultaneously 
with Napoleon's invasion of England — that is to say, in 
August, 1803. It is a matter of history how the rising 
and invasion both failed, and — as all rational Irishmen 
must now agree — failed fortunately. 

The night before his departure for Ireland, Robert 
Emmet dined in the Rue du Bac — the very same street 
where Wolfe Tone had so often dined, and so often trod 
with similar feelings of hope in his breast — with two 
other United Irishmen, Lord Clone urry and Surgeon 

THE IRISH IN FRANCE (Continued) 211 

Lawless. Of Robert Emmet's speech at this farewell 
banquet, Lord Cloncurry gives the following graphic 
description : " When he spoke it was with extreme 
enthusiasm — his features glowed with excitement ; the 
perspiration burst through the pores, and ran down his 
forehead." Robert Emmet left Paris quietly, with none 
but his most intimate friends to see him off — a very 
different departure from that of Wolfe Tone. 

Thomas Addis Emmet spent several years in France. 
After his release from prison in 1800, his wife and children, 
Robert, Thomas and John, joined him, and, after short 
stays in Hamburg and Brussels, they settled in Paris. 
Here, at the end of September, 1803, he received news of 
his brother's barbarous execution, and in the following 
December he presented a memorial to Bonaparte relative 
to the sending of a French expedition to Ireland. 
Napoleon agreed to the proposal, and preparations were 
at once made for the sailing. The actual number of 
French troops intended for this expedition is not known, 
but, in all probability, there were to have been in it 
many more than in either of the former expeditions. An 
Irish Brigade, consisting of United Irishmen and other 
Irish residing in France, and commanded by General 
MacSheehy, was formed, and Emmet was given a com- 
mand in it. All his hopes, however, were doomed to 
disappointment. In April, 1804, Napoleon had to alter 
his plans, and the expedition was postponed — for all 
time. This decided Emmet. During his stay in France 
he had experienced nothing but a series of misfortunes — 
first of all his father had died, then his mother, then 
Robert, and then his sister — whilst the one thing on 
which, above all others, he had built his expectations, 


had been fated never to come off. He sailed with his 
wife and family, to America, settled in New York, 
achieved great success as a barrister, and died there on 
14th November, 1827. 

William Lawless, Professor of Anatomy and Physiology 
at the Royal College of Surgeons, Dublin, though of lesser 
note than the Emmets, was none the less enthusiastic as 
a United Irishman. He was one of the first to join the 
National movement, and was a leading spirit in planning 
the Great Rising of 1798. The Government, on ascer- 
taining that he was implicated in the conspiracy, at 
once issued a warrant for his arrest, and he would have 
been taken, had not timely warning been conveyed to 
him by Mr. Steward, then acting as Surgeon-General in 
Dublin. Flying to France, he obtained an introduction 
to Napoleon, who gave him a commission in an infantry 
regiment. His subsequent career was one of unchequered 
success. A lieutenant in 1800, he was a general in 1814, 
and the only misfortune that occurred to him was the 
loss of a leg at Dresden. He died in Paris in 1824. 

A distant relative of his, and a great sympathiser with 
the United Irishmen, although never actually one of 
them, was Valentine Browne Lawless, Baron Cloncurry. 
Baron Cloncurry was born in Merrion Square, Dublin, 
was educated first of all at Dr. Burrowes's School at 
Blackrock, and then at Trinity College. On leaving the 
University, he became acquainted with Lord Edward 
Fitzgerald, the Emmets, and other of the United Irish- 
men, and, his friendship with them having been brought 
to the knowledge of the Government, he was arrested 
in London and committed to the Tower. At the end of 
six weeks he was liberated, but was arrested again, and 

THE IRISH IN FRANCE (Continued) 213 

incarcerated in a cell literally swarming with vermin. 
On his release this time he at once repaired to the Con- 
tinent, staying first of all, in Rome, and then in Paris, 
where many of his old friends amongst the United 
Irishmen had settled. 

On his return to Ireland, despite his well-known 
anti-Union views, he was created a Peer of the United 
Kingdom and a Privy Councillor. But, although so 
strongly in favour of an independent Government for 
Ireland, he held strictly aloof from Daniel O'Connell, 
and had nothing whatever to do with him or his followers, 
the Repealers. In 1849 he published a volume of Personal 
Recollections. He died in 1853, and was buried in the 
family mausoleum a few miles out of Dublin. 

One of the most all-round talented of the United 
Irishmen was William Putnam M'Cabe, who was born 
near Belfast, about 1775. The story of how he became 
an active Patriot can be told in a few words. Hearing 
Wolfe Tone speak at a public meeting in Belfast, he was 
so much impressed in his favour, and fired with enthu- 
siasm for his cause, that he joined the National movement 
on the spot. It is stated in his biography that he con- 
tinually evaded capture through his wonderful power of 
mimicry. On one occasion, caught by some Highland 
soldiers when acting as one of Lord Edward Fitzgerald's 
body-guard, he immediately got released by affecting a 
broad Scottish accent, and pretending that his arrest 
was all a mistake. He joined Humbert's expedition, 
fought with the utmost recklessness at Ballinamuck, 
where he was one of the last to leave the field, and, after 
hiding for awhile in Wales, managed to reach Paris. 
Stranded in France with practically no capital, he, 


nevertheless, set up a cotton factory at Rouen and soon 
amassed a respectable fortune. He visited the British 
Isles three times and, though arrested on each occasion, 
always managed to obtain his release. He eventually 
died in Paris in 1821, and was buried alongside several of 
his old comrades-in-arms in Vaugirard Cemetery. 

The last United Irishman connected with Paris, and 
of sufficient note to be mentioned here, was Bartholomew 
Teeling, who was born at Lisburn in 1774. Joining the 
United Irishmen soon after the movement started, 
Teeling went over to Paris, enlisted in the French Army, 
and came over in Humbert's expedition as a captain. 
He was captured at Ballinamuck, and, despite the fact 
that he was wearing his French uniform, and that 
Humbert made every effort to save him, he was executed 
like a common criminal. * 

1 A full account of his death and burial in " The Croppy's Hole," 
at Arbour Hill, is to be found in The Narrative of the Irish Rebellion 
of 1798, written by his nephew. 


the irish in France {continued) 




In connection with the revival of the Irish Legion, of 
which a brief mention was made in the last chapter, an 
interesting account of the flags of the old and new Irish 
Brigades appeared in an article written by Miss M. 
Barry O'Delany to the Daily Independent, 4th November, 
1901. According to a statement in this article, it appears 
that the flags captured by the Irish Brigade, together 
with other trophies won by the prowess of the Irish Army, 
had been, from the time of Louis XIV up to the year 
1814, in the Hotel des Invalides, but that at 9 p.m., 
on 30th March, 1814, to celebrate the downfall of 
Napoleon, Marechal Serurier caused a bonfire to be 
kindled in the Cour d'Honneur de V Hotel, and all the 
flags and banners, together with the sword of Frederick 
the Great, perished in the conflagration. In all, 1,500 
flags, including several won from the English by the 
Irish Brigade at Fontenoy, were thus destroyed. To 
quote from Miss O'Delany's graphic account : " The 
veterans of the Old Guard stood round the funeral pyre, 
in a silence more eloquent than words, and, as the precious 
relics were thrown in, it is said that the tears rolled down 
their furrowed and scarred faces, and that as they gave 
the farewell salute their strong hands trembled." 



In 1829, three flags taken in Morocco were hung in 
the Chapel of St. Louis, and to these were added, later 
on, 72 flags won from the Dey of Algiers, many of them 
having been captured through the conspicuous valour 
of the Irish Brigade. 

In the Crimean War there were several companies 
composed exclusively of Irishmen, but hardly a Brigade 
in the ordinary sense of the word ; and it was the same 
in the Franco-Austrian and Franco-Prussian campaigns 
of 1859 and 1870, respectively. 

In the latter campaign, however, an Irish Fighting 
Corps, which, combined with an Irish Ambulance Corps, 
was commanded by Captain M. W. Kirwan — who 
numbered among his officers Dr. Macken, Mr. M'Alevey 
and Mr. Cotter — and was known as the 2me Regiment 
Etranger, played a prominent part. Getting plenty of 
hard righting, it left many of its members behind on the 
fields of Montbeliard and Busy ; and suffered still 
more in routs that followed so many of the French 

To quote Captain Kirwan 's own words relative to the 
disaster at Montbeliard, 20th January, 1871 : " As we 
retreated through the beautiful country watered by the 
Doubs, over hill and through dale, in wet and cold, 
dropping with fatigue, and exhausted by suffering, I 
could not help speculating that to man alone is left a 
power of endurance which the beasts of the field could 
scarcely endure. But we had four hard days on that 
desperate retreat — days of famine, of cold, of hunger, 
and of danger ; from early dawn until long after dark, 
it was a trial of speed, and then but little repose on the 
slimy soil, torn up with thousands of horses and waggons, 

THE IRISH IN FRANCE (Continued) 217 

and the tramp of tens of thousands of men. Everywhere 
we had to sleep was converted into an ocean of 

But the Irish soldiers in spite of all this — in spite of 
the fact that they had hardly a rag to their backs or 
piece of leather to their feet, and were dripping with 
blood from wounds and sores that hurt " like hell " — 
were cheerful. They assured each other that their 
sufferings were all on behalf of France, La Belle France, 
to whom they owed so much, and in so doing they were 
undoubtedly consoled. Nor did the French deny them 
their meed of praise. After a desperate encounter with 
a large troop of Uhlans, whom they had by a superhuman 
effort at last succeeded in driving off, General Rebillard 
rode up to them. 

" What regiment are you ? " he demanded. 

"La Compagnie Irlandaise, Regiment Etranger, mon 
general," Lieutenant Cotter replied. 

" Then," said the General smiling, as he glanced at 
the line of ragged Irishmen before him, " I would rather 
have la Compagnie Irlandaise than a battalion of Mobiles." 
The Irish Company went into the final battle of the war 
some 55 strong ; they came out of it a bare score, and 
enjoyed the distinction of having fired the last shots at 
the enemy. They were, too, actually crossing bayonets 
with the Germans when a horseman, bearing the white 
flag, bore down on them — and the bugles rang out 
" Cessez le feu, cessez le feu." 

In this campaign the Irish had again and again been 
brought into close touch with the crack corps of the 
Prussian Army, and, although usually outnumbered, had 
invariably rendered a good account of themselves — a 


circumstance the more commendable when it is remem- 
bered that few of the Irish had ever seen active service 
before this war, whereas nearly all the Prussians were 
well seasoned soldiers fresh from the campaigns of 1864 
and 1866. 

The Division of the French Army which came best out 
of the ordeal was the Second of the Fifteenth Army 
Corps, to which the Irish Company was attached. In 
his Proclamation to the Army of the East on the cessation 
of hostilities, General Rebillard, who almost alone among 
the French Generals had had his reputation enhanced 
rather than diminished by the war, wrote thus — 

"... Your conduct in the East does you the 
highest honour. You have bivouacked on the snow 
when the thermometer marked fifteen degrees below 
zero, often without fire, and sometimes without 
provisions, in consequence of the impossible arrival 
of the convoys. At Mont-Chevis you stood up bravely 
for three days under the murderous fire of a powerful 
artillery. You fought before Busy, to cover the fatal 
movement of the Army upon Pontarlier. During the 
armistice, you cut a new line of defence before Besancon, 
to supplement the insufficient fortifications of that 

" Officers, Non-Commissioned Officers, and Soldiers 
of the Second Division, I shall ever remember with 
pride and happiness that I have had the honour of 
marching with you against the enemy for the period 
of five months. Under the grievous circumstances in 
which our country is placed, endeavour to maintain 
order, and guard the national dignity in presence of 

THE IRISH IN FRANCE (Continued) 219 

the foreigner, who is to occupy our soil, until we can 
take revenge. 

" (Signed) Rebillard. 

" General of Division. 

" General Headquarters, Berne (near Besancon). 
"9th March, 1871. " 

La Tranche Comte, one of the most influential papers 
in Alsace during the French regime, published the following 
paragraph by way of a farewell to the Irish Corps — 

" Amongst the volunteers who have come from all 
parts of Europe to place their swords at the service of 
France, when she was invaded and her independence 
threatened, we cannot forget the Irish Company, which 
formed part of the Army of the East. Officers and 
soldiers, sons of green Erin, they remembered in the hour 
of our danger the ties of strong sympathy which have 
for a long time united Ireland and France. Having been 
the first to come to us, they are the last to leave us, after 
having borne a brilliant part in the different combats of 
the East. At Montbeliard they were the last to leave 
the field of battle. At Busy they were complimented by 
General Rebillard. In the name of our poor France 
thanks, once more thanks, to our Irish brothers ; we 
shall take care faithfully to remember their courage and 
their devotion." 

This was a sad farewell, and sad times were to follow. 
But happily, perhaps, times, both sad and glad, must 
change ; and maybe Alsace will once again belong to 
the French Republic. 

It should not be concluded, from the giving of so 
detailed an account of the Irish Brigades in this chapter, 


that Ireland's only associations with France have been 
those of a military nature. It is true that amongst the 
Irish population in France, as well as in other of the 
Continental countries, the military element has ever 
been the most conspicuous, and, possibly, the most 
worthy of note ; but it is also true that the Irish who 
are civilians in these countries — especially in France — 
can point to many persons of distinction, and form, as a 
whole, a community of no inconsiderable importance. 
In all probability, the first Irish emigrant to France was 
no soldier but a saint, for there are very few records of 
an Irishman in France — and none, perhaps, authentic — 
of an earlier date than those relating to St. Fiacre, * 
who went to Meaux about a.d. 610, accompanied by 
his sister Syra, to look for the tomb of St. Savinien, first 
Bishop of Sens. 

However, according to an article in The Daily Inde- 
pendent, by Miss Barry O 'Del any, entitled " Feast of a 
great Irishman celebrated in Paris," there was an Irish 
Saint in Meaux at the time of St. Fiacre's arrival, called 
St. Faron, and he greeted St. Fiacre thus : "I beg of you 
to hide nothing from me. What is your origin ; the 
place of your birth ; what are your desires ; where are 
you going ; and what is your name ? " To which St. 
Fiacre replied : " Ireland, island of the Scots, is my 
birthplace and that of my parents. Desiring to live a 
hermit's life I left my country and my pa ents, and now 
seek a solitude in which I may pass my days in peace. 
My name is Fiacre." 

1 Owing to the number of hackney coaches that used to drive to 
the shrine of this Irish Saint, they at length became known as 
" Fiacres." 

THE IRISH IN FRANCE (Continued) 221 

The same authority asserts that St. Faron, delighted 
beyond measure to meet a fellow-countryman, at once 
gave Fiacre permission to live in the forest at Breuil, 
near Meaux, whilst he arranged for Syra to take up her 
quarters in the Convent of Faremoutier, of which his 
sister, St. Fare, was abbess. To St. Fiacre all sorts of 
miracles were — and still are — ascribed. In his lifetime 
he was said to have had the power of causing the ground 
to open and trees to fall at his will, and his spirit is 
declared to have smitten Henry V of England — for the 
latter's sacrilegious pillage of the Abbey of St. Fiacre- 
wit h a fatal malady. 

Amongst the many famous people who used to visit 
the shrine of St. Fiacre, in the belief that they would 
have their prayers there immediately answered, were 
Anne of Austria and Louis XIV of France. The cholera 
epidemics of 1832 and 1849 at Meaux were said to have 
ceased on the exposure of certain of the relics of St. 
Fiacre, whilst many people still imagine they can be 
cured through his intervention. Fetes in honour of 
St. Fiacre are held annually on the 30th of August, at 
St. Cloud, Bois-Colombes, Maison-Lafayette, and other 
Paris suburbs, as well as in the Department of Seine-et- 
Marne, of which Fiacre is the patron saint. St. Fiacre, 
contrasting oddly with his fellow-countrymen in this 
respect, was irremediably a woman hater. 

Ever since the days of St. Fiacre, Irish priests have been 
wont to visit France. During the Middle Ages they 
flocked thither in great numbers, either to study in the 
theological colleges, or to sojourn for awhile in the 
religious houses. 

John Lynch, D.D., who was born in Galway in 1600, 


and eventually became Archdeacon of Tuam, was educated 
and ordained priest in Paris, whilst Michael Moor, D.D., 
who was born in Bridge Street, Dublin, in 1640, and 
afterwards became Provost of Trinity College, Dublin, 
was also educated in Paris. A curious story is told of 
Michael Moor in connection with James II of England. 
Preaching before the King in Dublin, Moor took for his 
text, " If the blind lead the blind both shall fall into a 
ditch," and James, happening to have at the time a 
Jesuit confessor with extremely short sight, looked upon 
the quotation as an intentional insult both to himself and 
to his private chaplain. He sent for Moor, scolded him 
severely, deprived him of his preferments, and ordered 
him to leave the country. Having many friends in 
France, Moor went to Paris, and was eventually appointed 
Rector of the Paris University. He died there in August, 

One of the most famous religious institutions in France 
is the Irish College in Paris. In 1571, Father John Lee, 
an Irish priest, with a number of Irish students, came to 
Paris and settled in the very old College of Montaigne, 
which possessed a rather unenviable reputation for 
extreme poverty and scanty diet. After remaining in 
these quarters for some time, the Irish priests moved to 
the College of Navarre, where their members increased so 
rapidly that they soon had to rent an additional house 
in the old Rue de Severs, Quartier St. Germain. It was 
here that they conceived the idea of a College entirely 
for themselves, and in 1677 Malachy Kelly and Patrick 
Maginn obtained leave from Louis XIV to utilize the 
dilapidated premises of the College des Lombards as a 
permanent headquarters for the training and housing of 

THE IRISH IN FRANCE (Continued) 223 

Irish ecclesiastics, and thanks to the members of the 
Irish Brigade and other Irish residents in France, who 
subscribed liberally, enough money was obtained to 
rebuild the College, and to add to it a spacious chapel. 

In 1776, the students having again become too numerous 
for their quarters, money was once more collected, and 
a house and garden bought in the Rue de Cheval Vert, 
which subsequently became known as the Rue des 
Irlandais, the new College being named the College des 
Irlandais. Into this building all the Irish students were 
joyfully removed, whilst the priests continued to occupy 
the old premises. 

In 1790, Dr. Walsh, who was then Administrator of 
the College des Lombards, saved both the buildings from 
being confiscated by the anti-religious Government by 
declaring that the properties were British, since they 
had been purchased with the money subscribed by 
British subjects ; and later on, in 1793, the same anti- 
religious Government, although it confiscated the Irish 
ecclesiastic establishments at Toulouse, Douay, Lille and 
Ivry, and the Church of St. Eutrope, Bordeaux, allowed 
the Colleges des Lombards and des Irlandais to remain 

During the Reign of Terror, the College des Irlandais 
afforded protection to a large number of priests, who 
fled thither to escape the fury of the populace, and, 
although it was found expedient to close the premises 
during the early nineties, they were re-opened — albeit on 
the understanding that nothing of a religious nature 
should be taught therein — under the control of the 
Abbe McDermott, in, or about, the year 1800. 

In 1801 a Vigilance Committee was formed in Paris 


by the Government for the supervision of all foreign 
institutions, and Dr. Walsh, Administrator of the College 
des Lombards, was appointed Director. Under his 
administration the two Colleges grew in prosperity, and 
after the fall of Napoleon were able to resume all the 
religious work for which they had been intended. 

In 1858, owing to certain disciplinary difficulties, the 
Bishops of Ireland, with the sanction of the Sacred 
Congregation of the Propaganda, handed over the 
government of the College des Irlandais to the Irish 
Vincentian Fathers, in whose hands it rests at the present 
time. During the Franco-German War of 1870-71 the 
College was used as a hospital for wounded French and 
Irish soldiers, and escaped molestation from the Germans 
through the hoisting of the British flag, permission for 
this having been obtained from Lord Lyons, who was at 
that time the British Ambassador in Paris. Since then, 
the College has gone on quite uneventfully, and with 
little variation in the number of its students. Among the 
many notable Irish clergymen who were trained there, 
are the following : Cardinal Logue, the Most Rev. Dr. 
McSherry (Vicar- Apostolic of Port Elizabeth), the Right 
Rev. Denis Kelly (Bishop of Ross), and the Right Rev. 
Monsignor Danie Kelly (Dean of Cloyne). 

Apart from the military and ecclesiastic Irish element 
in France, there is — and for many years has been — a 
very fair sprinkling of Irish writers. Sterne, Lever, 
Lady Morgan and others, biographical notices of whom 
have already been given, all spent prolonged periods of 
their lives in Paris, studying the cosmopolitan population 
and getting local colour for their books. 

A writer who has not been mentioned hitherto, namely, 

THE IRISH IN FRANCE (Continued) 225 

Julia Kavanagh, spent nearfy all her life in various parts 
of France. Born at Thurles, in 1824, she moved with 
her parents to Paris about 1830, was there educated 
privately, and there began her literary career when she 
was between 19 and 20 years of age. She was not a 
prolific writer, the whole of her output amounting to 
some six or seven books, the best known of which are : 
The Three Paths, a tale for children, published in 1847 ; 
Woman in France During the Eighteenth Century, published 
in 1850 ; Englishwomen of Letters and Frenchwomen of 
Letters, and Natalie, a novel. According to The Athenaeum, 
" Her pictures were faithful and accurate Her writing 
quiet and simple in style, but pure and chaste, and 
characterized by the same high-toned thought and 
morality that was part of the author's own nature. Her 
short stories were beautiful and touching pastorals. . . . 
In her Englishwomen of Letters and Frenchwomen of 
Letters, she showed discerning, discriminating and analy- 
tical powers far beyond anything she attempted in her 
simple and touching novels." She was subject to the 
most excruciating attacks of what was then thought to 
be neuralgia, but which would, in all probability, now be 
ascribed to cancer, and from this complaint she died 
suddenly at Nice, in 1877. 

Up to the eighties or before the time of Miss Kavanagh 's 
decease, there was no one part of Paris especially associ- 
ated with authors ; but for the past thirty or so years 
authors as well as artists have shown a decided partiality 
for Montparnasse, which has now become known as the 
New Latin Quarter. 

Scarcely a year goes by without some Irish writer or 
other taking up his abode there, usually temporarily, 

15— (2339) 


in a flat let to him by one of the ever-increasing horde of 
cosmopolitan artists. It is a mistake, however, for the 
poor Irish author to suppose that the New Latin Quarter 
offers any advantages in the way of cheap living, for, 
even by exercising the very strictest economy, he must 
spend at least twice as much money in Montparnasse as 
he need spend either in Dublin or in London. Among the 
Irish writers who have stayed in Paris of recent years 
are the late Oscar Wilde, the late John Millington Synge, 
W. B. Yeats, and James Stephens. 

Miss M. Barry O'Delany, author of Will the Wisher, 
and many other works, and contributor to The Paris 
World ; L'Irlande Libre ; The Southern Cross (Buenos 
Ayres) ; The Ave Maria (Indiana), and The Daily Inde- 
pendent (Dublin), lives in Paris, and is, perhaps, the first 
authority on all matters relating to the Irish in France. 
She has, in addition to her numerous newspaper articles, 
written many beautiful poems and a number of clever 
and thrilling short stories. 

To-day, the most striking personality in the Irish 
Colony in Paris is, without doubt, Madame Maud Gonne. 
This lady, whose father held a prominent position in the 
British Army, spent the early years of her life in the 
neighbourhood of Dublin. Roaming at will on the 
hills and moors, in her fondness for the country, 
she acquired, during those early years, more than a 
superficial knowledge of the Irish peasants, and, more- 
over, learned to love them. Later on, when brought 
to London to complete her education, the closeness of 
the atmosphere compared with the soft, pure air of 
Wicklow, and the confinement of the schoolroom com- 
pared with the freedom of the life she had been leading 

THE IRISH IN FRANCE (Continued) 227 

in Ireland, speedily made her ill, and she was taken to 
the South of France. There she learned from her French 
governess much with regard to liberty, and much that 
influenced her after life. When she returned to Dublin, 
on the completion of her education, it was naturally 
expected that, with everything in her favour — namely, 
youth, beauty and position — she would be fond of and 
create a stir in Society ; and for a year or two she 
certainly fulfilled these expectations. But at length, 
growing heartily sick of mere fashion and frivolity, and, 
above all, impatient of the senseless abuse of the peasants 
by those in her own station of life, she retired from 
Society altogether, and devoted herself to a study of 
the many problems connected with the condition of the 
Irish tenantry. A change for the better in the circum- 
stances of her beloved peasantry was sadly needed. 
What, she asked herself, could she do for them ? Wages 
were inordinately low, rents — thanks to the middlemen — 
to the greedy, exacting, blood-sucking agent — were out 
of all proportion high, and, consequently, evictions were 
being executed everywhere, without delay and without 
remorse. Stirred by these pitiable scenes — scenes she 
daily saw enacted amongst her old friends the peasants — 
Maud Gonne sought an interview with Michael Davitt, 
and, having obtained it, told him of her whole-hearted 
desire to aid the cause he represented. 

Though at first silent and even unwilling to listen to 
anything she had to say, possibly because he thought she 
might be a spy employed by the Government, Davitt 
gradually grew less taciturn, and in the end became 
communicative and even friendly. Soon after this first 
interview with Michael Davitt, which, after all, resulted 


in a life-long friendship, Madame Maud Gonne met 
Charles Stewart Parnell, Mr. Harrington and other 
prominent members of the League, all of whom were 
apparently impressed with her ability and personality, 
Mr. Harrington frequently asking her to speak at elections. 
Madame Maud Gonne's next step was to join the " Sinn 
Fein," founded by Mr. Arthur Griffith ; and for this 
Society she constantly wrote and lectured, working hard 
for it both in Ireland and America. 

After the lapse of the Land League movement, Madame 
Gonne came to the conclusion that it was the English 
Government that was responsible, in the main, for the 
hardships of the Irish peasantry, and, consequently, 
against the Government rather than the landlords she 
now proceeded to direct her energies. At the same time, 
however, hearing that many peasants were still being 
evicted in Donegal, she immediately set to work, and 
reinstated many of them in the very houses from which 
they had been ejected. Falling ill whilst she was thus 
engaged, she was ordered abroad, and went to France ; 
but finding it impossible to remain inactive — although she 
knew it was necessary for her health — she there wrote 
an article on the present state of the Irish peasantry, 
entitled " Un peuple opprime," which appeared in one of 
the leading French journals. 

On her return to Ireland, Madame Gonne learned that 
a number of her fellow-countrymen were imprisoned at 
Portland and Dartmoor for political offences, and at 
once determined to secure their liberty. She visited the 
prisoners and made collections on behalf of the Irish 
Political Prisoners' Amnesty Association, in order to 
enable the prisoners' friends and relatives to visit them. 

THE IRISH IN FRANCE (Continued) 229 

She spoke on their behalf on public platforms in England, 
Scotland, France, Holland and America, before audiences 
that seldom numbered less than a thousand ; she 
published a leading article in the Figaro, which not only 
evoked eulogistic references to herself in the French 
papers, but drew no small amount of attention to the 
cause she was espousing ; and afterwards, partly in order 
to give the matter still further publicity, and partly in 
order to air fresh questions connected with Ireland, she 
started a paper called Ulrlande Libre, the first issue of 
which was published on 1st May, 1897, and numbered 
amongst its contributors E. Duboc, Jean Richepin, A. 
Saissy and John Daly — who gave a graphic and detailed 
account of his experiences as a political prisoner in 
Chatham and Portland — and, of course, Madame Gonne 
herself, who was the Editress. Working thus strenuously 
and successfully, Madame Gonne achieved the task she 
had set herself, for it was chiefly through her heroic 
endeavours on their behalf that the Irish political prisoners 
were at length liberated. Among the more recent 
contributors to Ulrlande Libre are : Mile. M. Barry 
O'Delany, Patrice France, Jean Severe, Leo Claretie, 
P. de Burgh, Emile D'Arnaville and Magalhaes 

In 1898 Madame Maud Gonne took a prominent part 
in the celebration of the centenary of the French expedi- 
tion to Ireland. The spot chosen for the celebration was 
Ballina, near Killala Bay, where the French landed, and 
there the foundation stone of a monument to General 
Humbert was laid, the monument being duly erected 
the following year. A large concourse of people from 
all parts assembled to witness the ceremony, and, in 


order to be present, many of the very poor tramped all 
through the night. One of these — an old peasant who 
had obviously hobbled miles — accosted one of the visitors 
and, in a voice trembling with excitement, enquired, 
" Where are the French ? Where are the French ? " 
" Why, there they are," the visitor replied, pointing to 
the two delegates who had come from France. " I 
don't mean them," the old man said, " I mean the 
Army — the French Army. Where is it ? " And great 
was his disappointment on learning that it had been left 
behind. The graves of the French soldiers who fell in 
that expedition of more than a hundred years ago are all 
marked with crosses and beautifully kept. This is a 
point of honour with the Irish ; for even in the darkest 
days of famine and eviction the last resting-places of 
those gallant French soldiers never ceased to meet with 
regular attention. 

During one of her annual visits to Dublin (she is now 
living in France), Madame Gonne started a woman's 
society for helping on the National cause, which she 
named " The Daughters of Erin." One of the initial 
works of this Society was the organizing of evening 
classes for children ; and it has since, from time to 
time, got up entertainments calculated to arouse the 
spirit of patriotism. One of the plays performed for 
this purpose a few years ago was The Deliverance of 
Red Hugh, written by Miss Alice Milligan, a clever 
dramatist and a most indefatigable worker in the Nation- 
alist cause. Madame Gonne still presides over " The 
Daughters of Erin." The Young Ireland Society, even 
more Nationalist in its aims, was also founded by Madame 
Maud Gonne, and it has branches both in France and 

THE IRISH IN FRANCE (Continued) 231 

Ireland. Ulrlande Libre is the Young Ireland Society's 

Latterly, Madame Maud Gonne has espoused the cause 
of the free feeding of school children in Dublin, and, in 
co-operation with others imbued with the same laudable 
motive, has worked with such zeal that between four and 
five thousand youngsters are now fed regularly, and can 
apply themselves to their lessons with some degree of 
energy and comfort. 

In addition to her literary, histrionic, and oratorical 
gifts, Madame Maud Gonne possesses an extremely rare 
talent for painting. She specializes in illuminating — a 
process in water colour on parchment — and her very 
beautiful illustrations in Miss Young's Celtic Warder 
Tales are fine examples of this interesting branch of art. 
Madame Gonne studied at Julien's and Humbert's, and 
she has also worked with M. Granie, the famous French 
portrait painter. 

Versatility and the power of concentrating — so seldom 
to be seen combined — are the qualities which are most 
conspicuous in Madame Gonne ; and they give her a 
touch, perhaps, — merely an elusive and fascinating 
touch — of the uncanny. Despite her all-round genius, 
however, her far-reaching knowledge of politics and social 
problems, her extraordinary grip on character and situa- 
tions, she is essentially a woman, and is possessed of a 
never failing courtesy, a charm of manner, and — last, 
but certainly not least — a beauty, that are irresistible. 
In a word, Madame Maud Gonne is, undoubtedly, the 
most gifted, patriotic and pre-eminent Irishwoman of 
to-day ; and it is not easy to conceive a cause with 
which she is associated any other than successful. In the 


prelude to an altogether charming little book, called 
Will-t he-Wisher, written by Mile. Barry O'Delany, and 
dedicated to Seaghan, Madame Gonne's only son, may 
be found the following verses. (They are quoted here, 
not only on account of their very accurate description 
of Seaghan, who certainly resembles his mother, but also 
on account of their not inconsiderable literary merit.) — 

Seaghan of the limpid eyes 
Reflecting changing skies, 
Seaghan of the sun-lit hair 
O'er roses and lilies fair ! 
Seaghan of the rippling smiles 
And the resistless wiles, 
In love of the Angel Guide 
For ever at thy side : 
Be there a likeness still 
'Twixt thee and dark -eyed " Will " : 
Little Seaghan Gonne ! 

Seaghan, my best for thee — 

Beyond all other — 
Is that each year thou'lt be 

More like that mother ! — 
Green Erin's hope and pride, 

And in all else beside, 

Worthy of her, thou dear 
Son of Maud Gonne I 

A well-known Irish Society in Paris with which Madame 
Maud Gonne is connected is " L' Association de St. 
Patrice," which was founded in Paris on the 16th March, 
1893. At its inaugural meeting, presided over by 
Viscount O'Neill de Tyrone, were present many French- 
men of Irish descent, including : Mr. Antoine d'Abbadie, 
Mr. Charles de Kirwan, Mr. A. Lecoy de la Marche ; 
Canon E. Connelly, General MacAdaras, Colonel 
MacBrady, Count Margerin de Cremont ; Messrs. W. C. 
O'Connolly, A. O'Callaghan, Nemours Godre, Charles 
O'Keenan ; General O'Farrell, Count O' Kelly de Gal way 

THE IRISH IN FRANCE (Continued) 233 

and Admiral O'Neill ; and the members of its first Council 
were : Viscount O'Neill de Tyrone (President), Mr. E. 
Connelly and Mr. A. d'Abbadie (Vice-Presidents), Count 
O'Kelly de Galway (Secretary and Treasurer), Mr. A. 
Lecoy de la Marche, Margerin de Cr6mont, Mr. Nemours 
Godre and Mr. Charles O'Keenan. 

The aim of the Association was — and is, for it still 
exists — to forward any movement tending to the welfare 
of Ireland, and " to organize manifestations of sympathy 
for Nationalist Ireland with regard to her past and to 
her future, especially by the religious and patriotic 
celebration of the Irish Feast of St. Patrick." To quote 
again from the Prospectus : " ' L' Association de St. 
Patrice ' has become for Frenchmen and Irishmen alike 
a bond of sympathy between France and Ireland, a visible 
symbol of their union of soul, a renewed echo of the 
glorious past which consecrated, throughout the centuries, 
the brotherhood of two noble nations." 

The flag of the Association is the flag of Erin — green 
with a gold harp, surmounted by a cross ornamented 
with shamrocks — and its motto, also, is that of 
Ireland — the immortal Erin-go-Bragh. The headquarters 
of the Association are at 57 Avenue de la Grande-Armee, 
Paris, the house of the present President, Count Margerin 
de Cremont, who is a lineal descendant of the old clan 
of MacGrian of Leinster. The General Statutory Meeting 
of the Association on 6th February, 1910, was remarkable 
for the large attendance, which included : Madame 
Maud Gonne, Mile. Barry O'Delany, le Comte et la 
Comtesse MacGregor de Glenstroe, M. de Courcy Mac- 
Donnell, la princesse Odescalchi, la Vicomtesse de 
Milleville, la Comtesse des Grottes, la Comtesse de 


Ploeuc, le Vicomte du Coudray, Mile. Bouhon, Mme. de 
Lannoy and the Comte du Houx. At this meeting, 
Madame Maud Gonne, in the course of a very interesting 
speech, remarked that " one of the chief aims of the Irish 
at present was to make themselves economically inde- 
pendent and to extend their relation with foreign 
countries, and especially with France. They desired to 
trade with this country and without the interposition of 
middlemen. ..." The same year, St. Patrick's Day 
saw a monster gathering of the Association on the 
occasion of the Franco-Irish pilgrimage, and in the 
evening a huge banquet and ball. The large hall hired 
for the latter occasion was draped with French and 
Irish flags. That the Association is in a very flourishing 
state may be gauged from its list of members, the length 
and strength of which would come as a surprise to those 
who are unaware of the existence of a large Franco-Irish 
Colony in Paris, a colony professing the warmest sympathy 
with the Nationalist movement. 

Before quitting this subject of " L' Association de St. 
Patrice," mention must be made of the late Abbe 
Connelly, who was at one time its Vice-President. The 
Abbe Connelly, Ancien Doyen of the Cours de Cassation, 
was a descendant of a Connelly who fought at the Boyne, 
and was a very well-known figure in Paris. His great- 
grand-daughter is the wife of M. Archdeacon, whose 
ancestor, Edmond Archdeacon, migrating to France 
directly after the Boyne, settled at Dunkirk, and, entering 
the French Navy, rose to a prominent position in it. 
M. Archdeacon, who is an ardent Nationalist, was elected 
President of the Franco-Irish Press Committee in Paris 
in 1902. 

THE IRISH IN FRANCE (Continued) 235 

Besides these members of " L' Association de St. 
Patrice," there are, of course, many other people in 
France of Irish or semi-Irish extraction. The Empress 
Eugenie is said to have an Irish strain in her, through 
some Spanish ancestors who settled in Ireland ; whilst the 
late Theobald Chartran, the famous artist, was a great- 
grandson of General Count Theobald Dillon, and a 
descendant of General Count Arthur Dillon of the Irish 

Boulogne has always been a favourite resort of Irish- 
men of letters. John Banim frequently stayed there 
at the house of Sir Joshua Meredyth. He was always 
ailing, and used to wander about the grounds wrapt in 
an old white shawl. Sir Joshua, who reverenced genius, 
also entertained Byron and Shelley — a chair in his house 
was named " Shelley's chair," because the poet invariably 
singled it out to sit in when he called — and Lady Morgan, 
author of The Wild Irish Girl, who, when staying in 
Boulogne, used to take her manuscripts to Sir Joshua 
and read them to him. 



Sir Charles MacCarthy, a descendant of Justin MacCarthy, 
Viscount Mountcashel, who died at Bareges, 1694, from 
wounds received in action on the banks of the Rhine, 
was in the Irish Brigade at the time of its disbandment 
in 1791-92. He then entered the British Service and 
was stationed in New Brunswick, where he raised and 
trained a corps consisting exclusively of local men, and, 
however ridiculous it may appear, it was this very 
exclusiveness that gave rise to the idea, that some of the 
regiments of the Irish Brigade had gone over in toto to 
the English Army. In 1811 Sir Charles MacCarthy was 
appointed to command Cape Coast Castle and, in 1824, 
he lost his life whilst leading an expedition against the 

An Irishman who enjoyed an equally distinguished, 
and even more adventurous, career than Sir Charles 
MacCarthy, was Count Daniel O'Connell. Born at 
Darrynane, in Co. Kerry, in 1740, the Count entered 
Lord Clare's regiment of the Irish Brigade in France 
when he was fourteen. Serving with honour throughout 
the Seven Years' War, he was subsequently attached to 
the Engineer Corps, and became one of the most prominent 
engineers in France. He distinguished himself greatly at 
the sieges of Port Mahon and Gibraltar in 1779 and 1782, 
respectively. During the assault on the latter place he 



was wounded in nine places, and was promoted to the 
rank of Inspector-General. 

On the outbreak of the Revolution, Carnot offered 
him a high post in the Republican Army, which, however, 
he declined, declaring his wholehearted loyalty to Louis 
XVI. Eventually he joined the French Princes at 
Coblenz, and took part in the disastrous campaign of 
1792. He then quitted the Continent and, returning 
to Ireland, accepted the command of an Irish regiment 
in the British Army. After the peace of 1802, he visited 
France to look after his property. On learning of his 
advent, Napoleon at once gave* orders for his arrest, and 
had him committed to prison, where he remained till 
1814. The restoration of the Bourbons to power saw 
him once more an officer in the French Army ; but, 
refusing to take the oath of fidelity to Louis Philippe in 
1830, he was deprived of his rank as General and dismissed 
the Service. He then retired to the seat of his son-in- 
law at Madon, near Blois, where he died in 1833. Daniel 
O'Connell, the Liberator, was his nephew. 

Charles O'Brien, seventh Viscount Clare, who was a 
generation or two earlier than Count O'Connell, also 
achieved much meritorious service in the Irish Brigade. 
He died at Paris in 1774, and, as he was without issue, 
the branch of the family which he represented became 
extinct. This is to be noted, as various people have, from 
time to time, professed to be descendants of the Clares. 

Count Daniel O'Donnell, first Colonel of the O'Donnell 
Regiment of the Irish Brigade, and known as Daniel of 
the Cathach, was a descendant of Thurlough O'Domhnaill, 
of the line of Niall of the Nine Hostages, through Niall 
Garv, younger brother of Shane Luing. (From Shane 


Luing are descended certain of the South of Ireland 
O'Donnells, who are much scattered, some being in 
Ireland, some in England, and some in the United States ; 
and from Niall Garv are descended the Sir Richard 
O'Donel, Bart.'s, branch, the Larkfield O'Donnells, and 
the Tetuan O'Donnells, in Spain.) 

Count Daniel left no children. His history has already 
been sketched up to the time of the amalgamation of the 
O'Donnell Regiment with the " Mountcashels " and 
" Murrough O'Briens." After that event, he remained 
for some time attached to the Murrough O'Briens as 
Supplementary Colonel. In 1719 he was made Brigadier- 
General, and in, or about, 1725 he returned to St. 
Germain-en-Laye, where he died, 7th July, 1735. 

Whenever Count Daniel O'Donnell went into action, 
he took with him a talisman in the form of a psalter, 
written in Latin by St. Columba, the kinsman and patron 
saint of the O'Donnells, and enclosed in a jewelled casket. 
It was known as the " Cathach of Columbcille," and it 
was believed — not without reason — that as long as it 
remained in the possession of the O'Donnells no adversity 
would befall their clan. For some time after Count Daniel's 
death it remained in a Belgian monastery, and then fell 
into the hands of Sir Neale O'Donel, Bart., of Newport, 
Ireland, whose son, Sir Richard O'Donel, lent it to 
the Royal Irish Academy, Dublin. On the death of the 
latter in 1818, it was inherited by his son, Sir George 
O'Donel. A history of the psalter and its case is to be 
found in National MSS. of Ireland. An account of 
facsimiles, edited by Sir Edward Sullivan and John I. 
Gilbert, was published in London (H.M. Stationery 
Office) in 1884. 


Another Daniel O'Donnell, who must not be confused 
with the above, was Captain Daniel O'Donnell, 1 of 
the Limerick branch of O'Donnells. Captain Daniel 
O'Donnell served with distinction under Sarsfield, with 
whom he was connected on his mother's side, and accom- 
panied him to France with the Irish Brigade. He fought 
in Italy and Germany, and died of wounds received in 
action. His brother, John O'Donnell, who married 
Margaret Creagh, of Limerick, also served gallantly 
under Sarsfield, and in the Irish Brigade in France. He 
died in Ireland in 1712. 

Contemporary with these two brothers was Colonel 
Simon Luttrell, born in 1654 at Lutt relist own, near 
Lucan. In about 1686 he raised a regiment of dragoons 
for James II, was made Governor of Dublin, and entered 
Parliament. He took part in the war of 1689-1691, 
and on the capitulation of Limerick came over to France 
with the Irish Brigade. Serving with the Queen's 
Regiment of Guards, he saw action in Germany and 
Italy, and quickly rose to be Colonel. He died in France, 
1698, and a monument was put up to him in the chapel 
of the Irish College in Paris. 

General James O'Moran, born at Elphin in 1735, 
entered Dillon's Regiment of the Irish Brigade, and 
rapidly rose to be a Major-General. One of the few 
Irishmen to remain in the French Service after the 
Revolution, he saw service under Dumouriez in Belgium, 
was made a General of Division, and was entrusted with 
the Government of Conde. In 1792 he captured Tournay 

1 Captain Daniel O'Donnell's father, James, married Helena Sarsfield, 
daughter of James Sarsfield, great-uncle to General Patrick Sarsfield, 
Earl of Lucan. 


and Cassel, and, in 1794, having incurred the jealousy of 
his enemies in Paris, he was falsely accused of treachery 
and, after a mock trial, was guillotined. 

The most illustrious of all the officers of the famous 
Irish Brigade in France was Patrick Sarsfield. He was 
born at Lucan, near Dublin, about 1650, and on his 
father's side was descended from William Sarsfield, Mayor 
of Dublin, who was knighted in 1566 for his services 
against Shane O'Neill ; whilst on his mother's side he was 
descended from Rory O'More. 

His elder brother, William, having married Mary, 
sister of the unfortunate Duke of Monmouth, Patrick 
was brought into close contact with the English Court. 
He thus obtained a commission in the Life Guards, and 
fought under Monmouth on the Continent, and against 
him at Sedgemoor. On his brother William's death, he 
succeeded to the family estates, and married Lady 
Honora de Burgh, daughter of the seventh Earl of 

When the Irish War of 1689-91 broke out, he at once 
sided with James II, and won for him in quick succession 
Athlone and Galway. His subsequent doings in Ireland 
may be read in detail in any of his biographies, and in 
Mr. Lenehan's History of Limerick, and in Story's Wars 
of Ireland. After the surrender of Limerick, Sarsfield, 
refusing Ginkel's solicitations to enter the service of 
William III, sailed away with the bulk of the Irish troops 
he had with him in Limerick, and landed with them in 
France. As soon as the Irish Brigade was properly 
organized, Sarsfield was given the command of the second 
troop of Guards. He led them at Steinkirk in 1692, and 
was complimented by Marshal Luxembourg on the share 


[See p. 115 


he had had in the action. In the following March he 
was appointed Mar echal-de- Camp, and almost immedi- 
ately afterwards was dangerously wounded in the 
battle of Landen. On being removed to Huy, fever at 
once set in, and he died about 23rd August, 1693. There is, 
perhaps, no better description of him than the following : 
" Patrick Sarsfield may be quoted as a type of loyalty 
and patriotic devotion. In his public actions, firm and 
consistent ; in his private character, amiable and un- 
blemished ; attached, by religious conviction and heredi- 
tary reverence for the right divine of kings, to the falling 
house of Stuart, he drew a sharp sword in the cause of 
the monarch he had been brought up to believe his lawful 
sovereign, and voluntarily followed him into exile when 
he could wield it no longer." Sarsfield possessed a very 
rare combination of military qualities — he was a leader, 
organizer and tactician ; in addition to which he was 
the quintessence of bravery and humanity. His widow 
married the Duke of Berwick in 1695 ; whilst his only 
son, James, accompanying the Irish Brigade to Spain, 
was decorated on the field by Philip V for his gallantry 
during the capture of Barcelona. 


Count Thomas Conway, who was born in Ireland, 
1733, was educated in France, and entered the French 
Army in 1748. For his services at Dettingen and 
Fontenoy he received the decoration of St. Louis. In 
1777 he went to America, entered the American Army, 
and for his gallantry at Brandywine and Germantown 
was made Major-General. To Conway's discredit, he 

i6— (2339) 


plotted against Washington, and was one of a small 
clique of officers who wished to see Washington's place 
filled by Gates. Fortunately for America the plot failed, 
and it was Conway himself who had to resign. His 
exposure made him very unpopular, and he was challenged 
to a duel by General Cadwallader, who defeated him. 
Believing himself mortally wounded, Conway wrote to 
Washington apologizing for what he had done and 
asking for forgiveness, which Washington, with his usual 
magnanimity, accorded him. On recovering from his 
injuries, he returned to France, and worked so hard to 
retrieve the reputation he felt he had forfeited, that in 
1784 he was made Marechal-de-Camp, and the following 
year was appointed Governor of Pondicherry and of all 
the French Possessions in India. He continued there, 
constantly intriguing against the English, till the Revolu- 
tion broke out, when he was obliged to fly, and was only 
saved from destruction through the intervention of the 
very race he had striven so assiduously to harm. Return- 
ing to Europe, he died, so it is supposed, in Ireland, 
somewhere about 1800. 

John B. MacMahon, another Irish soldier of distinction 
in France, was born at Limerick in 1715. Entering the 
French Army at an early age, he was awarded the estates 
of Burgundy and made Marquis D'Eguilly, on satisfac- 
torily proving he was a descendant of Brian Boroihme, 
of the Royal House of Ireland. The date and place of 
his death are uncertain. His brother, Maurice, who 
was created Lord of Moguien in Burgundy, was given an 
appointment as Captain in Prince Charles Edward's 
expedition to Scotland, 1745. The grandson of the 
Marquis D'Eguilly, the most famous of all the 


MacMahons, was the second President of the third 
French Republic. 

Charles Jennings Kilmaine, yet another Irish soldier 
in the service of France, was born in Dublin in 1754. 
In his fifteenth year he went to Paris and enlisted in the 
cavalry regiment of Lauzun. Serving under Lafayette 
in the American War of Independence, he rose to be a 
Sub-Lieutenant. His sympathies being entirely demo- 
cratic, he remained in the French Army after it had 
transferred its allegiance to the Republic, and served 
with the greatest distinction in the campaign of 1792. 
Incurring jealousy through his successes, he was thrown 
into prison by order of Robespierre, but was rescued 
from execution through the opportune intervention of 
some of his friends, who happened to belong to the 
extreme Revolutionary Party. In 1795, he aided General 
Pichegru in his defence of the National Convention 
against the Faubourgs, and, as a reward, was appointed 
to the command of a division of the Army in Italy. 
Marching with Napoleon across the Alps, he fought 
with conspicuous gallantry at the siege of Mantua, 
February, 1797, and the following year was appointed 
to command the centre of the army intended for the 
invasion of England. On St. Patrick's Day, 1798, he 
attended a great banquet of Irishmen in Paris, at which 
Thomas Paine and Napper Tandy were present. The 
toast of the Irish Republic was proposed, everyone 
became extremely hilarious, and, on setting out to return 
to their homes, not a few missed their way and found 
themselves in Montmartre, or some equally remote 
suburb. The invasion of England and the liberation of 
Ireland not having been attempted after all, Kilmaine 


was appointed Commander-in-Chief of the Army in 
Switzerland, but had to resign almost immediately 
owing to ill-health. He died in Paris in 1799. 

Sir George Forbes, sixth Earl of Granard, who spent 
all the latter years of his life in Paris, was born in Ireland 
in 1768. Educated at Armagh, Sir George entered the 
English Army, commanded the Longford Militia at 
Castlebar, and took part in the battle of Ballinamuck. 
Though opposed to the Rising of 1798, he was not in 
favour of the Union, and, in company with his brothers- 
in-law, Lords Moira, Kingston and Mountcashel, was one 
of those who signed the Peers' protest against the measure. 
In 1806 he accepted the post of Clerk of the Crown and 
Hanaper, and was made a peer of Great Britain. Wearying 
of political life, and thirsting after the country whither 
so many of his compatriots had migrated, he went to 
Paris and lived there until he died in 1837. 

Henry Essex Edgeworth, first cousin of Richard 
Edgeworth, the father of the distinguished novelist, 
migrated to France when a boy, and was educated 
for the priesthood at the Sorbonne. Owing to his 
remarkable talents and piety, he speedily rose to 
eminence. In 1789 he was appointed confessor to 
Madame Elisabeth, and became the friend and confidant 
of the Royal Family. When the Revolution broke out, 
he was forced to take refuge at Choisy, whence he was 
called to attend the unhappy Louis XVI on the scaffold. 
The famous words, " Son of St. Louis, ascend to heaven ! " 
are said to have been uttered by the Abbe" Edgeworth on 
this occasion ; however, when questioned afterwards, he 
could not remember having spoken them. 

After escaping arrest and many other dangers, he 


managed to reach England, where he stayed for awhile, 
and then, returning to the Continent, joined Louis 
XVIII at Blankenburg. As the result of a fever caught 
whilst administering to the French prisoners of war at 
Mittau, he became seriously ill, and, despite all efforts 
to save him, died, 22nd May, 1807. He was attended 
on his death-bed by the daughter of Louis XVI ; all the 
exiled Royal Family went into mourning for him ; and 
Louis XVIII composed his epitaph. 

The Abb6 Nicholas MacCarthy, another Irish ecclesi- 
astic in France, and contemporary with the Abbe Edge- 
worth, was born in Dublin in 1769. Educated at the 
University of Paris, he so greatly distinguished himself 
in Hebrew and philosophy that he was ordained when 
he was still in his teens. During the Revolution he 
was obliged to hide in Toulouse. When order was 
restored in Paris, he came out of his sanctuary and 
speedily won a great reputation for his oratory, which 
was unrivalled in France. His sermons drew immense 
crowds, and his appeals for funds to help the sick and 
needy resulted in the largest collections ever made in a 
church in France. So moved were his congregations 
that those who had omitted to bring money gave 
watches, jewellery, and even notes of hand. Refusing 
the bishopric of Montauban, he entered the Society 
of Jesus, retired to Italy, and died at Annecy, 
May, 1833. 

Marie Edme Patrice Maurice de MacMahon, Due de 
Magenta, of Irish descent, was born in France soon after 
the commencement of the nineteenth century. He was 
educated at St. Cyr, and first saw active service in the 
Algerian campaign of 1833. Appointed Brigadier-General 


in 1848, he led the assault on the Malakoff in the Crimean 
War, and for his victory over the Austrians at Magenta, 
in 1859, the title Due de Magenta was conferred on 

In 1861, he represented France at the coronation of 
William III of Prussia, and in 1864 he was made Governor- 
General of Algeria. On the outbreak of war with Germany 
in 1870, he was given the command of the Irish Army 
Corps, which was entrusted with the defence of Alsace. 
No general had to cope with a greater combination of 
adverse circumstances. Lack of food and clothing — the 
commissariat department bungled everything — made his 
troops dissatisfied and, as a consequence, ill-disciplined. 
The cavalry ran short of horses and the infantry of 
ammunition ; whilst, to add to the confusion, he was 
continually receiving contradictory orders from Paris. 
Hence, it is small wonder he was unsuccessful. 

He began with disaster. Beaten at Woerth, the first 
engagement of importance in the war, he was obliged to 
abandon the line of the Vosges, and to retreat to Nancy. 
There he was given a fresh army and ordered, much 
against his will, for the step appeared most injudicious 
to him, to join Bazaine. Shut up with his new army 
in Sedan, and surrounded on all sides by overwhelming 
German forces, he was eventually compelled to undergo 
the greatest ignominy that can befall a general, namely, 
capitulation. On the restoration of peace, he returned 
from captivity to France, and was entrusted by M. 
Thiers with the second siege of Paris and the suppression 
of the Communists. This he achieved so successfully 
that, in May, 1873, he was elected President, which 
post he continued to occupy till 1879. He then retired 


to his country residence, where he died, 17th October, 
1893. Though he can hardly be described as a great 
general, no one who suffered such reverses could be 
justly awarded that epithet, he was without doubt an 
honest one, and, but for Bismarck and Von Moltke, it is 
even possible that, in circumstances still more adverse, 
he might have been successful. Fate must, indeed, 
have owed him a grudge, since he was called upon to 
combat not only with one but with two of the 
greatest military geniuses this or any other period has 

The name that figures last on this list is that of Augusta 
Patricia Holmes, a lady who died about eleven years 
ago. Miss Holmes was born in Paris on 16th December, 
1850, of Irish parentage. She made her debut, when only 
thirteen, at a concert given at the Grand Hotel, Paris, 
Madame Nillson, the singer, and Sivori, the famous 
violinist, appearing on the same occasion. Her success 
was immediate and most marked. Her father, however, 
objected to her taking up music as a profession, and, in 
spite of her constant pleadings, remained obdurate. 
Then Augusta grew desperate. Taking down one of the 
innumerable weapons that ornamented the walls of her 
parents' house, she succeeded in stabbing herself with 
it, and would most certainly have bled to death had she 
not been discovered and the bleeding stopped. Her 
father subsequently withdrew his opposition, whereupon 
Augusta immediately commenced her career as a pro- 
fessional. She studied first under Henri Lambert, 
organist at the Cathedral of Versailles, and then under 
the famous composer, Cesar Franck. In her case, 
however, there was no necessity for a long or tedious 


course of study. In 1880 she won for herself a prominent 
position in the musical world with a composition entitled 
Les Argonautes, and from that time onward she steadily 
added to her reputation. One of her chief works, namely, 
La Montague Noire, is remarkable as having been the 
first and the only woman's composition that has ever 
been performed at the Paris Grand Opera. In 1889, for 
the occasion of the centenary of the French Revolution, 
she composed the Ode Triomphale, which was performed 
at the Palais de LTndustrie, 900 artistes taking part in 
it. She also achieved some fame as a poetess. To 
quote from the biographical notice in the Daily Inde- 
pendent, Dublin, 1903, by Miss M. Barry O'Delany : 
" It may not be generally known, and, indeed, I believe 
has never been stated before, that, though she is more 
often spoken of as a musician than as a poet, Augusta 
Holmes, in her own opinion was more of the latter than 
the former." 

Her first musical composition was published when she 
was fourteen ; the following year she wrote La Chanson 
de la Caravana, for chorus and orchestra, which was 
played by Pasdaloup at a concert given by Baron Hauss- 
man at the Hotel de Ville ; and in 1878, she obtained the 
prize at the Concours de la Ville de Paris for her dramatic 
symphony Lutece. Perhaps the best of all her composi- 
tions is the Poeme Symphonique Irlande ; but, in addition 
to the works already mentioned, she composed over 300 
melodies for voice and pianoforte. During the Franco- 
German War of 1870, Madame Augusta Holmes had an 
ambulance of her own in Paris ; and also did much to 
relieve poverty. It is said that, in order to save one 
poor family from being frozen to death, she insisted 


that her grand piano should be chopped up for firewood. 
Madame Holmes, without doubt the greatest woman 
composer of her time, and well in the front rank of poets, 
too, died in Paris on 28th January, 1903. She was 
buried at Versailles. 



As with France, England, Scotland and Wales, Ireland's 
earliest associations with the land of the olive were 
ecclesiastical. Irish monks crossed the seas and visited 
the religious houses in Andalusia and other Spanish 
Provinces, whilst Spanish priests came over to Galway 
and Donegal, and there paid their respects to the heads 
of the Irish monasteries. 

The next phase in the relationship between the two 
countries was the establishment of an Irish Colony of 
priests and students in Valladolid, somewhere about the 
middle of the thirteenth century ; similar colonies being 
established elsewhere in Spain in due succession. Their 
growth, however, was slow, until the latter part of the 
sixteenth century, when the English invasion of Ulster 
and the persecution of the Irish Catholics drove hundreds 
of the latter to Spain as well as to France. The number 
of the Irish students in Valladolid then increased so 
rapidly, that it was deemed essential to establish for 
them a recognized headquarters ; a College, for instance, 
like the many religious training colleges in the great 
University town of Salamanca. Hence they appealed 
to Philip III, and in response to their appeal received 
the following letter. (This copy is reproduced from a 
paper read at the Eucharistic Congress in Madrid, in 
1902, by the Right Rev. Dr. O'Doherty, Bishop of 
Zamboango, Philippine Islands ; and published in 



The Catholic Times and The Irish World and American 
Industrial Liberator.) — 

" To the Rector, Master of the Schools and 
Cloister of the University of Salamanca. 

" As the Irish people who have been living in a 
kind of community in this city have resolved to avail 
themselves of the opportunities it affords for advance- 
ment in letters and languages, a house being prepared 
for them, in which they intend to live under the 
direction of the Fathers of the Society of Jesus, besides 
allowing them this letter to charge you, as I do, to 
regard them as highly recommended, so as not to allow 
them to be maltreated in any way but to favour and 
aid them as far as you can : that as they have left 
their own country and all they possessed in it, in the 
service of God our Lord, and for the preservation of 
the Catholic Faith, and make profession of returning 
to preach and suffer martyrdom in it, if necessary, they 
may get in that University the reception they are 
hoping for. 

" I am certain you will do this and become benefactor 
to them, so that with your subscription and with what 
I am sure the town will give — to the authorities of 
which I also write — they may be able to pursue their 
studies with content and freedom, and thereby attain 
the end they have in view. 

" Valladolid, 2nd August, 1592. 

" YO EL REY (I, the King)." 

In consequence of this letter, Salamanca welcomed the 
Irish students open-armed. It is not known for certain 


what building was first allotted to the Irish, but they 
certainly had no permanent one of their own till 1610, 
when a College was presented to them in the name of 
the States of Castille. It was formally made a Royal 
College, and placed under Royal patronage, and on the 
stone over the hall door were inscribed these words : 
" This College was built by the Kingdom of Castille for 
the support of the Catholic Religion in Ireland in the 
year in which Philip III, the Catholic King, expelled the 
Moriscos enemies of the Faith, 1610." The College was 
attached to the University, where the Irish enjoyed 
exactly the same privileges as the Spanish. The founder 
and first Rector of this College was the Venerable Thomas 
White, a man renowned for his energy and holiness, who 
also founded the Irish Colleges in Lisbon and Santiago, 
and had no small share in the establishment of those in 
Madrid, Alcala and Seville. He died in Santiago, May, 
1622. Other Irishmen associated with the foundation 
of the College in Salamanca were Fathers Archer and 
Conway, both Vice-Presidents. 

Owing to the large number of Irish students who kept 
pouring into Spain in the hope of gaining admittance to 
one or other of the Colleges, another Irish Hospice was 
established in Madrid, where they could wait till there 
was room for them in Salamanca or other of the training 
centres. About this time, too, that is to say, at the 
beginning of the seventeenth century, was built, in 
Madrid, the Irish Church " La Iglesia de los Irlandeses," 
which still stands. In the reign of Charles, all the Irish 
Colleges in Spain were amalgamated with the Irish 
College in Salamanca, which, to quote the words of 
Dr. O'Doherty, " thus became the heir of the other 


establishments, of which she may also be considered the 

The fortunes of the Irish College at Salamanca may 
be said to have varied with those of Spain. When Spain 
was at peace the College flourished, and when Spain 
was at war it fell into a very sorry condition. In 1790 
the number of students was about thirty ; from 1800 to 
1825 the numbers dwindled almost to nothing ; but 
after 1825 there was a gradual increase. During the 
War of Independence, the College was almost razed 
to the ground, and the students had to seek sanctuary 
in the house of the Rector. It was eventually restored, 
however, and is still in existence. All through the 
long years of its existence, that is to say, from 1592 up 
to the present time, there has been no instance of friction 
between the Irish students and the other inhabitants of 
the town — nothing but cordiality and the warmest 
friendship ; moreover, the long list of eminent ecclesi- 
astics the College has turned out provides an ample 
proof of the excellence of its training. 

Father Andrew Sail, who was born in the town of 
Cashel, and was Rector of the College from 1651 to 1654, 
stated that, in the then sixty years of its existence, it 
had sent to the Irish Mission 389 theologians, of whom 
thirty suffered martyrdom. Amongst these theologians, 
were a Primate, four Archbishops, five Bishops, nine 
Provincials of various religious Orders, thirteen famous 
writers, and twenty distinguished doctors of theology. 
Further testimony of the efficiency of the College was 
given by another of its Rectors, Father Joseph Delamar, 
a native of Dublin, who, at the end of the seventeenth 
century affirmed that, up to that time, the Irish College 


at Salamanca had sent out 510 missionaries, of whom 
130 became conspicuous members of various religious 
Orders, four of them being Archbishops, and thirty 
masters of celebrated Universities of Europe. 

Nor has the reputation and prosperity of the College 
waned with age, for, whilst in 1825 all six of the Irish 
Archbishops in Europe had been trained in Salamanca, 
in 1914 not only has the general standard of the students' 
work been well up to the average, but the finances of 
the College have never been sounder. 

The closest tie, then, between Ireland and Spain is 
that of religion. Both countries are Roman Catholic, 
and both, in spite of periodical desertions and dissensions, 
are devoted to their creed. 

In Spain, however, the Church plays a far more 
important role in politics than it does in Ireland ; the 
priest is a very much greater force in the everyday life 
of the layman in Spain than in Ireland ; and in Spain, 
whereas the Church has always been intolerant, in Ireland 
it has been the reverse ; and therein, perhaps, lies the 
chief and only difference in the religions of the two 

In temperament, apart from the fact that both races 
are naturally artistic, musical and dramatic, there is 
very little resemblance between them. Climate makes 
the Spaniard, even more than it makes the native of 
the West of Ireland, lethargic ; and, like the Irishman, 
the Spaniard is a dreamer ; but his dreams are of a nature 
entirely different from those of the Irishmen ; they are 
of the physical rather than of the super-physical. In 
short, there is little of the mystic in the Spaniard, and, 
contrary to the idea popularly formed of him, he is much 


more the materialist than the psychist. The passionate 
qualities of the Spaniard — his quickness to take offence, 
and his deep-rooted thirst for vengeance — need no 
comment here ; but these qualities are not seen in the 
Irishman, at least to nothing like the same extent. The 
Irishman is, perhaps, much more subtle than people 
think him, rather more sensitive ; and nothing like as 
boisterous. In hospitality the Spaniard certainly excels 
him ; in fact, the latter may be regarded as the most 
hospitable person in the world. Also he is the most 
honourable. The Irishman has a very high sense of 
loyalty and devotion to his country, his religion, and 
any cause he represents ; but for all-round honour — the 
sort of honour that looks with loathing on what is styled 
tact — no nationality comes up to that of the Spanish. 
A Spanish gentleman's word is his bond ; it is never 
even compromised, let alone broken. 

Taking into consideration the widespread popularity 
at one time of the Spanish in Ireland, it is rather surpris- 
ing that Irishmen have not settled in Spain in larger 
numbers. Up to the present, the emigration of Irishmen 
to Spain has been chiefly confined to clergy and soldiers. 
To-day there are, probably, not more than a thousand 
Irishmen in Spain, at the most, inclusive of those who 
are the descendants of the sixteenth and seventeenth 
century immigrants, and, consequently, only partly 


The O'Donnells, a famous Irish family, have figured 
most prominently in the history of Spain ever since the 
beginning of the seventeenth century. 


The night after the defeat of Red Hugh and Rory 
O'Donnell, and Hugh O'Neill, together with their Spanish 
allies under Don Juan d'Aquila, at Kinsale, on 3rd 
December, 1602, the Irish princes rallied their forces and 
encamped at Innishannon, on the banks of the river 
Bandon. Here it was decided that O'Sullivan, Prince 
of Beare and Bantry, and one of the most trustworthy 
of the Irish generals, should hold Dunboy as a landing- 
place for the Spaniards if they sent reinforcements ; 
that Hugh O'Neill should return to Ulster and support 
himself there as well as he could ; that Rory, Red Hugh's 
brother, should assume command of the men of Tir- 
connell, and that Red Hugh himself should proceed at 
once to Spain and try to persuade Philip III to send an 
expedition to Ulster. These plans were no sooner 
conceived than executed, and on 6th January, 1602, 
Red Hugh, accompanied by a few of his principal officers 
and Father Florence Conry, his confessor, embarked at 
Castlehaven for Spain. According to the Four Masters : 
" when his resolution was learned by the people of 
O'DonnelFs camp, it was mournful to hear the loud 
clapping of hands, the tearful mourning, and loud 
lamentation that prevailed. Ah ! they had reason for 
this at the time, for never afterwards did they behold 
as ruler over them him who was their leader and earthly 
prince in the island of Erin." After an eight days' 
voyage, Red Hugh reached Corunna. He was received 
there by the Duke of Caracena, who gave him his right 
hand, " which," says the Rev. C. P. Meehan, in his 
admirable Life of Hugh Roe O'Donnell, " within his 
government, he would not have done to the greatest 
Duke of Spain." The following day he visited the 


Archbishop of St. James of Compost ella, who, after 
celebrating the High Mass and administering the Sacra- 
ment to him, entertained him at dinner in his own palace, 
and presented him with a thousand ducats to help defray 
the expenses of his journey. From Corunna Red Hugh 
proceeded to Zamora, where he was accorded the most 
sympathetic welcome by Philip III, who promised he 
would lose no time in sending another expedition to 
Ireland under a far more competent general than Don 
Juan d'Aquila. He feted Red Hugh sumptuously for 
several days, and then Red Hugh returned to Corunna 
to await the fulfilment of the King's pledge. He waited 
in vain. The war in the Netherlands taking an unex- 
pected turn against Spain, Philip hardly felt justified in 
sparing any of his ships or soldiers to aid Ireland. Bitterly 
disappointed, Red Hugh determined to seek a second 
interview with Philip, in the hope of persuading him to 
do something for the Irish, however little. 

Setting out for Valladolid, where Philip then held his 
Court, Red Hugh arrived at Simancas, where he was 
attacked with a violent sickness, due, so it was afterwards 
supposed, to poison administered to him in a very subtle 
way by a secret agent of Elizabeth. Convinced that he 
was about to die, Red Hugh sent for Fathers Florence 
Conry and Maurice O'Donlevy, both members of the 
Franciscan Monastery of Donegal, founded by the 
O'Donnells in 1474, and received from them his final 
consolations. He died on 10th September, 1602, aged 
30 years, fifteen of which he had spent fighting for the 
liberty of Ireland. 

" His early eclipse," say the Four Masters, " was 
mournful to many ; for he was a mighty and bounteous 

17— (2 339 ) 


lord ; a vehement and irresistible destroyer of his English 
and Irish enemies ; a sweet-sounding trumpet, endowed 
with the gift of eloquence, wisdom, and comeliness of 
feature that captivated everyone that beheld him." 
At Philip Ill's command the body of Red Hugh was taken 
to the Royal Palace at Valladolid, " where," according 
to the Four Masters, " it was surrounded by a countless 
number of the King's State Officers, guards and Council, 
with luminous torches and bright flambeaux of beautiful 
waxlight burning on each side of it. From the 
Palace it was transferred to the Franciscan Church, 
whence, after Mass was duly sung, it was deposited 
with honour and veneration in the chapel of the 

James Clarence Mangan, in his " Lament for the 
Princes of Tyrone and Tirconnell," writes of the burial 
of Red Hugh thus — 

It is done ! All is over ! 

The too fond-hearted lover 
Of his mother-land is lying in his crypt of marble stone. 

May a blessed resurrection 

Be the meed of that affection 
That burned in his bosom for her, and her alone ! 

Many since have shared his doom, 
Of our noble-souled and true, 
For woe is me, the brightest of the laurels Erin gathers 

Still bestow their barren bloom 
But on those, who, like to Hugh, 
Lay their bones far away from the valleys of their fathers ! 

It was round Red Hugh that the famous National 
Song " O'Donnell Abu " was written. It is known to 
every O'Donnell throughout the world, and is still 
played and sung in all parts of Ireland by every true- 
blooded Celt. These are the words — 



Proudly the note of the trumpet is sounding, 

Loudly the war-cries arise on the gale ; 
Fleetly the steed by Loc Suilig is bounding ; 

To join the thick squadron in Saimear's green Vale : 

On, every mountaineer, 

Strangers to flight and fear ; 
Rush to the standard of dauntless Red Hugh. 

Bonnought and Gallowglass 

Throng from each mountain-pass, 
On, for Old Erin — O'Donnell Abu ! 

Princely O'Neill to our aid is advancing 

With many a chieftain and warrior clan ; 
A thousand proud steeds in his vanguard are prancing, 

'Neath the borders brave from the banks of the Bann. 
Many a heart shall quail 
Under its coat of mail ; 
Deeply the merciless foeman shall rue, 
When on his ear shall ring, 
Borne on the breeze's wing, 
Tir-Conaill's dread war-cry : " O'Donnell Abu ! " 


Wildly o'er Desmond the war-wolf is howling ; 

Fearless the eagle swoops over the plain ; 
The fox in the streets of the city is prowling ; 

All, all who would scare them are banished or slain ! 
Grasp every stalwart hand, 
Hackbut and battle brand, 
Pay them back the deep debt so long due ; 

Norris and Clifford well 

Can of Tir-Conaill tell. 
Onward to glory — O'Donnell Abu ! 


Sacred to cause that Clan-Conaill's defending — 

The altars we kneel at and homes of our sires ; 
Ruthless the ruin the foe is extending — 

Midnight is red with the plunderer's fires ! 
On with O'Donnell, then, 
Fight the old fight again ; 
Sons of Tir-Conaill, all valiant and true ! 

Make the false Saxon feel 

Erin's avenging steel ! 
Strike for your country — O'Donnell Abu ! 

According to the English historians, O'Neill, who was 
styled " the Brain of Ireland," planned all the battles, 


whilst Red Hugh, who was designated " the Sword of 
Ireland," merely fought them. But this is not quite 
true, and English historians can neither have made a 
careful study of the two leaders, nor of the campaigns in 
which they were engaged. Had they done so, they would 
have learned that Red Hugh's counsels were always 
being sought after, and that, good as he was as a soldier, 
he was undoubtedly equally clever as a general. On 
this point the Rev. C. P. Meehan, who has written more 
ably on the O'Neills and the O'Donnells than any other 
writer, says : " Of Red Hugh's military and diplomatic 
genius you have heard enough ; nor can you doubt his 
excellence in both departments, when you remember 
that during his ten years war he maintained correspon- 
dence with Spain and Rome, defeated many of Queen 
Elizabeth's ablest generals, and constrained that powerful 
sovereign to expend more than nine millions of the 
present currency before she succeeded in crushing without 
subduing him." Red Hugh married the Lady Avelina, 
Hugh O'Neill's sister, but had no children by her. He 
was descended from Niall of the Nine Hostages — from 
whom Hugh O'Neill was also descended. 

Hugh Balldearg O'Donnell, the son of John O'Donnell, 
was born in Ireland somewhere about 1650. He seems 
to have styled himself " The O'Donnell," a title to which 
he would seem to have had a doubtful right, as there 
were several older branches of the clan in existence. 
His father having property in Spain, Hugh Balldearg 
went there when a boy, and subsequently commanded, 
for the use of Philip III, a regiment of Irish horse. 
In 1690 he sailed for Ireland, and, arriving there just 
after the battle of the Boyne, visited James II, who 

Thurlough O'Donnell, 
descendant of Niall of the Nine Hostages I 

Shane Luing 

from whom are descended 

certain of the South of 

Ireland O'Donnells. 

(died 1565). 

(died 1566). 

(died 1583). 

Niall Garv, 

Baron Lifford 

(died in 

Tower of London, 


Col. Manus. 

Col. Manus. 

Chas. Roe. 

Count Manus 
(died 1793). 

Hugh More 

of Newport, 


From whom 
was descended 

Sir Richard 
O'Donel, Bart. 

Niall Garv, 
(died 1436). 

Hugh Roe 
(died 1508). 

Hugh Duff 
(died 1537). 

Hugh (died 1600). 

Red Hugh 
(died 1602). 
(No issue.) 

Hugh Boy. 


Earl of Tirconnell 

(died 1608). 

Hugh Oge 



of the Cathach 

(no issue). 


Hugh Balldearg Conal. 

Con Oge. 

Hugh Albert,. 

Earl of Tirconnell 

(died 1642, 

and supposed to have had 

no issue). 

Lady Mary 
Stuart O'Donnell 
(date of her death 


Has present day 

descendants in 

Spain and 


Has Present 
day descendants. 

(2339) bet. pp. 260 & 26 1 


was on board ship at Kinsale Harbour, preparing to make 
a hasty flight for France. Before his departure, James 
gave Hugh Balldearg an introduction to Talbot, who 
had usurped the earldom of Tirconnell (the rightful 
heritage of the O'Donnells, and even now regarded as 
theirs by all who are in any degree acquainted with 
Irish family history), and who was then commanding 
the Jacobite forces in Ireland. Tirconnell gave Hugh 
Balldearg permission to raise as many men as he could, 
and he at once gathered together over 10,000 recruits — 
chiefly from among the peasants of Leinster, on whom 
the name of O'Donnell acted like magic. There is a 
legend, still believed in among the Celtic population of 
Ulster and Connaught, that Ireland will never be an 
entirely free and independent country till her people 
unite together under the leadership of an O'Donnell, with 
a balldearg, or red spot, on the forehead or chest, which 
mark has always been a peculiar characteristic of the Clan 
Conaill. Hugh Balldearg, who continually declared he 
belonged to the oldest branch of the O'Donnells, was 
supposed to have this mark, hence the clansmen flocked 
to his call, and were led by him as no one else could 
have led them. However, his exceptional popularity 
arousing the jealousy of Talbot and his Anglo-Irish 
followers, all kinds of obstacles were thrown in his way — 
arms and ammunitions were denied him, exorbitant 
charges were made him for food and horses — and he 
eventually had to take the field with little over a thousand 

At the front, the same kind of treatment awaited him — 
he was constantly harassed by all sorts of contradictory 
orders, and never allowed an opportunity of coming into 


contact with the enemy. At last, thoroughly disgusted 
with Talbot's behaviour, he decided to throw in his lot 
with William. He approached Ginkel and offered to 
fight for him, provided he was awarded the earldom of 
Tirconnell and £2,000 towards his expenses in the field. 
An account of his negotiations appeared in the London 
Gazette for 13th August, 1690. William III, only too 
glad to win over so eminent an Irishman to his cause, 
bestowed a pension of £500 a year on him ; but neither 
gave him the earldom nor accepted his military services 
in Ireland, owing to the antipathy of the Protestants 
towards a Roman Catholic. 

After obtaining his pension, Hugh Balldearg went to 
Austria, fought as a volunteer for that country in Italy 
and the Netherlands, and, on the termination of hostilities, 
proceeded to Spain. There he entered the Regular Army 
and, rising to be a Major-General, died in 1704. 

Among a number of other Irishmen who fled to Spain 
after the rout of the Boyne was Hugh O'Donnell, Count 
of Tirconnell, great-grandson of Con Oge O'Donnell, 
who was brother to Hugh Boy, the grandfather of 
Balldearg. The genealogy 1 of the Count of Tirconnell 
is given on next page — 

Hugh O'Donnell, like his great forbear, Red Hugh, 
was well received at the Spanish Court, and consequently 
settled in Andalusia. Of his descendants, all of whom 
were soldiers, the first two of any special note were 
Charles and Henry, the third and sixth sons, respectively, 
of Don Jos6 O'Donnell. Both served with considerable 

1 This genealogy is taken from The History of Don Leopold O'Donnell, Duke 
of Tetuan, by Don Manuel Ibo Alfaro, published in Madrid (1867), and lent 
to Elliot O'Donnell, the author of this work, by El Excelentisima Sefior Don 
Juan O'Donnell y Vargas, Duque de Tetuan y Conde de Lucana, Grande 
de Espana, Teniente Coronel ; and from other sources as well. 



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distinction in the Peninsular War. Charles rose to be 
Captain-General of Viega, Director-General of Artillery 
and Military Governor of the Plaza de Valencia. He was 
taken prisoner by the French and lodged in the fort of 
Vincennes. He married Dona Josef a J oris, and, dying 
in 1829, left four sons and four daughters. On the 
outbreak of the Peninsular War, known in Spain as the 
War of Independence, Henry was a Lieutenant in the 
artillery. Conspicuous for his bravery in some of the 
earlier skirmishes and battles, he speedily rose to be 
Lieutenant-General, and was eventually made Count of 
Abisbal. Returning to France about 1821, he died at 
Montpellier in 1823. He married Dona Ignacia Burgues 
de Gerona, and had two children, a son and a daughter. 

Charles, known in history as " The General," left a 
widow who survived him many years. She held a post 
in the Household of Queen Amalia, King Ferdinand 
VIFs third wife, and was the most intimate friend of the 
Princess Maria, wife of Don Carlos, brother of Ferdinand. 
When Ferdinand, the most cruel and tyrannical monarch 
of modern times, died, Spain was instantly divided into 
two parties — those who wished to see the Princess 
Isabella, the baby daughter of Ferdinand's fourth wife, 
Christina, Queen, and those who preferred Don Carlos, 
who had made himself very popular through his kindness 
and broad-minded views. 

Mrs. O'Donnell, a woman of tremendous force of 
character and determination, without the slightest 
hesitation threw in her lot with Don Carlos, and com- 
manded her sons to support his cause. All obeyed but 
Leopold, who, from beginning to end, never swerved in 
his loyalty to Isabella. 


Charles, Mrs. O'DonnelTs eldest son, after a brilliant 
career as cavalry leader under the Carlist General, 
Zumalacarreguy, was assassinated by a Cristino trooper, 
whose life he had generously spared ; John was captured 
whilst heading an attack on Barcelona, and handed over 
to the mob by the cowardly Governor of the citadel, to 
be instantly stabbed to death and torn to pieces ; Henry, 
although fighting bravely throughout the war, had no 
luck, and never occupied any post of great distinction ; 
and Leopold, alone fighting for the Cristinos, was the one 
destined to win the greatest fame. 

The opening of the Civil War found the Cristinos in a 
very bad way. To begin with, they were split up into 
innumerable factions. Quesada, Escobra, Sarsfield, and 
Mirasol were all jealous of each other ; there was no 
discipline anywhere ; the soldiers had very little food 
and no pay ; and as the result of their disputes, Quesada 
was stabbed to death in Madrid ; Escobra was murdered 
by his own soldiers, paid to do the job ; Sarsfield, the 
first cavalry officer in Spain, and an indirect descendant 
of the Earl of Lucan, was also assassinated by bribed 
followers ; whilst Mirasol only escaped a horrible death 
by hiding for days in a cellar. It was this state of chaos 
that gave Leopold his chance. Boldly facing an infu- 
riated mob of Cristino soldiery and civilians, who were 
thirsting for the blood of Mirasol and all the other Cristino 
Generals, Leopold bared his chest and dared them to do 
their worst. For a minute or so his fate hung in the 
balance, and had he shown the slightest symptoms of 
fear, all would have been over with him. But Leopold 
O'Donnell was strong, capable and fearless ; he was the 
man the moment demanded, and — albeit with an almost 


superhuman effort — he won. A Spanish mob admires 
nothing so much as reckless courage — ordinary fortitude 
does not appeal to them ; they want an exhibition of 
utter recklessness, utter abandonment, such as they have 
never witnessed before — and in Leopold O'Donnell they 
got it. Instead of killing him, they rent the air with 
applause, and he at once became their idol. This event 
having taken place just after Sir George de Lacy Evans 
and his legions — without whom the Cristinos would have 
accomplished nothing — wound up their long series of 
successes by capturing Fontarabia and practically retired 
from the scene, the post of Captain-General of the 
Cristinos forces was vacated, and to this post Leopold 
O'Donnell, amid the frantic acclamations of both soldiery 
and populace, was at once elected. Directly after his 
appointment, he met and defeated the Carlists under 
General Cabrera, and was awarded the title of Count of 

Henry O'Donnell then left the Carlist party and joined 
his brother. On 29th August, 1839, peace was signed 
between the contending parties, shortly after which 
Queen Christina took everyone by surprise by suddenly 
abdicating the Regency, and retiring with her infant 
daughter to Montpellier. Her parting speech to 
Espartero, who filled her place as Regent — a post he 
was believed to have had his eyes on ever since Ferdinand's 
death — is almost too well known to bear repeating. 
" You owe everything to me, Espartero," she said, " I 
have created you Duke of Morella and Vittoria, and a 
grandee of Spain, but I have not succeeded in making 
you a gentleman." The moment Espartero was in 
power he began to use it. His regime was one of iron 


severity, rapacity and cruelty. Risings took place in 
Barcelona, Catalonia, Galicia, Arragon and Andalusia, 
and they were all suppressed by wholesale massacre. 
At last, in 1843, Narvaez and Leopold O'Donnell proved 
too strong for him, and, forcing him to abdicate, brought 
back the little Princess Isabella from exile and placed 
her on the throne. Narvaez then assumed the position 
of President of the Cabinet, whilst O'Donnell became 
Captain-General of Cuba, and afterwards Inspector- 
General of infantry and a senator. 

A new-comer now appeared in the form of a thoroughly 
unscrupulous German newspaper editor and proprietor, 
named Sartorius. By means of his journal, he pushed 
his way into notoriety, and was soon looked upon as a 
big factor in the political struggle, in which Narvaez 
and O'Donnell were opposed to Espartero, who had 
returned from banishment and established himself in 
luxury at Logrono. The rapidly increasing influence of 
Sartorius over Narvaez and the Cortes at length filling 
O'Donnell and Espartero with the gravest apprehensions 
as to his ultimate designs, they became friends and 
formed an alliance against the German. Sartorius, whose 
spies were everywhere, discovering the plot, at once 
procured their banishment. Espartero fled out of the 
country, but O'Donnell hid in Madrid, and for five 
months entirely baffled the ingenuity of the Spanish 
police to find him. 

Then came a reaction. Public opinion, always fickle, 
but nowhere so fickle as in Spain, suddenly turned in 
favour of the refugees, and a loud clamour arose for 
their return. This was towards the end of July. Two 
months later, Spain was entirely in the hands of O'Donnell 


and Espartero. For a long time there had been a growing 
conviction among the more progressive of the Spanish 
politicians that the Church had far too much influence 
over the State, and the moment O'Donnell and Espartero 
found themselves at the head of affairs, they determined 
to remedy that evil. Between them they drew up a 
document enabling both the State and private individuals 
to purchase Church property at a fair valuation, wherever 
and whenever they desired, and asked the young Queen 
to affix her signature. At first she refused — pleading 
her private convictions as an excuse. However, she at 
length yielded, and chiefly through the perseverance of 
O'Donnell was prevailed upon to sign. To attack 
Church Estates, as the present Liberal Government in 
England know, is always risky, but in no country in the 
world is it so risky as in Spain. Even to conceive such 
an idea in Spain was bold enough, but to give voice to 
it was bold beyond measure, and Leopold O'Donnell and 
Espartero — fearless though they were — found the odds 
against them were too strong. The Church at once 
brought about another Carlist Rising. O'Donnell put 
it down. It broke out again, and then, before O'Donnell 
could suppress it, public opinion in Madrid was roused 
against him. He retired from politics, and Narvaez 
became the paramount influence once again. But only 
for a short time. O'Donnell had a great reputation for 
honesty and liberalism — Narvaez had no such reputation. 
Moreover, of the two men, O'Donnell was generally 
recognized as by far the abler. The Church had put its 
man in office, but it could not keep him there. Public 
opinion turned once more ; Narvaez was expelled from 
office, and Leopold O'Donnell at last became Prime 


Minister. O'Donnell was undoubtedly the greatest man 
in Spain. His skill as a general, and bravery as a soldier, 
had been seen over and over again in his constant fights 
against the Carlists ; whilst his wonderful tact and 
resourcefulness had alone enabled him to survive the 
innumerable intrigues of his enemies. Besides, whereas 
Espartero, Narvaez, Sartorius, and other Spanish political 
leaders cared not a jot for Spain, but only for their own 
aggrandisement, it was not so with O'Donnell. He alone, 
perhaps, of all the Ministers in office was actuated wholly 
and solely by patriotic motives. He had stuck to Queen 
Isabella through thick and thin — no other soldier in her 
service could point to so many scars obtained in fighting 
against her foes — and his one ambition was to see her 
at the head of a Government which should be as strong 
as it was honest and enlightened. Spain had lain long 
enough in a quagmire of moral decadence ; it was 
O'Donnell's desire once more to see it in possession of its 
ancient glory and self-respect. 

Queen Isabella was greatly attached to O'Donnell. His 
independence, even more, perhaps, than his courtesy and 
chivalry, his dignity and firmness of character, appealed 
to her. She scolded and browbeat Narvaez, Sartorius and 
Espartero, whom she despised as mere adventurers, but 
she never adopted any of those tactics with O'Donnell. 
Trusting him implicitly, she invariably listened to his 
counsel, and it was to him, and him alone, that she confided 
all her troubles, private as well as public. In order to 
revive the National feeling in Spain — and in his opinion 
this alone was sufficient justification for the act — 
O'Donnell suddenly declared war against Morocco. It was 
a bold stroke, and it took both nations by surprise. Neither 


Spain nor Morocco anticipated war — and, consequently, 
neither nation was ready for it. But if O'Donnell was 
a past master in his sudden and unexpected declaration 
of hostilities, he was equally a past master in the speedy 
mobilisation of his forces. The war, in fact, was hardly 
announced before an expedition was on its way to Morocco, 
and he himself, albeit a Prime Minister, went with it. 
To have been righting in Morocco and at the same time 
managing affairs in Spain was surely a phenomenal 
feat — but what to us must appear almost beyond the 
range of possibility, O'Donnell undertook with a serenity 
that was simply staggering. On the eve of his departure, 
he gave a few instructions to his Ministers, and, kissing 
the Queen's hand, smilingly assured her he would conquer 
Morocco and be back again in Madrid in time for the 
Christmas festivities. His rivals openly declared him 
mad ; but they did not venture to attack him, for not 
only had he the Queen and the people at his back, but 
the Church, though she had regarded him with disfavour 
owing to the Church Lands Decree, now proffered him 
her friendship. 

For the first time for over a hundred years Spain stood 
united — and now it only wanted a great national victory 
to see that union cemented with bonds no party of 
adventurers, however strong and cunning, could break 
asunder. O'Donnell was determined to win that victory. 
The first batch of 3,500 Spanish troops were landed at 
Ceuta on 19th November, 1859. It was the wet season, 
and the constant torrents of rain caused pneumonia and 
sickness, on the top of which cholera set in, and killed 
hundreds. On 21st December the first battle took place. 
The Moors attacked the Spanish force and were defeated 


with tremendous losses. Leaving several thousands of 
his now much reduced force behind him to guard the 
base at Ceuta, O'Donnell at once pressed forward — his 
scheme being to march along the coast to the mouth of 
the Tetuan river, and thence strike inland to the capital 
of the country. 

After advancing some distance, he was delayed by the 
lack of provisions, the transport steamers being unable 
to land food owing to the roughness of the sea. At last, 
however, the sea calmed, the ships disgorged themselves 
of their cargo, and the army forged ahead. In three 
days' time they arrived in sight of Tetuan, and prepara- 
tions were made for an assault. On the 4th of February, 
1860, the attack began. There were 25,000 Moors to 
15,000 Spanish ; but the latter were vastly superior in 
cannon. The battle was soon over. Beaten at all 
points, the Moors retreated into the city, hastily plundered 
it, and made a precipitate retreat to the hills in the rear. 
On the 6th of February the Spanish flag was hoisted 
over the Emperor's residence, and Morocco was 
pronounced a Spanish province. 

Out of the 35,000 O'Donnell had had with him at the 
start, about 29,000 remained, a fairly large number, 
considering the ravages of epidemics and the two big 
battles in which he had been engaged. On the whole, 
the campaign was a success, and O'Donnell considerably 
enhanced his reputation. All hopes, however, of Spain 
maintaining occupation of Morocco were dashed on the 
head. Lord John Russell, the English Prime Minister, 
declaring that a Spanish occupation of Tetuan would be 
" inconsistent with the safety of Gibraltar," pressure 
was put on Spain to withdraw its forces ; and Spain, of 


course, had to give in. It was one thing to fight against 
Morocco, but quite another thing to fight against England. 
In the meanwhile, however, Morocco had paid a war 
indemnity of 13,000,000 dollars, and O'Donnell was 
created Duke of Tetuan. On his return to Madrid he 
found himself more powerful than ever ; more powerful 
than anyone outside Royalty had ever been — he was 
Marshal, Prime Minister, and a grandee — and all had 
been won entirely through his own merit. He survived 
the war seven years, and died at Biarritz, 5th November, 




James Fitzgerald, cousin of the fifteenth Earl of 
Desmond, was born in Ireland in, or about, 1520. Early 
imbued with a desire for travelling, he left Ireland when 
he was in his teens, and visited France, Spain, the Low 
Countries, Germany and Turkey. He assisted most of 
these countries when they were at war, and was highly 
praised for his valour by the Emperor Charles V, the 
King of France, and the King of Poland. His adventures 
would fill several volumes. Coming over to Ireland in 
a Spanish ship in 1579, he was killed soon after landing. 
His wife and children were brutally murdered by the 
English soldiers during the Irish War of 1596. 

William Walsh, contemporary with James Fitzmaurice, 
but a man of peace, was born in Dunboyne, about 1512. 
Educated for the Church, Walsh quickly rose to eminence, 
and in 1554 was appointed Bishop of Meath by the Pope. 
Disputing with his superiors in the Irish Church on certain 
matters relative to ceremonial, he was deprived of his 
bishopric and imprisoned. Effecting his escape, after 
being incarcerated in the gloomiest of dungeons for 
seven years, he went to France, but returned to Ireland 
soon afterwards, and resumed his priestly functions. 
The Pope, who had a very high opinion of him, both 
with regard to his ability and piety, sent him a brief 
empowering him to act for the dioceses of Dublin and 
Armagh. Unable to get on with his colleagues in the 


i8— (2339) 


Irish Church, however, Walsh retired to Spain, where he 
was appointed an Assistant to the Archbishop of Toledo. 
He died at Alcala in 1577. 

Father Florence Conry, no less famous than William 
Walsh, was born in Galway in 1561. Sent to college in 
the Netherlands and afterwards in Spain, Father Conry 
entered the Franciscan Order and distinguished himself 
as a student of St. Augustine's works. Coming to the 
notice of Philip II, through his vigorous defence of certain 
of the Roman Catholic doctrines, he was appointed 
Provincial of the Franciscans in Ireland, and sailed with 
the Spanish Armada. Wrecked on the Irish coast, he 
succeeded in reaching land, where he was received with 
every kindness by his own countrymen. A short time 
afterwards he met Red Hugh O'Donnell and was appointed 
his chaplain, which post he continued to hold till Red 
Hugh's death at Simancas. In 1609, he was appointed 
Archbishop of Tuam, but, unable to stay in Ireland 
owing to the severe Penal Laws against the Catholics, 
he crossed over to Belgium and founded the Irish College 
at Louvain. He died in 1629 in a Franciscan Convent 
in Madrid, and was taken to the College at Louvain to 
be buried. Among the many works he published are 
Peregrinus Jerichuntinus and A Christian Instructor. 

Thomas Stucley, a man of a very different calibre 
from Father Conry, was born in Ireland about 1525. 
Fighting for Shane O'Neill in the wars of 1565-1567, he 
went to Italy in 1570, to seek the Pope's aid in getting 
up an expedition against the Elizabethan forces in 
Ireland. The Pope received him extremely favourably, 
made him Marquis of Leinster and Earl of Wexford (the 
latter title had already been granted by Elizabeth to 


Calvagh O'Donnell) and offered him 800 Italian soldiers. 
Whether Stucley accepted that offer is not known for 
certain, but at all events he never got to Ireland. Alleged 
to have met James Fitzgerald, when he was about to 
embark for Ireland, he was persuaded by him to go to 
Portugal instead, and, on arriving in the latter country, 
he was immediately inveigled into going on an expedition 
against the Moors. He perished in a skirmish in Morocco, 
somewhere about 1578. 

Dominic de Rosario O'Daly, an Irishman who has left 
an indelible mark on the ecclesiastical history of Spain, 
was born in Kerry in 1595. Entering the Dominican 
Order at Lugo, Dominic O'Daly next went to Flanders, 
and thence to Madrid, where he acted as one of the Prince 
of Wales's agents in negotiating for the hand of the 
Princess Isabella. Later on he went to Portugal, and, 
distinguishing himself in the Revolution that freed that 
country from Spain, was appointed Father Confessor to 
the Queen. In 1655 he turned diplomatist, and for a short 
time represented Portugal at the Court of Louis XIV. 
On his return to Lisbon he was Censor of the Supreme 
Court of the Inquisition, and founded the Irish College 
of the Dominican Order in Portugal, of which he became 
the first rector. He had the misfortune to die a 
few days after the Pope issued a Bull appointing him 
Bishop of Coimbra. His death occurred in June, 1662, 
and he was buried in the Dominican College in Lisbon. 
Among several works of more or less ecclesiastical 
importance, was his Initium, Incrementum, et exitus 
familiae Geraldinorum . . . ac persecutionis haereticorum 
descriptio (published in Lisbon, 1655). He was admit- 
tedly a very able and loyal disciple of the Church, but his 


reputation is for ever sullied through his connection with 
that so utterly and indefensibly infamous institution, the 

Owen Roe O'Neill does not play a very large role in 
the annals of Spain. Son of Art O'Neill, and nephew of 
the great Hugh, he was born in Ulster in 1590, and educated 
for a priest in the Irish Franciscan Monastery of Louvain. 
Soon tiring of the religious life, for which he was utterly 
unsuited, he took an abrupt departure from the convent, 
and, coming to Spain, entered the Army. His career in 
the Spanish Service, where he was known as Don Eugenio 
O'Neill, was extremely brilliant. In 1640 he led an 
expedition of 1,500 men, a large proportion of whom 
were Spaniards, against the French, who were besieging 
Arras. He was obliged to retreat, but he enhanced his 
reputation by the skill with which he handled his troops, 
as well as by his personal valour. The campaign over 
without his having any further opportunity of distin- 
guishing himself, he retired from the Spanish Army, 
and went to Brussels. There he was approached by a 
deputation from Ulster, requesting him to assume the 
supreme command of the Irish Catholic forces in their 
fierce struggle with the English. Accepting the post, 
and furnished with a large sum of money from the Pope, 
he sailed from Dunkirk in the frigate St. Francis, accom- 
panied by his sons, Henry, Con and Brian ; and by 
O'Cahan, Brian O'Byrne, Gerald Fitzgerald, Owen 
O'Dogherty, and a number of other Irishmen. He landed 
at Castledoe, in Donegal, and joined his army of 15,000 
men at Charlemont. The rest of his days are entirely 
confined to Ireland. Before leaving Spain, he had 
married Rose, sister of Sir Cahir O'Dogherty. 

y*~^ <KL 



[See p. 277 


Philip O'Sullivan-Beare, another Irishman of purely 
Celtic lineage, was born in his father's castle on Dursey 
Island, Ireland, and was sent to Spain in 1602 as a hostage 
for the performance of an agreement made between 
his father and Philip III. Educated at Compost ella 
he entered the Spanish Navy, but seems to have devoted 
far more of his time to the composition in Latin of 
historical and religious works than to the study of 
Naval Science. He published several books, the most 
important of which are : Historiae Catholicae Iberniae 
Compendium (Lisbon, 1621), which contains, among other 
useful information, by far the best account of the O'Neill 
and O'Donnell wars ever written ; Patriciana Dec as 
(published in 1629) ; and Archicornigeromastix, sive 
Jacobi Usheri Heresiarchae Confutatio. 

For a long time he was engaged in a very violent 
controversy with Archbishop Ussher, relative to the 
Ancient Celtic Church, in which both abused each other 
freely. Ussher pronounced O'Sullivan-Beare to be " as 
egregious a liar as any that this day breatheth in Chris- 
tendum " ; while O 'Sullivan retaliated by calling him 
" a rude and insulting bear." 

After the publication of his Compendium, O'Sullivan 
had the misfortune to lose nearly all his relatives. His 
sister, Helen, was drowned on her way to Ireland ; his 
father died suddenly — which was surely a matter of no 
great wonder, since he was 100 years old — and was buried 
in the Franciscan Church at Corunna ; his brother, 
Daniel, was killed in a skirmish with the Turks ; and 
his mother died of a broken heart. O'Sullivan survived 
them many years, living on in Spain till 1660, when he, 
too, died, and was buried in Madrid. 


Richard Wall, who was one of the best known Anglo- 
Irishmen in Spain, was born in County Waterford, in or 
about 1694. Entering the Spanish Navy when still in 
his teens, he saw service against Sicily in 1718, distin- 
guishing himself greatly in an engagement with the 
unfortunate Admiral Byng. Forsaking the Navy for 
the Army, he served in Montemar's expedition to Naples, 
and took no little part in the placing of Don Carlos 
on the throne of the Two Sicilies. The same year he 
went to America to make plans for a Spanish invasion 
of Jamaica. On his return to Spain, he was sent by 
that country as private agent to Aix-la-Chapelle and 
Holland, and, in 1747, as Ambassador to England. 
In 1752, he was granted the rank of Major-General ; 
whilst, in 1754, he was appointed Minister of Foreign 
Affairs. During his long continuance in office, Wall 
always maintained a very friendly attitude to England, 
and acted as a great check to Charles III, who was a 
most pronounced Anglophobe. Owing to severe trouble 
with his sight, Wall was at last obliged to relinquish his 
duties and to relapse into private life. Loaded with 
honours and rewards for his long and meritorious services, 
he retired to his house at Mirador, but continued to pay 
periodical visits to the Court at Aranjuez up to the time 
of his death, which occurred at Granada in 1778. 

Wall stands out prominently as one of the most honest 
and independent statesmen ever possessed by Spain, and 
it speaks volumes for him that, when he was about to 
retire, Charles III, with whom he had had many differ- 
ences, tried his utmost to persuade him to remain in 
office. Wall is also remembered in connection with his 
efforts to preserve and restore the palace of the Alhambra. 


William Bowles, another Irishman associated with 
Spain, went thither late in life to study natural history, 
and to try to create an interest among the Spaniards in 
mineralogy. He wrote several works on mineralogy and 
natural history, and a series of Peruvian plants has been 
named after him. He died in Spain in 1780. 

Count Alexander O'Reilly, yet another Irishman of 
this period, contemporary with Wall and Bowles, and 
an intimate friend of the former, was born at Baltrasna, 
in County Meath, in 1722. Entering the Irish Brigade, 
which had been raised in Spain about 1700, he saw service 
in Italy, where he was severely wounded ; and in Prussia, 
where he distinguished himself greatly at the battle of 
Hochkirchen, in 1758. 

The following year he quitted the Spanish Army, and 
entering that of France, fought at Bergen (1759), Minden 
and Rosbach. Re-entering the Spanish Service he was 
made Lieutenant-General, and defeated the Portuguese 
at Chaves in 1762. In 1763, during a sudden rising of 
the mob in Madrid, which was infuriated at the acceptance 
by the Spanish Government of the humiliating terms 
offered it by the English at the Conference in Paris, 
O'Reilly had the good fortune to rescue Charles III from 
being torn to pieces. As a reward for this he was made 
Field-Marshal, was entrusted with the remodelling of 
the army on the lines of that of Prussia, and was sent, as 
second in command of almost the entire forces of Spain, 
to Havannah. 

In June, 1768, he added enormously to his fame by 
capturing Louisiana from the French, and, on his return 
to Spain, he was made Governor of Madrid and Inspector- 
General of Infantry. Soon after this he was sent in 


command of an expedition to Algiers, but failed, owing to 
the jealousy of his subordinate Spanish officers. He was 
now unpopular, and Charles III, not daring to re-instate 
him in his governorship of Madrid, made him, instead, 
Governor of Cadiz and Captain-General of Andalusia. 
His enemies, however, would not let him alone ; com- 
bining together, they proved so strong, that Charles III 
eventually gave in to them, and O'Reilly, deprived of 
all his emoluments, was obliged to retire into private 
life. Still looked after secretly by Charles III, who 
cherished the greatest affection for him, as, indeed, he 
did for all the Irish, O'Reilly went to live at Chinchilla, 
where he remained in ease and comfort till his death in 
1794. He was generally recognized as the best com- 
mander Spain had had for several centuries, if not, 
indeed, the best she had ever had. 

James Warren Doyle was born at New Ross in 1786. 
He was the posthumous son of a farmer — his mother, 
Ann Warren, a Quakeress, being of English extraction 
and quite illiterate. Educated at Mr. Grace's School 
near New Ross, Doyle commenced his novitiate in the 
convent of Grantstown, near Carnsore Point, and having 
taken all the necessary vows was received the following 
year into the Order of St. Augustine. 

In 1806 he came to Portugal, and completed his 
education in the Monastery of Coimbra. Upon the 
outbreak of the Peninsular War, unable to resist the 
temptation of fighting, he hastily doffed his cowl and, 
shouldering a rifle, rushed off to assist the Spaniards. 
For more than a year he served as interpreter to the 
English forces, and then, finding it impossible to obtain 
promotion from the ranks, he returned to Ireland, where 


he once again entered the service of the Church. His 
subsequent career was entirely spent in his native country, 
where he rose to be Bishop of Kildare and Leighlin, and 
died in 1834. 

James Clarence Mangan was born at Fishamble Street, 
Dublin, in 1803. Of his parentage nothing is known, 
beyond the facts that they were " Irish and very poor." 
Mangan was educated at a school for quite poor children 
in Sauls's Court, Dublin, whence he went as copyist to 
a scrivener, changing his occupation, after two years, to 
that of clerk to an attorney. In the little spare time he 
had, Mangan took to writing, and, being successful in 
getting articles and poems taken by various Dublin 
publications, he threw up the office work which he 
loathed, and launched out as an author. 

In or about 1830, with the few pounds he had scraped 
together from his publications, he made a brief tour on 
the Continent, and, amongst other countries, visited 
Spain. He saw a good deal of the Spanish peasants, 
whose simple mode of life, geniality and hospitality made 
a great impression on him. Returning to Ireland, after 
a year or two's sojourn in Andalusia, he worked assidu- 
ously at his writing, and quickly established a reputation 
as a poet and essayist. He was an ardent Repealer, and 
a keen supporter of John Mitchel, for whose papers, 
the Nation and Irishman, he wrote many articles. 

Among the best known of his many publications are 
two poems — entirely Irish in sentiment and subject — 
" Dark Rosaleen " and " Lament for the Princes of 
Tyrone and Tirconnell " ; and a translation entitled 
" German Anthology." In addition to the Nation and 
Irishman, he contributed to the Dublin Penny Journal, 


the Irish Penny Journal, and the University Magazine. 
He died in Dublin in 1849, and was buried in Glasnevin 

With regard to an individual Irish Brigade in Spain, 
though apparently there was such an organization, 
somewhere between the years 1700 and 1750, nothing 
very definite is known about it. Count Stanley O'Reilly 
was in it, and so were two Irish adventurers, Patrick 
Murphy and Dennis Kelly, who, it has been stated, 
served in Charles Ill's Irish Legion of Spain, and " had 
several very beautiful Moorish maidens for wives." The 
Brigade is alleged to have taken part in the Spanish 
campaigns in Italy, Sicily, Scotland (1719), and the West 
Indies ; but there is no doubt it has often been confused 
with the Irish Brigade of France, which saw much 
service, both in Spain and Italy. 

The most eminent of the Irish officers who fought for 
Spain in the Peninsular War were General Charles 
O'Donnell and his brother Count Abisbal, Bourke, Lacy 
and Sarsfield, to all of whom Napier refers in his History 
of the War in the Peninsula. 

During the earliest wars in Spain, many Irish officers 
were serving with the Spanish forces, either on one side 
or the other. Of these, in addition to the O'Donnells, 
the most distinguished were : General O'Daly, in com- 
mand of the Government forces at the battle of Brihnega, 
in 1823, where he was beaten by the factious band of 
Bessieres ; O'Doyle, a Cristino General, beaten near 
Vittoria by guerilla troops of Zumalacarregui, in 1834 ; 
and O'Farrel, Minister of War under Fernando VII, when 
Murat the French General occupied Madrid. Referring 
to this occupation, Murat boasted that the events of the 


previous day had delivered Spain into the hands of 
Napoleon. " You are mistaken," replied O'Farrel, " they 
have for ever deprived him of it." And so it proved. 
The despised resistance of the populace of Madrid formed 
an example which was successfully followed by the entire 
populace of Spain. 

In connection with the Irish in Spain, the following 
letter, addressed to Her Majesty the Queen Regent of 
Spain, by John Rooney, 44 The Broadway, New York 
City, editor and publisher of Genealogical History of Irish 
Families, with their Crests and Arms, may be of interest — 

New York, September the 30th, 1896. 

To Her Majesty the Queen-Regent of Spain, 
Dona Maria Cristina. 

Madam, — I have the honour to enclose through the favour of His 
Excellency the Spanish Consul-General at New York, D a . Arturo 
Baldosano, a copy of a book dealing with the genealogy of Ireland, 
which I have just edited and published. It has been suggested to 
me to send Your Majesty a copy of the work, in view of its subject 
being intimately connected with the history of Spain, whose respected 
sovereign you are, as also one of the distinguished daughters of the 
House of Hapsburg. The work contains an authentic chronicle of 
the principal Milesio-Irish families, with their crests and arms. 
These families are the descendants of the old Irish aristocracy, whose 
origin goes back as far as the children of Milesio, a King of Spain 
(or, rather, of that part of Spain which is known by the name of 
Galicia), who were the colonisers of Ireland more than a thousand 
years b.c. These families constituted the oldest aristocracy in the 
whole of Europe, and many of their descendants have come to occupy 
the highest positions in the principal nations of Europe : for instance, 
the O'Donnells, the O'Sullivans, and the O'Reillys in Spain ; the 
Kavanaghs, Nugents, and Taaffes in Austria ; the McMahons in 
France ; the Lacys in Russia ; etc. 

Since the arrival of the Spanish Milesians until the conversion of 
Ireland to the Christian faith, brought about by St. Patrick in the 
sixth century, there reigned in Ireland 1 18 sovereigns of the Hispano- 
Milesian dynasty. This is the longest succession of the same family 
known to history, and has been the admiration of numerous English 
antiquarians and historians. This dynasty lasted until the invasion 
of Ireland by the Anglo-Normans in the twelfth century ; while 
some of its branches, to wit, the O'Donnells and O'Neills, Ulster 
princes, kept their independence and patrimony until the time of 
James I. 


During the three centuries in which the Penal Laws were in force, 
and under which the Irish were subject to such hard oppression on 
account of their nationality and religion, many thousands of the 
principal families sought refuge in the Continent, and particularly 
in Spain. 

They arrived not like strangers, but as sons who return to the 
house of their ancestors, and they found in Spain a home and the 
education they were denied in their country. 

In those times, an Irish Celt, on proving his Milesian descent, was 
recognized as a nobleman in Spain, many of them being inscribed 
in the Spanish and Portuguese Peerage, and contracting marriages 
with the ladies of the aristocracy. During the War of Succession, 
Spain had five Irish regiments whose commanders were O'Reilly, 
O'Gara, Lacy, Wogan, and Lawless, and many generations of Irish 
served in the Spanish Army. 

Among the Irish then stablished in the Continent, as I point out 
in the Introduction to my work, were the Kavanagh and Nugent 
Aulic Councillors in Austria ; another Kavanagh was a Polish noble- 
man ; the Bavarian Count Harolds ; Sutton Comte de Clonard, the 
tutor of the French Dauphin ; McMahon, one of the first United 
States agents, where he was decorated with the Order of Cincinnati ; 
Browne, Governor of Deva in Austria ; another Browne, Governor 
of Livonia, in Russia ; the Count Thomond, Viceroy of the 
Languedoc ; Lally, Governor of Pondicherry, in India; O'Durjer, 
Commander of Belgrade ; Lacy, Governor of Riga ; and Lawless, 
Governor of Mallorca. Another Lawless was the Ambassador of 
Spain, in France ; O'Daly, Portuguese Ambassador in France ; 
Nugent, Austrian Ambassador in Berlin ; Clarke, Duke de Feltre, 
Napoleon's War Minister ; and in our days, the Count Taaffe, Prime 
Minister in Austria, and one of the cleverest statesmen in Europe. 
There was a moment, in which more than thirty Irish generals were 
in the service of Austria, and, according to the statement of the 
Archduke Charles, " the Austrian Army never had better officers." 

Many generations of priests were also educated in Salamanca and 
other Spanish centres, when the Catholic instruction and religion 
were forbidden in Ireland, and Spain sent, again and again, 
expeditions to save the Irish nation from their English oppressors. 

There is still the old affinity of the Iberian and Hibernian races, 
and the twenty millions of Irish who reside in America, as well as 
those who live in Ireland and other countries, preserve reverently 
to this day the historical remembrances common to both nations and 
the debt of gratitude to Spain. 

These are some of the causes which inspired me to present Your 
Majesty this chronicle of the Irish Milesian families. 

Wishing Your Majesty all happiness, and a long and prosperous 
reign to His Majesty the future King Don Alfonso XIII, 

I am, with the greatest respect, Your Majesty's obedient servant. 



Though there were Irishmen in Austria before 1740, 
the history of the Irish in that country may be said to 
date from the day Frederick the Great declared war on 
Maria Theresa. The glamour attached to Maria Theresa, 
who was very young, and, it was rumoured, extraordin- 
arily pretty and fascinating, directly appealed to all 
Irishmen, who are ever tender towards women. Maria 
Theresa, moreover, stood alone, whereas Frederick — 
well, Frederick was not a woman, and, according to all 
the Irish had heard of him, he was a very overbearing 
and brutal man. Hence, as soon as the news reached 
Ireland that the young Queen needed recruits for her 
army, there was a rush of Celtic " young bloods " to 
Vienna. No actual Irish Brigade was formed ; the 
volunteers were either attached to regiments of the 
Regular Army, or were incorporated in corps that were 
being formed from recruits of various nationalities. 

During the campaign, many of these Irishmen distin- 
guished themselves, and, receiving as a reward for their 
services titles and land, took up their permanent 
abode in Austria, where many of their descendants 
still live. 

Always the greater number of the Irish in Austria 
have been military — at one time there were no fewer 
than thirty Irish Generals in the Austrian Army ; and 



a fair percentage of these soldiers have also been states- 
men. The Austrian temperament harmonizes with the 
Celtic, and in few countries are the Irish immigrants 
more consistently happy and popular. 

Among the best known of the Irish in Austria to-day are 
the Laudons, Brownes, Fitzgeralds, Nugents, O'Donnells, 
O'Connells, Lacys, O'Briens and Taaffes. All of these are 
descendants of Irish soldiers who won distinction on the 
battlefields of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. 
The Taaffes, for example, are descended from the Earl of 
Carlingford, who was killed at the Boyne. On his death 
the title passed to his brother, then a soldier in the 
service of Austria. The father of the present Viscount 
Taaffe, who is a Field-Marshal in the Austrian Army, 
was a Minister of State in the Dual Monarchy, and 
Chamberlain to the Emperor Francis Joseph. His 
claim to the Taaffe peerage was upheld by a Committee 
of the English House of Lords in 1860. One of the 
Fitzgeralds — Minarelli-Fitzgerald — is a General ; whilst 
the head of the present-day Nugents holds the title of 
Countess. The genealogies of the O'Donnells and of 
General Minarelli-Fitzgerald are shown on the opposite 

There have been many famous Irishmen in Austria 
between the years 1620 and 1850 ; an inclusive bio- 
graphical list of them would fill more than one volume, 
hence a few only can be mentioned in this work. 

Thomas Carve, who was born about 1590 at Mobernan, 
in County Tipper ary, migrated to Austria about 1620, 
and obtaining the post of Roman Catholic Chaplain to 
a regiment of the Emperor's Foreign Legion — mainly 
composed of Irish and English — saw service during pretty 

William Hetherington 

of Ballyroan, 

from an old family of 

the gentry of Ireland. 

Pierce FitzGerald — o— Elisabeth Hetherington, 

of Ballyroan. 
After the confir- 
mation of Arms 
from the Ulster 
King of Arms, 
1912: a direct 
lineal descendant 
of the Earls of 

only daughter and 
heiress of Ballyroan. 

William FitzGerald 

of Ballyroan, 
Queen's Co. 

The name of 
his wife is 

Simon Tyrell, 
from the ancient 
family of Tyrell 
^of Festullagh. 

Christopher FitzGerald — o — Catherine Tyrell, 
of Mullingar. only daughter 

and heiress. 

Pierce FitzGerald - 

of Baltinoran, 
who was likewise 
a direct lineal 
descendant of the 
Earls of Kildare. 

Simon FitzGerald of Mullingar- 

- Christina Nugent 

of Donore, 

sister of James, 

the first baronet 

of Ireland. 

Simon Chevalier FitzGerald ; 
born in Ireland ; entered in 
the Austrian Army ; became 
Field-Marshal Lieutenant ; 
died in Austria. 

4th son 

Lawrence FitzGerald ; - 
born in Ireland ; entered 
in the Spanish Army ; 
became Colonel and Civil 
and Military Governor 
of Spanish Guayana, 
South America ; died 
in Barcelona, 1835. 

Josef Maria Chevalier Minarelli FitzGerald ;- 
born 1798 in la Coruna, in Spain ; was taken 
prisoner by the French as a boy, in Gerona, 
1809 ; entered, later, in the Austrian Army, 
became Major, and died in Vienna, 1869. 
Accepted, in honour of his mother, their 
second name. 

-Catherine FitzGerald Don Francisco 
Sandes- Minarelli. 



Maria Sandes Minarelli 

Constantin de Pavlovito, 
Boyor of the Roumania. 

-Anna de Pavlovito. Anton Graf Forgach — o — Anna Baronin Maytheng, 

1 Alexander Baron Minarelli FitzGerald ;- 
born 1857, in Vienna, I.a.r. ; General of 
Infantry, and Priory Counsellor of His 
Imperial Majesty, the Emperor of Austria 
and King of Hungaria ; was elected to the 
rank of Baron. 1913. 

-Eugenie Grafin Forgach. 

Victor Chernel de Chernelhare, 
Lieut.-colonel of the Hussar ;- — 
Chancellor of His Majesty, the 
Emperor of Austria. 

— Harriet Baronin 
Minarelli FitzGerald. 

Desmond Baron 
Minarelli FitzGerald, 
First Lieutenant in 
the bodyguard of His 
Majesty the Emperor. 

Eugen Baron 
Minarelli FitzGerald. 

Alfred Baron 
Minarelli FitzGerald, 
Lieutenant in the 
Austrian Navy. 

(2339) bet. pp. 286 & 287 

Koszeg, July, 1914. 
1 Alex. Bn. Minarelli FitzGerald 

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well the whole of the Thirty Years' War. After the 
declaration of peace, he took to writing and published 
several works, now regarded as of considerable value. 
The most important of them are : Itinerarium ; Lyra, 
seu Anacephalaeosis Hibemica, and Galateus. He died 
in Vienna, 1664. 

Francis MacDonnell, the first Irishman to gain military 
distinction in Austria, was born in Connaught in 1656. 
Going to Austria about 1680, he entered the Austrian 
Regular Army as Lieutenant, and first saw service at 
the battle of Cremona in 1702, where he displayed con- 
siderable skill and bravery, and won for himself a big 
reputation by his capture of the French Marshal Villeroi. 
He was about to be promoted General when he was 
killed, leading his Brigade, at the battle of Luzzara. 

Hume Caldwell was born at Castle Caldwell in 1733. 
Migrating to Austria, when quite a boy, he enlisted in 
the ranks and rose, through his bravery and loyalty, to 
the rank of a Colonel. A Field-Marshal's baton would 
have been his had he not been killed, whilst heading a 
charge, at the battle of Schweidnitz, 1762. 

Count Andrew O'Reilly was born in Ireland in 1742. 
Entering the Austrian Service as a Sub-Lieutenant, he 
soon saw service, distinguishing himself greatly in the 
Seven Years' War, and under Joseph II in the campaign 
against the Turks. In the war with France, 1796-1809, 
he was created General for his share in the victory at 
Marchiennes, and he added to his reputation by the 
skilful way in which he handled his troops at Amberg 
and Ulm, 1796; at Kehl, 1796, where he was taken 
prisoner by Moreau ; and at Austerlitz, 1805, where he 
commanded the Austrian cavalry. In 1809 he was 


appointed Governor of Vienna, which town, however, he 
was soon afterwards compelled to surrender to the 
French. This reverse led to his retirement into private 
life, and he died at Vienna in 1832. 

Field-Marshal Brady, who was fighting for Austria at 
the same time as Count O'Reilly, was born in the County 
of Cavan about 1753. Intended for the Church, Brady 
came over to study theology in Vienna, and, happening 
to be outside his college one day when the Empress 
Maria Theresa was passing, attracted her attention. 

" What a pity it is so fine a young fellow should not 
be in the Army," she remarked to her aide-de-camp, 
Colonel Browne, also an Irishman ; " what was he saying 
just now ? " 

' Your Majesty," replied the Colonel, who, as a matter 
of fact, had heard nothing, " he said you were a very 
beautiful lady, and he only wished it was his luck to 
serve you." The Empress at once offered Brady a 
commission in one of her crack regiments, and in less 
than a year he was a Captain. For his services in the 
campaigns against Napoleon, he was made a Field- 
Marshal. He married an offshoot of the Imperial family, 
and died in Vienna in 1827. 

La vail Nugent, yet another Irish Field-Marshal of 
Austria, was descended from the first Earl of Westmeath, 
and was born in Ireland in 1777. On the death of his 
uncle, Count Oliver Nugent, who held considerable 
property in Austria, Lavall went over to that country 
and entered the Imperial Army. For his gallant conduct 
at Varaggio in 1799, he was elected a Knight of the 
Military Order of Maria Theresa, and was promoted 
Major for his subsequent bravery at Marengo. In 1805 

19— (2339) 


he became a Lieutenant-Colonel ; in 1809 a Major- 
General, and also Plenipotentiary to the Congress which 
preceded Napoleon's marriage to Maria Louisa. Owing 
to his refusal to sign the terms of peace Napoleon wished 
to impose on Austria, he retired to England, entered the 
British Army, and was made a Lieutenant -General. 

In 1811 he represented England as Diplomatic Agent 
in Austria, relative to a coalition between that country 
and England against France ; whilst, in 1812-13, he 
performed the same task in Spain. In 1813 he was once 
again fighting for Austria, and took a leading part in 
expelling the French from Italy. The following year the 
British Government made him a K.B., and the year 
after that, he led an Austrian Army into Tuscany and 
defeated Murat. In 1817 he left the Austrian Service 
and became Captain-General of the Neapolitan Army ; 
in 1820 he was back again in Austria at the head of her 

The year 1848 saw him, though very old, still actively 
engaged in command of the Austrian forces in Italy and 
Hungary. In 1849 he was presented with the baton of 
a Field-Marshal. Ten years later, although over 80, he 
accompanied the Emperor Francis Joseph in his disastrous 
campaign against the French and Italians. He married 
the Duchess of Riario Sforza, a descendant of Augustus 
III, King of Poland, and died on his estate in Croatia 
in 1862. Few men have had such a remarkable career, 
and none have fought in the armies of so many different 
countries with such signal success. 

The Taaffes, to whom allusion has already been made, 
date their connection with Austria from 1690, the year 
of the Boyne. Sir Theobald Taaffe, Viscount Taaffe and 


Earl of Carlingford, who was born in Ireland, some- 
where about 1610, had two sons, Nicholas and Francis. 
Both were present at the Boyne ; Nicholas, who had 
succeeded his father as Earl, was killed, whilst Francis 
escaped unscathed and, crossing over to the Continent, 
entered the Austrian Army. His subsequent career was 
one of unqualified success. He became Chamberlain to 
the Emperor Ferdinand, a Marshal of the Empire, and a 
Councillor of State. He died in Austria in 1704, and was 
succeeded in the Earldom by his nephew, Theobald. . 

Nicholas, Viscount Taaffe, of even greater note than 
his cousin Francis, was born in Ireland in 1677. Going 
to Austria in, or about, the year 1695, at the suggestion 
of Francis, Nicholas entered the Imperial Service, and 
quickly rose to be Field-Marshal ; he was also Chamber- 
lain to the Emperor Charles VI, and to his successor. 
He distinguished himself greatly in the campaign against 
the Turks in 1738, and, later on in life, took a prominent 
part in the agitation for Catholic Emancipation in 
Ireland. He died at his seat of Elishau, in Bohemia, in 
1769, and was succeeded in his title of Viscount by his 
eldest son. 

Baron MacNevin, the intimate friend of Nicholas 
Taaffe, was born in Ireland somewhere about 1723. 
Going to Austria to fight for the cause of the Empress 
Maria Theresa, he subsequently became her physician, 
and was created a Baron. After a long and successful 
career in medicine, he died at Prague in, or about, the 
year 1790. His nephew, William James MacNevin, 
M.D., one of the most distinguished of the United Irish- 
men, was educated at Prague and at the Medical College, 


Although it is to the remote period of the Irish Saints, 
who founded monasteries in various parts of the present 
German Empire, that Germany may trace her first 
associations with Ireland, comparatively few Irishmen 
have settled in Germany, and the number of students 
attending the Religious Colleges, which were founded 
in Prague and other towns in Germany during the 
seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, was invariably 

Several of the old sovereigns, including Frederick the 
Great, were said to have an Irish regiment or two in 
their service, but there is no authentic evidence to prove 
that such was actually the case. On the contrary, there 
is evidence to show that Frederick, at all events, experi- 
enced considerable difficulty in getting the merest handful 
of Irish recruits. His reputation as a harsh and over- 
bearing tyrant was pretty well universal ; it had even 
spread to the remote villages of Galway and Connemara, 
and, when his emissaries came thither and tried to persuade 
every strapping young fellow they met to accompany 
them back to Prussia, they not only met with prompt 
refusals, but were not infrequently repulsed with blows. 
The few that did enlist soon found all they had been 
told about the Prussian Army — the unnecessarily severe 
discipline, brutality of the officers, poor pay, and utter 
hopelessness of promotion from the ranks — correct, and 
more than correct, and bitterly repented their foolishness 
in joining. 

On account of their height — it was one of Frederick's 
ambitions to have a regiment consisting of the tallest 
men in the world, hence his anxiety to obtain Irishmen — 
they were mostly drafted into a corps of Guards composed 


of all the biggest men — irrespective of nationality — in 
the Prussian Army. Hateful though the Prussian 
Service was to them, the Irishmen in it fought with all 
their traditional gallantry ; but their valour was of no 
avail to them, since promotion was an impossibility to 
foreigners, and none of them ever rose to any high 

Apart from the various Irish Saints who went to 
Germany in the fifth, sixth and seventh centuries, and 
became famous for their piety and learning, few Irish- 
men of note have settled in that country, although many 
have sojourned in it, and of those who have permanently 
settled in Germany only two, perhaps, namely, Patrick 
Fleming and Hugh Grierson, are of sufficient importance 
to merit a mention in this work. 

Patrick Fleming, of the family of the Lords of Slane, 
was born at Lagan, County Louth, 1599. Educated 
first at Douay, and then at Louvain, he took the habit 
of St. Francis in 1617. He then went to Paris, where he 
became intimate with Hugh Ward ; visited Rome in 
company with Hugh MacCaghwell, afterwards Arch- 
bishop of Armagh ; returned to Louvain, and finally 
settled in Prague, where he became President of the 
Irish College. At the commencement of the siege of 
Prague by the Elector of Hanover in 1631, he endeavoured 
to escape from the city, but was set upon by some peasants 
and murdered in a manner too hideous, far too hideous, 
to describe. 

His work, Collectanea Sacra, which he had fortunately 
left in the hands of Moretus, a printer in Antwerp, is now 
considered extremely rare. 

Hugh Grierson was the son of Constantia Grierson, an 


Irishwoman of considerable literary ability. Educated 
entirely by his mother, Hugh Grierson went to Germany 
when he was barely out of his teens, and, settling in 
Munich, devoted himself to music and literature. Though 
he never published anything of note — he died when he 
was only 27 — he was full of promise, and was described 
by Dr. Johnson as " possessing more extensive knowledge 
than any man of his years " he had ever met. He died 
at Diisseldorf, 1755. 

Switzerland, Belgium and Denmark, as well as Germany 
date their earliest associations with Ireland to the days 
of the Irish Saints, who, following the example set by 
their compatriots in France and elsewhere, founded many 
monasteries in these countries. St. Fridolin, patron of 
the Canton of Glarus, whose remains lie buried in the 
Island of Seckingen, in the Rhine, just above Basle, 
was one of the best known Irish Saints in Switzerland. 
In the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries Irish Religious 
Colleges — the most famous of which was that of Louvain 
— were founded in Belgium and Switzerland, but few of 
them, if any, are now in existence. Belgium has always 
been a country beloved by the Irish, particularly the 
literary Irish, nearly all of whom have visited her chief 
towns and resided there for brief spells. They are also 
fond of Denmark. The temperament of the Danes 
harmonizes peculiarly well with that of the Irish — better 
even, if one might venture to suggest such a thing, than 
that of the French, and Irish and Danish inter-marriages 
have usually been productive of the most excellent 
results — excellent morally, mentally and physically. 


Nicholas French, Bishop of Ferns, is one of the Irish- 
men who have acquired distinction while living in 
Belgium. Born in Wexford in 1604, and educated at 
the Irish College in Lou vain, he did not permanently 
settle in Belgium till about 1666, when he came to 
Ghent, and published a number of works, mostly relative 
to the harsh treatment of the Catholics in Ireland by 
the English. Among the best known of his works are : 
A Narrative of the Earl of Clarendon's Sale and Settlement 
of Ireland (1668), The Bleeding Iphigenia (1675), and The 
Unkind Deserter of Loyal Men and True Friends (1676). 
He died at Ghent in 1678, and was buried in the Cathedral. 

What has been said of Denmark applies in an almost 
identical degree to Norway and Sweden ; for the Nor- 
wegians and Swedes have much in common with the 
Irish. The resemblance between the folk-lore of Ireland 
and that of Scandinavia proves a natural sympathy 
between the two races, and, consequently, a similarity 
in their character and temperament. It also proves that 
the dissimilarity in their character and temperament, 
far from creating friction, simply ensures success to their 
inter-marriages. The dispassionate nature of the Nor- 
wegian and Swede makes an admirable foil to the more 
ardent and impetuous disposition of the Irish ; hence 
the offspring of a marriage between the Irish Celt and 
the Scandinavian should not fall very short of perfection. 

However, curiously enough, although there are many 
Irish in all parts of Scandinavia, they are mostly engaged 
in commerce, and few, if any of them, have done anything 
worthy of comment, 



As with France, Spain, Belgium, and Switzerland, 
Ireland's associations with Italy began in the far-off 
days of the Saints. Cathaldus, the most famous of the 
Irish Saints in this country, was born near Lismore, 
somewhere about a.d. 650. He went to Italy towards 
the end of the seventh century, was made Bishop of 
Tarentum, and settled on the shores of Lake Leman, 
where he is alleged to have died. His festival is the 
8th of March. 

After the days of the Saints, Ireland did not again 
become associated with Italy till the sixteenth century, 
when an Irish College, on the same lines as those in Paris, 
Louvain and Salamanca, was established in Rome. This 
College has proved extraordinarily successful and has 
sent out into the world a great many priests, who have 
won the highest honours and distinctions. The Irish, 
perhaps, apart from these ecclesiastics, and the soldiers 
who fought in the Brigades of Louis XIV, and for the 
Neapolitan Regime of 1860, have not been prone to 
settle in Italy. They have, of course, visited Italy, 
which appeals to them, partly on account of its historical 
associations, and partly because it is the headquarters 
of the Roman Catholic religion ; but few have actually 
settled there, and were it not for the fact that the Italians 
are, on the whole, artistic, poetical and musical, there 
would be little in their temperament that would in any 
way correspond with that of the Irish. The sympathy 



that exists between the two races is, perhaps, attributable 
to the passionate regard they have in common for liberty 
and independence ; a liberty and independence for which 
they have both fought — the Italians against the Austrians 
and the Irish against the English — and sacrificed much. 

There is, however, an occasion upon which the Irish 
cannot be complimented with regard to the side they 
fought upon in the internal troubles of Italy. In the 
year 1860, persuaded by the heads of their Church that 
Victor Emmanuel had serious designs, not only on Italian 
ecclesiastical property, but on the integrity of the Vatican 
itself, the Irish people subscribed large sums of money for 
the support of Italian priests, alleged to have been robbed 
of their benefices, and for the equipment of a purely Irish 
Brigade to go to the assistance of the Pope and the 
Neapolitan Government. 

It must be admitted in their defence, however, they 
were not told how the Italian people had long groaned 
under the cruel and brutal treatment of the Neapolitan 
despots, and how the Church had exercised its power and 
influence in State matters, not on behalf of the persecuted, 
but on behalf of the persecutors ; and, consequently, it 
was through a complete misunderstanding of the true 
state of affairs that their sympathy was won over to the 
wrong cause, and they so unhappily espoused the part 
of corruption and despotism. 

In February, 1860, out of a portion of this money, 
collected in the Churches, the nucleus of an Irish Brigade, 
300 strong, was got together and sent to Italy under a 
Mr. McCony. 

On arriving in Rome, the Brigade was received by 
Monsignor Talbot, Chamberlain to the Pope, who 


escorted them into his presence. There, kneeling at the 
feet of the Supreme Pontiff, Pope Pius IV, they received 
his blessing, as " ever faithful, loving, obedient, pious 
children, forsaking home, kindred and associations, in 
order, even at the risk of their lives, to defend his life, 
property, liberty and Church," against the wicked attacks 
of Victor Emmanuel the " Scourge of God," and Garibaldi 
the " Sanguinary Marauder." And the simple Irish, 
believing all His Holiness told them, came away convinced 
they were about to fight for a cause that was in every 
way most honourable, laudable and just. Dressed in a 
uniform consisting of a grey shell jacket, grey great-coat, 
scarlet trousers, buff gaiters and forage cap, they marched 
away to the front, cheering loudly, and convinced that 
the great God of battles was entirely with them. 

McCony had under him Captain Russell, of Franco- 
Irish extraction, who was his chief officer ; Captains 
Lawless, Blakeney and Carey, each of whom held sub- 
ordinate commands ; Sam Mullhall, of Dublin, Farrier- 
Sergeant ; and Hoey, Irwin, Shiel and Kirwin, Corporals. 
McCony drilled them. After a stay of some days at 
Macerata, where they were joined by about 300 more 
Irish, they were supposed to be efficient and were sent 
to Rome. There the contingent was augmented by two 
or three companies of French, Belgians, Germans and 
Italians, as motley and ill-disciplined a crew as ever 
shouldered rifles ; and the whole Brigade, fallaciously 
described as the Irish, and supposed to represent universal 
Irish sentiment, set out to battle. Their first and only 
engagement took place almost immediately. Amal- 
gamating with another mixed force of about two or three 
thousand Austrians, French and Irish, under General 


Schmidt, they were attacked by an army of nearly 
20,000 Italians and Sardinians commanded by General 
Chaldini. The Irish always fight well, whether their 
cause be right or wrong — and in this instance they 
proved themselves no exception to the rule. Shoulder 
to shoulder, higgledy-piggledy — without any attempt at 
formation — they drove their enemy back and back, until 
stacks of dead four or five feet high rose on all sides of 
them, and Chaldini asked for an armistice. It was 
granted. The moment it was over there was a tremen- 
dous rush, and Schmidt's little force — already diminished 
to one-half — was swept almost off its feet, and entirely 
surrounded. Then came the last desperate stand. 
Bayonets were twisted, swords broken, gun barrels 
became red-hot ; but it was not until every round of 
ammunition was exhausted and those standing numbered 
under 300, that O'Reilly, the commander of the latest 
arrived Irish detachment, and on whom the supreme 
command devolved, gave the order to surrender. The 
Irish Brigade had had a short career, but it had rendered 
a good account of itself. By this time, all Ireland had 
got to know what were the real stakes at issue ; Victor 
Emmanuel and Garibaldi were tremendously popular ; 
and there was no attempt made to send out a second 
expedition. That, in brief, is the history of the 1860 
Irish Brigade in Italy. 

The best known of all the Irish novelists — Charles 
James Lever — passed the greater part of his life in 
Italy. Born in Dublin in 1806, Lever was educated 
at Trinity College, Dublin, where he took his degree 


of Medicine, and at Gottingen. Returning to Ireland 
on completing his studies, he set up in practice as a 
doctor in Ulster. Writing soon, however, began to 
attract him. From contributing articles to the Dublin 
Magazine, he next published, as a serial in the same 
periodical, Harry Lorrequer, which at once proved 
popular and won him a reputation all over Ireland. 
Still, he did not think of devoting all his time to literature, 
and, in 1840, obtained the post of physician to the 
British Embassy at Brussels. After the publication of 
Charles O'Malley, however, he found his popularity so 
much increased that he threw up medicine and sought 
an occupation that would allow him more time for 

In 1845 he obtained a diplomatic post in Florence ; 
in 1857 he was appointed Consul at Spezzia, and in 
1867 Consul at Trieste. During the tenure of these 
offices he had plenty of leisure for writing, and continued 
to produce novels and to contribute to numerous 

In addition to the works already mentioned, Tom 
Burke of Ours, a novel dealing with an Irishman's adven- 
tures in the service of Napoleon the First, attracted 
considerable attention. In all he published seventy 
books, chiefly fiction. He died at Trieste, June, 1872. 
He was undoubtedly a great writer, and in some respects 
— in the depiction of dashing soldiers, vivandieres, and 
thrilling war scenes, no less than in the depiction of 
country squires and squires' daughters, of hounds and 
huntsmen, and ball-room episodes — he stands unrivalled. 
He has all the wit and humour of Dickens, but he has 
little of his pathos ; he is much more spontaneous and 


natural than Thackeray, but his characters have failed 
to leave the same lasting impression. 

The greatest of all the Irishmen who migrated to 
Italy was Hugh O'Neill, Earl of Tyrone. The greater 
portion of his life was spent in Ireland, and he was close 
on 67 years of age when, on 14th September, 1607, he 
embarked in Maguire's ship, which was waiting for him 
in Lough Swilly, and sailed for France. Besides his 
own family, many friends and relations, amongst whom 
was Rory O'Donnell, Earl of Tirconnell, brother of his 
old comrade-in-arms, Red Hugh, accompanied him ; and, 
in all, there were with him close on ninety-seven people, 
not including the crew. The weather was bad, and more 
than once the ship almost foundered. However, they 
eventually reached the French coast, after being on the 
sea twenty-one days. 

Henry of Navarre welcomed them warmly, and they 
would in all probability have settled in France, had not 
the English Ambassador in Paris pressed for their imme- 
diate expulsion. They then went to Rome, where Pope 
Paul V found quarters for them, and took steps to see 
they were provided with every requirement befitting 
their station in life. Indeed, the Italians treated them 
with the utmost kindness ; but so severe had been the 
hardships of the exiles during their flight from their 
homes, that Rory O'Donnell, who had been severely 
wounded at the battle of Kinsale, fell a victim to an 
attack of intermittent fever, and died within three weeks 
of his arrival in Rome. 

He was attended during his illness by Lady Tyrone, 
by Rose his sister-in-law, and by Father Florence Conry, 
who had also attended his brother " Red Hugh." Wrapt 


in the garb of St. Francis, the habitual winding-sheet of 
the O'Donnells since the founding of the Franciscan 
Monastery in Donegal in the fifteenth century, he was 
buried in the Franciscan Church of St. Pietro di Montorio. * 
He left one son, Albert Hugh, who succeeded to the title 
of Earl of Tirconnell, and one daughter, the Lady Mary 
Stuart O'Donnell, who led a career of almost unparalleled 
adventure. Her mother, nee the Lady Bridget Fitz- 
gerald, daughter of the twelfth Earl of Kildare, was a 
woman of the most exceptional beauty, and Rory 
O'Donnell, who loved her devotedly, left her behind in 
his flight, as he dared not let her run the risk of ship- 
wreck, or encounter the many hardships he knew those 
who accompanied him would have to endure. During 
his absence she went to England, and was presented at 
Court, her beauty creating a great sensation and causing 
James I to remark that he could not imagine how her 
husband could have left her behind. After Rory's 
death she married Nicholas Barnewall, first Viscount 

Lady Mary Stuart O'Donnell — given the name of 
Stuart by James I, who always evinced the greatest 
interest in her — was brought up by her mother in Ireland 
till she was fourteen, when she went to live with her 
grandmother, Lady Kildare, in England. On being 
pressed by the latter to marry an English Protestant, 
whom she disliked, Lady Mary disguised herself as a 
young man, and, accompanied by her maid, who was 

1 The family of Charlemont trace their descent in the maternal 
line from this branch of the O'Donnells ; and the late Hon. Mrs. 
Caulfield showed how proud she was of that lineage by restoring the 
monument erected in the Church of St. Peter on the Mount, at Rome, 
in honour of Tirconnell. 


similarly disguised, and a young man, she ran away. 
Arriving in Bristol, she was arrested there on suspicion, 
but escaped any penalty through bribing the magistrate, 
who was doubtless much impressed by her beauty. 
Before leaving the town, she challenged a young man to 
a duel, and made violent love to a girl — she was particu- 
larly partial to her own sex. Twice she and her com- 
panions tried to reach Ireland by boat from Cumberland 
Basin, but were twice driven back by the weather ; and, 
in making a third attempt, they were wafted out of their 
course and taken to Holland. Still wearing male attire 
and accompanied by the same two companions, she next 
visited Poitiers, where she made love to another girl, 
and involved both herself and her companions in many 
quandaries. At Brussels she met and quarrelled with 
her brother Albert, Earl of Tirconnell, who was much 
incensed at her refusal to dress like a woman. Finally, 
she married an Irishman called O'Gallagher, most 
probably the companion of her travels, and went to live 
in Genoa, where she is supposed to have died. She had 
two children, both of whom are alleged to have died in 
infancy. As may be seen in the genealogical tree of 
the O'Donnells, Albert died childless. 

With regard to Hugh O'Neill, at the end of two years 
he was almost the only one left of the party of Irish 
fugitives in Rome. Blind and decrepit, he made several 
piteous appeals to James I to be allowed to return to 
Ireland and look after his property, but was refused. At 
last, weary of life and utterly heart-broken, he died on 
20th July, 1616, and was buried alongside the Earl of 
Tirconnell in the Church of San Pietro di Montorio. The 
inscription, " d.o.m. hic quiescunt ugonis principis 


o'neill ossa," on his tombstone, is now nowhere to be 
seen ; in all probability the stone was turned when the 
pavement of the church was taken up. The grave, 
however, is marked by the tombs of the O'Donnells and of 
Baron Dungannon * beside which it was known to have lain. 
Many books have been written about Hugh O'Neill, 
and his character has been variously described, best, 
perhaps, by the Rev. C. P. Meehan, and worst — apart 
from Froude, whose senseless, indiscriminating abuse of 
the Irish rules him out — by Richey. Apparently, 
Richey's method of characterization consists in drawing 
odious comparisons. Thus, for example, he says, relative 
to Hugh O'Neill : " In his course of conduct he was 
essentially not a Celt. He possessed none of the enthu- 
siasm or instability of his nation ; ... his composed and 
polite manners, when treating with the English com- 
missioners, were noticed in contradistinction to the 
violent and excited expression of his chiefs ..." 
Continuing, he says of O'Neill, " He was not a great 
(but almost a great) man ; a most able adventurer . . . 
the ablest man whom the Celtic race, since the arrival 
of the English, has produced." One needs no further 
proof of the utter worthlessness of such criticisms. To 
be of any value at all, the judgments passed by historians 
upon historical people must be founded upon facts and 
not fictions concerning those people, and they must, in 
some degree at least, bear the impress of impartiality, 
and not of malice and prejudice. To call O'Neill an 
adventurer, O'Neill who was owner of half Ulster, and 
also a lineal descendant of kings and princes, renowned 

1 For a full description of these graves, see the Rev. C. P. 
Meehan's Fate and Fortunes of Tyrone and Tirconnell. 


for their learning and civilization throughout Europe, at 
a period when England was almost solely peopled with 
savages, proves Mr. Richey no historian at all, but an 
utter ignoramus. And the zenith of his ignorance is 
reached when he pronounces O'Neill " nearly but not 
quite a great man," but " certainly the most able man 
Ireland has produced " — from which, of course, Mr. 
Richey would have us infer that Ireland never has 
produced any really great men. In Mr. Richey's opinion 
probably not, — but in the opinion of all Irish, and of 
many other historians more reliable than, and quite as 
reputable as, Mr. Richey — Ireland for her size has pro- 
duced, if not a bigger, at least as big a proportion of 
men having every claim to what is generally regarded as 
greatness, as any country in the world. Although Mr. 
Richey would place neither Hugh O'Neill nor Hugh 
O'Donnell in this category, even he has been bound to 
admit that they were great enough repeatedly to defeat 
and defy England's greatest monarch, who only crushed 
them in the end by sheer force of numbers. 

Hugh O'Neill was married four times. His widow, 
nee Catherine Magennis, survived him a few years, and 
died in the Netherlands. He left four sons and one 
daughter. Con, his eldest son, was educated as a Protes- 
tant at Eton, and died in the Tower of London, 1622 ; 
Bernard, his second son, whilst undergoing a course of 
training at the Irish College at Louvain, was mysteriously 
murdered — his assassin never being caught ; Henry, his 
third son, who was given a commission in the Spanish 
Army, died about 1626 ; and John, his youngest son, 
who was also in the Spanish Army, died in 1641. With 
the latter 's death that branch of the O'Neills became 

20— (2339) 


extinct. Hugh O'Neill's daughter, Alice, married Sir 
Randal MacDonnell, first Earl of Antrim, but nothing 
very authentic is known of her subsequent career. 

Russia is a country that has never attracted the Irish 
to any great extent, partly on account of its climate — for 
the Celts, as a rule, prefer a hot or moderate temperature 
to one of excessive cold — and partly on account of the 
repugnance the Irish have always entertained towards 
despotism. The majority of those who have migrated 
to Russia have been soldiers ; very few have been 
writers, artists or musicians, and comparatively few have 
been business men. The Irish family best known in 
Russia are the O'Briens, who went thither either in the 
seventeenth or early eighteenth century, and have been 
firmly established there ever since. At a glance, perhaps, 
merely a glance, there would seem to be little in 
common between the Irish and the Russians ; but if 
one looks beneath the surface one will see there is much. 
Both races are dreamers and idealists ; both believe in 
fairies, both in ghosts ; both are intensely religious, the 
most religious of all the nations in Europe ; both have a 
natural antipathy to commerce ; and both are born 
fighters. Like the Irish, the Russians are intensely 
musical, possess innumerable folk-songs, and are poetical, 
artistic and dramatic. In their home life the Russians 
are just as simple as the Irish, and they show a much 
stronger tendency to remain in one spot — roaming only 
when necessity compels them. Oddly enough, the two 
races — the Celtic and Slavonic — seem to have begun to 
develop simultaneously, and much may be expected of 


both races in the future. The latent capabilities of the 
Russian in art, in science, in soldiery — and in commerce, 
much though he detests it — seem as infinite as do the 
resources of his country. 

The French and the Irish are his natural allies, and 
although of the latter he has, until now, seen few, he will 
doubtless see many more, when the Government of his 
country ceases to be autocratic and passes into the 
hands of the people. 

Count George de Browne, who was born in Ireland in 
1698, migrated to Russia about 1720, and was given a 
commission in the Czar's Army. Distinguishing himself 
in the three successive campaigns against Poland, France 
and Prussia, he rose rank by rank, step by step, with 
phenomenal quickness, and was created a Field-Marshal 
before he was thirty. He then wished to retire, but the 
Empress Catherine, who was greatly attached to him, 
would not grant him permission, and, consequently, he 
remained in the Service till he was nearly eighty. He 
died near Petrograd in 1792. His descendants have 
all occupied high positions in Russia, one of them being 
Governor of Livonia a few years ago. 

One of the most remarkable Irishmen associated with 
Russia is Count O'Rourke. He was born in a village 
near the ancient and extensive forest of Woodford, Co. 
Leitrim, and, when he was 24, came to London, where 
he tried his hand at various professions. He ultimately 
became a soldier, but was forced to resign his commission 
when it became known that he was a Roman Catholic. He 
then went to France, and was at once given a command 
in Louis XV's regiment of Royal Scots. 

Jealousy, however, interfering with his chances of 


promotion in this regiment, he resigned, but, thanks to 
the friendliness of the wife of the Polish Ambassador, 
he obtained an introduction to Stanislaus, King of Poland. 
King Stanislaus received him kindly and promised him 
an appointment, but was so long in fulfilling his pledge, 
that O'Rourke grew weary ; and, going on to Russia, 
was there appointed First Major of horse cuirassiers in 
the Czar's Regiment of Body Guard. Russia being just 
then at war with Prussia, O'Rourke soon saw fighting, 
and distinguished himself greatly at the siege of Berlin — 
his extraordinary intrepidity creating the admiration of 
friend and foe alike. At the end of the war, Frederick 
the Great, anxious to see the Irishman of whose valour 
everyone was talking, sent for him ; but as the Prussians 
had committed many wanton outrages on the Russians, 
O'Rourke was strongly urged not to accept Frederick's 
invitation. "It is only a trap," his brother officers 
argued, " and when once the Emperor gets you inside 
those walls of his he will have you executed." O'Rourke, 
however, was not to be deterred. " Frederick," he said, 
" has been a brave enemy ; it is only cowards who murder. 
I will go." He went, and Frederick treated him with 
every kindness and courtesy. 

In the course of a conversation between them, O'Rourke 
was asked how he could ever have entertained the 
ambitious hope of succeeding against such an impregnable 
town as Berlin ; to which he replied : " In Russia we 
obey our King, no matter what we think. If my sovereign 
had ordered me to storm the Heights of Heaven, I should 
at once have made the experiment." This answer 
pleased Frederick to such a degree that he presented 
O'Rourke with a diamond-studded sword. O'Rourke 


now returned to France, and, in 1770, was appointed a 
Colonel of Horse, created a Count, and invested with 
the Order of St. Louis. At the commencement of the 
American War of Independence, he came over to England 
and offered his services to the Government. They were 
rejected with scorn, however, and he returned to Russia, 
where he died, somewhere about 1782. 

Count Peter Lacy, born in 1678 at Killeedy, Co. 
Limerick, entered Sarsfield's army when he was only 
twelve, and was an ensign at the astonishingly early age 
of thirteen. Following the fortunes of his commander, 
he went over to France with the Athlone Regiment of 
the Irish Brigade, and served throughout the Italian 
campaign under Marshal Catinat. 

After the Peace of Ryswick, he entered the Russian 
Service and rapidly rose to distinction. In 1708, when 
in command of 15,000 troops, he stormed Rumna, and 
was immediately afterwards gazetted Brigadier-General. 
In 1720 he led the Russian forces in Sweden, and on the 
termination of the campaign was made a General-in- 
Chief and Governor of Livonia. In 1733 he commanded 
the expedition against Poland, to support the claims of 
Augustus of Saxony, and entered Warsaw in triumph. 
Then followed an equally successful campaign against 
the Turks, whilst later on, in 1742, he took part of Finland 
from the Swedes and added it to Russia. This saw the 
completion of his military service. Retiring laden with 
honours to his estates in Livonia, he died there in 1751, 
leaving upwards of £60,000 personal property to be 
divided among his children. One of his descendants 
was recently Governor of Riga, whilst others hold high 
positions in Austria. 


John Field, a contrast in every respect to Count Lacy, 
was born in Dublin in 1782. Educated as a pianist by 
Clementi, he accompanied the latter to the Continent, 
where he quickly established a reputation by his fine 
rendering of the fugues of Bach. In Petrograd 
enormous crowds flocked to hear him, and his reception 
was altogether so satisfactory that he decided to make, 
for a time at any rate, his home in Russia. 

He lived for nineteen years in Petrograd, and for 
two in Moscow. He then moved to London, but, not 
liking either the climate or the people, he quickly returned 
to the Continent, and, after much wandering, penniless 
and ruined in health, he found his way back to Moscow, 
where he died in 1837. Field's musical abilities were of 
the highest order, and he is said to have been the originator 
of that species of musical composition styled " nocturne." 
He was married to Mile. Charpentier, a French pianist, 
by whom he had one son, Leonoff, who became famous 
as a Russian tenor. 



In no country in the world — not even in the United 
States — have the Irish played a more prominent role in 
politics and commerce than in Australia. In spite of a 
popular belief to the contrary, the bulk of the earliest 
settlers in Australia were not ordinary criminals, but 
were political exiles, mostly United Irishmen. 

Among the first to arrive were Patrick O'Connor, 
Denis Bryan and Joseph Holt, all of whom took part in 
the 1798 Rising. They were transported in H.M.S. 
Boyd, and landed on the then extremely unpromising, 
inhospitable looking shores of New South Wales. Patrick 
O'Connor and Denis Bryan did not long survive their 
banishment, and died not very far from the place of their 
disembarkation ; but Joseph Holt eventually returned 
to Ireland. 

Following in the wake of this first batch of Irish 
prisoners came many others, including Michael Dyer, a 
participator in the 1803 Rising, whose death in Sydney, 
some years later, has been immortalized in verse by 
Katherine Tynan. 

After 1805 fewer political offenders were transported ; 
but, besides a small percentage of Irish criminals, who 
were landed in Australia, together with large numbers 
of English and Scotch felons, batches of Irish agricul- 
turists, anxious to explore the new continent, began to 
arrive. According to a description penned by one of 



these Irish immigrants : " The country for the first five 
or six miles inland from the coast continued barren and 
rocky, presenting few other signs of vegetation besides 
some thinly scattered stunted shrubs and dwarf under- 
wood ; but after that distance a marked change com- 
menced to take place ; the soil improved, and began 
to be encumbered with tall and stately trees, which 
gradually thickened into a dense and magnificent forest. 
Five miles further and there was yet another meta- 
morphosis. The forest ceased, and in its place was an 
endless variety of hill and dale, covered with the most 
luxuriant vegetation." 

Here it was that these sturdy pioneers from the South 
and West of Ireland laid the foundations of future towns 
and cities, Bathurst, for example ; and, though Sydney 
was not actually founded by the Irish, many Irishmen 
settled there soon after the building of it was begun. 
Among these early residents were Sir Henry Hayes, 
who had been transported from England for some alleged 
abduction offence, and who, on his liberation, built 
himself an estate called Vaucluse, near Sydney ; George 
Barrington, a convict, who, being released soon after 
his arrival in the Colony for his exemplary behaviour, 
eventually became one of Sydney's wealthiest and 
most respected citizens ; Edward O'Shaugnessy, a 
political offender, afterwards editor of The Sydney Gazette ; 
and Daniel O'Connor, who, migrating as a poor boy, 
started a business in Sydney, when in his teens, and 
became one of the richest men in the city. 

Among the public buildings and institutions in Sydney 
founded by Irishmen are, the Roman Catholic Cathedral 
of St. Mary ; St. Vincent's Hospital, kept by Roman 


Catholic sisters of charity, but open to patients of all 
denominations (no nobler work is being done by any 
institution in Australia) ; St. John's College, attached to 
Sydney University ; the Jesuit College of St. Ignatius, 
Riverview ; and St. Joseph's College, Hunter Hill. 

The discovery of gold in the neighbourhood of Bat hurst, 
in 1851, brought thousands of miners to that district 
from all parts of the world ; and of the 250,000 who had 
arrived in one year, at least 10,000 were Irish. Those 
who were successful for the most part remained in 
Australia, and built houses for themselves in Sydney, 
Melbourne, Adelaide, or some other of the large towns, 
whilst the unsuccessful ones eventually sought and 
obtained work in the docks and factories of those towns ; 
in the silver mining region to the West of the river 
Darling ; and as labourers in the wheat -growing district 
round Bat hurst. 

Among the most noted of the Irish in New South 
Wales were : William Charles Wentworth, who founded 
the Australian Newspaper, and has been described as 
" the Father, Emancipator and Guardian " of New South 
Wales Legislature ; the Right Hon. Bede Dalley, P.C., 
who was acting Premier for New South Wales during 
the Soudan War, and was made a Privy Councillor by 
the English Government for sending a contingent of 
Australians to help the Mother Country ; the Hon. 
John Herbert Plunkett, Q.C., Attorney-General of New 
South Wales, and famous for his humane attitude with 
regard to the Aborigines of Australia, whom he protected 
against wanton slaughter ; the Hon. Ed. Butler, Q.C., 
a native of Kilkenny, who at one time wrote verses for 
The Nation under the pseudonym of " Eblana," and was 


afterwards Attorney-General of New South Wales ; Sir 
James Martin, who was Lord Chief Justice of New 
South Wales in the " 1873 Ministry " ; Sir Patrick 
Jennings, who was Prime Minister of New South Wales, 
and represented that Colony in London at the Jubilee 
of 1887 ; Sir Richard Bourke, K.C.B., who, as Governor 
of New South Wales from 1831-37, showed great tact 
and ability (he abolished the system of free grants of 
land ; took care that no squatter should be in possession 
of any territory unless he had properly bought it ; 
published accounts of public receipts and expenditure ; 
established a system of national education, founded the 
settlement of Port Philip, and did everything he could 
to encourage the better class of colonists) ; Sir John 
Young, a native of Cavan, who succeeded Sir Richard 
Bourke as Governor of New South Wales, and was almost 
equally popular ; and Sir Hercules Robinson, a native 
of Westmeath, who was also Governor of New South 

Though the coast-line of Victoria was surveyed by 
Captain Grant in 1801, nothing in the shape of a settle- 
ment was made there till 1835, when a handful of colonists, 
mostly Irish, pitched their tents on the shores of Port 
Philip. The following year the whole of that district, 
for many miles inland, was explored by Captain Mitchell, 
an Irishman, who called it Australia Felix, and in 1837 
the present sites of Melbourne, Geelong and Williamstown 
were laid out by Major-General Sir Richard Bourke, 
Governor of New South Wales, and a native of Limerick. 
Tracts of land there were sold by the Government, and 


among the first purchasers were Messrs. Connolly, 
McNamara, D'Arcy, Murphy and O'Reilly. Indeed, for 
the first few years of its existence practically all the 
inhabitants of Melbourne were Irish. 

The first event of importance in the new settlement 
was the attempt made in 1840 to separate it from the 
Colony of New South Wales. It failed, but in 1842 an 
Imperial Act came into operation providing for a partially 
representative government and the incorporation of 
towns ; and in 1851 the Settlement, which hitherto had 
been known as Port Philip, was entirely separated from 
New South Wales and formed into an independent Colony 
under the name of Victoria. 

In the struggle to obtain this measure three Irishmen 
played very important parts. They were Sir William 
Foster Stawell, who was afterwards Chief Justice and 
Lieut. -Govern or of Victoria ; Sir John O'Shanassy, three 
times Prime Minister of Victoria ; and Sir Francis 
Murphy, who for many years was Speaker of the 
Legislative Assembly. 

Up to the year 1850 the Settlement was remarkable 
only for its wheat, fruit, and huge sheep runs, many of 
the farmers being natives of Mayo, Clare, Kerry, Cork 
and Tipperary ; but the rush to the goldfields in 1851, 
bringing in an entirely fresh element, gave an enormous 
impetus to Melbourne — which more than doubled its 
population in a year — and caused new towns, such as 
Ballarat and Bendigo, to spring up everywhere. The 
Colony, in fact, underwent a wonderful transformation. 
Instead of lying quiet, with its acre upon acre of smiling 
cornfields and luscious fruit-groves, and showing here 
and there a tiny rural town, the whole countryside 


suddenly began to throb with life, and to reverberate to 
the hum and bustle of human habitations, of railroads, 
and of factories ; and in this abrupt development no 
nation was as conspicuous as the Irish. They were 
simply everywhere. In the race to Ballarat, Patrick 
Connor and Thomas Dunn, both Irishmen, got there 
first, and, marking out their claims, found gold before 
anyone else arrived. Dunn was known as the " Father 
of the Ballarat Diggings." At Eureka, also, the first 
finds, and very rich ones too, were made by Irish men. 
Government then stepped in and, to the diggers' intense 
indignation, refused to allow anyone to work a claim 
without paying an exorbitant licence. Mass protest 
meetings were held, and on 29th November, 1854, it 
was decided to burn all licences and defy the Crown. 
Peter Lalor — son of the Member of Parliament for 
Queen's County — was chosen leader of the miners, and 
among his lieutenants were Timothy Hayes, Quinn and 
Brady, all Irishmen. This quartette drew up a Declara- 
tion of Independence, proclaiming the Settlement to be 
entirely free from Government control, and got every 
miner to take an oath to resist all attempts at coercion 
to the very last. 

The men were then all armed with pikes and muskets, 
and placed under the command of Patrick Curtain and 
Michael Hanrahan, both of whom had had some experi- 
ence as soldiers. On 3rd December, 1854, they were 
attacked by a Crown force consisting of a number of 
police and several companies of the 40th Regiment, 
and after a desperate fight, in which over forty of them 
were killed and wounded, were finally defeated. All 
who were taken prisoners were put on trial, but so strong 


was public feeling throughout Australia on their side, 
that they were acquitted, and Sir John O'Shanassy was 
appointed to enquire into their grievances. The result 
of this enquiry was that all licences were abolished, and 
the miners were allowed to be represented in the Colonial 
Parliament. They chose Peter Lalor as their first 
representative, and he sat for Ballarat. 

This was the foundation of the present system of 
Democratic Government in Australia, a Government 
which owes its existence entirely to the exertions and 
initiative of Irishmen. 

One of the most distinguished Irishmen in Ballarat 
since those times was Daniel Brophy, a native of 
Castlecomor, Kilkenny, who was thrice elected mayor. 

The history of Bendigo is much the same as that of 
Ballarat — like Ballarat it owes its foundation to the rush 
of miners in 1851 — and, as in the case of Ballarat, most 
of its earliest inhabitants were Irish. The same question 
with regard to licences arose at Bendigo as at Ballarat, 
but thanks to the tact of the Governor of the Settlement, 
Captain M'Lachlan, a collision with the troops was 

Geelong is one of the chief wool ports of Victoria, and 
is quite as closely associated with the Irish as either 
Ballarat or Bendigo. With Melbourne, it ranks as the 
oldest settlement in the Colony, and was founded in, or 
about, 1837 by a party of Irish explorers. Almost 
everyone and everything in Geelong is Irish. Almost 
all the members of the Corporation, the carriers, the 
clergy, the doctors, the tradespeople are Irish, and most 
of the streets and suburbs have Irish names. The biggest 
rope factory in Victoria is owned by Michael Donaghy, 


an Irishman ; whilst another Irishman, Joseph Kelly, 
in addition to being the controller of the carrying trade 
in the town, was President of the Geelong and Western 
District of St. Patrick's Society. Most of the public 
edifices — as, for example, the Exhibition Building, which 
was presented to the town by J. H. Connor — owe their 
erection to the munificence of Irishmen. Kitmore, 
Kyneton, Belfast and Farnham are all largely populated 
by Irish, and the Irish form a very large percentage of 
the members of their respective Corporations. 

Gipps Land, which takes its name from Sir George 
Gipps, Governor of Australia, was explored by two 
Irishmen, James Riley and Pat Coady Buckley, whose 
glowing accounts of the extraordinary beauty of the 
country led to its immediate colonization. 

One of the finest buildings in Melbourne, St. Patrick's 
Cathedral, on the Eastern Hill, was built by the Irish ; 
and amongst other Irish institutions in the same city 
are St. Francis Xavier's College, in the suburb of Kew ; 
and St. Patrick's Hall, which is the headquarters of the 
St. Patrick's Society, and situated in the Western end 
of the city, opposite Bourke Street. Here lectures are 
given and papers read on purely Irish matters, and 
everything is done to keep up an interest in Irish literature 
and politics. The Public Library, Museum and National 
Gallery of Victoria were all presented to the Colony by 
Sir Redmond Barry, of Cork, one of the most distinguished 
Irish-Australians. Sir Redmond left Ireland soon after 
being called to the bar, and, arriving in Australia, practised 
at the Melbourne bar, of which he soon became the leader. 
In 1841 he was raised to the Bench of the Supreme Court, 
a post he occupied for 29 years. He was always keenly 


interested in social problems, and his gift of a Public 
Library to Melbourne was to supply a want he had long 
felt was badly needed by the working classes. One of 
the best known of its many officials was Thomas Francis 
Bride, LL.D., who was librarian in 1887. 

Sir Redmond Barry also founded Melbourne University, 
of which he was the first Chancellor ; whilst the first 
man to get his LL.D. degree there was John Madden, 
of Cork, who afterwards represented Melbourne in the 
Legislative Assembly of Victoria, and was twice Minister 
of Justice. Among other noted Irishmen (past and 
present) in Melbourne are : Edmond Gerald Fitzgibbon, 
a native of Cork, who was Municipal Governor of Mel- 
bourne, as well as being its Town Clerk for thirty years ; 
Sir Charles MacMahon, son of the Right Hon. Sir William 
MacMahon — at one time Master of the Rolls in Ireland — 
who represented Melbourne in the Legislative Assembly 
of Victoria ; the Hon. Sir Bryan O'Loghlen, Bart., of 
Drumcondra, Ennis, Co. Clare (in succession to his brother, 
Sir Colman O'Loghlen, M.P. for Clare), who was Attorney- 
General and Chief Secretary for Victoria, and Premier 
in 1881 ; the Hon. Henry Bolton, a native of Galway, 
who was Postmaster-General of Victoria ; the Hon. 
Walter Madden, who was Minister of Lands for Victoria ; 
the Hon. Michael O'Grady, son of a Roscommon farmer, 
who was M.P. for South Bourke and Counties of Villiers 
and Heytesbury, and Commissioner of Public Works in 
the Ministries of Sir Charles Sladen and Sir Charles 
Gavan Duffy ; the Hon. Nicholas Fitzgerald, son-in-law 
of Sir J. O'Shanassy, who was leading member of the 
Legal Council of Victoria, and by far its most brilliant 
orator ; Sir William Foster Stawell, who was M.P. for 


Melbourne and occupied, in turn, the posts of Chief 
Justice of Victoria, Lieutenant-Governor of Victoria, and 
Attorney-General of Victoria; Mr. Justice Molesworth, 
a native of Dublin, who was generally regarded as the 
leading judicial authority in Australia ; Mr. Justice 
Higinbotham, also a native of Dublin, who was immensely 
popular with the Melbourne working-classes ; the Hon. 
R. D. Ireland, Q.C. for many years, one of the leading 
advocates at the Victorian Bar ; John Curtain, of 
Limerick, who represented North Melbourne in the 
Legislative Assembly of Victoria ; Thomas Fogarty, 
who was Mayor of Melbourne ; Daniel Henry Deniehy, 
who founded The Southern Cross Journal, and was a 
brilliant critic and essayist ; Dr. W. E. Hearn, of Cavan, 
who was Professor of History and Political Economy at 
Melbourne University ; Professor McCoy, an old Trinity 
College man, who was Curator of the Australian Museum 
in Melbourne ; Edmund Hayes — admittedly one of the 
foremost of Australian poets — author of The Ballad 
Poetry of Ireland ; Gerald Henry Supple, poet and 
essayist, author of The Dream of Dampier, and many 
other works ; William Carleton, Junior, author of The 
Warden of Galway and other poems ; John Finnamore, 
author of Carpio and other tragedies ; Roderick Flanagan, 
who was one of the most trustworthy of Australian 
historians ; Patrick Moloney, who was the first to receive 
a degree of Medicine at Melbourne University ; the 
Very Rev. Dean O'Driscoll, rector of Emerald Hill ; 
Dr. Madden, who represented Sandridge, or Port Mel- 
bourne, in the Victorian Parliament ; the Very Rev. 
Prior Butler, once head of the Carmelite House in 
Sandridge ; the Right Rev. Dr. O'Connor, once parish 


priest of Rathfarnham, Dublin, and afterwards the 
first Prelate of St. Patrick's Cathedral, Melbourne ; the 
Very Rev. Patrick Dunne, D.D., Vicar-General of 
Goulburn, who was the first Roman Catholic priest to 
come to Melbourne, which, at that time, consisted of a 
few log huts standing in the midst of sand dunes and 
cactus bushes ; the Right Rev. Dr. Martin Crane, the 
first Roman Catholic Prelate of Sandhurst ; the Hon. 
James Sullivan, a native of Waterford, who was appointed 
a Minister of Mines in Victoria, and was the leading 
member of the Victorian Board of Commissioners to the 
Dublin International Exhibition of 1865 ; Judge Casey, 
who was Minister of the Crown and Administrator of 
the Lands Department in Victoria, and who owned and 
edited The Bendigo Advertiser ; Dean Hayes, the first 
Roman Catholic Prelate of St. Mary's Church, Geelong ; 
and the Hon. Sir Charles Gavan Duffy, K.C.M.G., who 
may be regarded as the greatest, on the whole, of all 
the Irishmen associated with Australia. Sir Charles 
Gavan Duffy was a native of Monaghan and one of the 
founders of The Nation newspaper in 1842. He was 
indicted for felony in connection with the Smith O'Brien 
Rising of 1848 ; but, although he was arraigned on four 
separate bills, the evidence broke down and he was 
acquitted. He took a prominent part in the founding 
of the Irish Tenants' League, and for some years repre- 
sented New Ross in Parliament. Migrating to Australia 
in 1855, he was returned for Villiers and Heytesbury in 
the first Parliament, and was Minister of Public Works 
under the first Responsible Government. From 1871 
to 1872 he was Premier of Victoria, and from 1877 to 
1888 he was Speaker of the Victorian Legislative Assembly 

«— (2339) 


(all the Speakers down to 1877, namely, Sir Francis 
Murphy, Sir Charles MacMahon, and the Hon. Peter 
Lalor, were Irishmen). He was knighted in 1873, and 
made a K.C.M.G. in 1877. Apart from politics, Sir 
Gavan Duffy took a great interest in literature — particu- 
larly in Irish literature — and published several works, 
including My Life in Two Hemispheres ; The League of 
North and South, and Four Years of Irish History. In 
1889 he retired from public affairs, and during the 
remainder of his life lived chiefly at Nice. He had 
three sons, all of whom have led distinguished careers ; 
the Hon. John Gavan Duffy, the eldest, succeeding him 
as M.P. for Dalhousie. 

An Irishman who played a very important part in 
the early history of Victoria was Robert O'Hara Burke, 
one of Australia's national heroes. Robert O'Hara 
Burke was born at St. Clerans, near Galway, in 1821. 
Educated for the Army, he entered the R.M.A., Woolwich, 
but, taking a sudden dislike to the idea of soldiering in 
England, went to Belgium, where he studied for a time, 
and then joined the Austrian Army. That Service he 
soon left, and, after obtaining a commission in the Irish 
Constabulary, which he also resigned, he finally migrated 
to Melbourne. There he received an appointment as 
Inspector of the Police, but, giving up that too, he 
visited Europe in the vain hope of taking part in the 
Crimean War. He then returned to Australia, and in 
1860, in company with Messrs. Wills and King, and 
several others, started on a journey of exploration into 
the heart of the Continent. Leaving Melbourne on the 
20th of August, he and his party reached Cooper's Creek, 
800 miles north, on 5th December. There it had been 


arranged to form a depot, and had they waited till the 
arrival of the main store of provisions, which was being 
brought by a second contingent of the expedition, all 
might have been well. But Burke, ever impatient, 
determined to push on without delay. With Mr. Wills, 
his second in command, two men, one horse, and six 
camels, he started, leaving several of the party behind 
with instructions to remain there and guard the provisions 
till his return. On 10th February, 1861, Burke and his 
companions reached the tide-water of the Gulf of 
Carpentaria (about 750 miles from Cooper's Creek) where 
they remained three days. On their return journey, 
everything went against them. It was the wet season, 
and progress was made almost impossible by the terrific 
torrents of rain ; then their provisions ran out, and they 
had to tramp miles on empty stomachs. At last, however, 
on 21st April, 1861, they reached the depot where they 
had left the other members of their party, but, to their 
absolute astonishment and despair, found it deserted. 
They then wandered about for two months in the hope of 
reaching a white settlement, existing solely on fish and 
the seeds of a plant called nardoo, supplied them by the 
natives they occasionally came across. On 30th June, 
Wills succumbed, and Burke died the following day, 
both having made entries in their diaries almost up to 
the hour of their death. King alone survived and was 
rescued by Mr. Howitt's exploring party on 15th 
September. Though Burke was censured in the report 
of the Royal Commission as being responsible for the 
failure of the expedition, the story of his sufferings — as 
related by King — and the brave manner in which he 
bore up against them, cheering on the rest of his party, 


have caused him to be admired and respected throughout 
Australia, and by his compatriots, at least, to be looked 
upon as a martyr and hero. The bodies of Burke and 
Wills, after having lain for some time in a grave, where 
they died, were eventually removed to Melbourne and 
interred there, a monument to their memory being 
afterwards erected in one of the principal streets of the 

Melbourne is far too Irish as a whole to have any 
special Irish quarter. Amongst its politicians, profes- 
sional men, business men, press and police, the Irish far 
outnumber any other nationality, and form, in fact, 
the leading element in all classes of its population. That 
the Irish " run " Melbourne is even more true than that 
they run New York, for in Melbourne they are un- 
doubtedly more powerful and more paramount than in 
any other city in the world. 

The Irish Roman Catholic clergy played a very 
prominent part in the migration of the Irish to 
Queensland. In one month alone, 500 of the evicted 
tenants of Lord Digby's estate, near Tullamore, begged 
the Government in Ireland for an opportunity to emigrate 
to Queensland. Their request was not granted, and had 
it not been for Father Dunne, who chartered a ship 
called The Erin-go-Bragh, and took them all over at a 
nominal cost, they would never have been able to get 

The Right Rev. James Quinn, the first Roman Catholic 
Bishop of Queensland, following Father Dunne's example, 
also chartered a vessel, The Maryborough, for the benefit 


of other Irishmen unable to emigrate for want of means, 
and thus over 6,000 Irish men and women were conveyed 
to Queensland, and given a fair chance of making a 
livelihood. Many of these emigrants won their way to 
distinction and worldly prosperity — amongst others, 
Patrick Burke, Millie Higgins and Molly O'Hara, who 
achieved great success on the stage ; Charles O'Carroll 
and Thomas Kelly, who became eminent journalists ; 
Bridget Murphy and Kathleen Flanagan, who acquired 
fame as singers ; and Dennis O'Malley and Michael 
O'Connell, who became well-known engineers. 

Amongst the Irish colonists who distinguished them- 
selves in Queensland were : Sir Arthur Palmer, Prime 
Minister of Queensland for five years ; Sir Joshua Peter 
Bell, President of the Upper Chamber of Queensland ; 
the Hon. H. E. King, a native of Limerick, who was 
Speaker of the Queensland Legislative Assembly ; the 
Hon. John Murtagh Macrossan, who was head of the 
Mining Department ; the Hon. Patrick Perkins, Adminis- 
trator of the Department of Lands ; and Davis O'Donovan, 
Librarian of the House of Legislation in Brisbane, 
and author of several works, including Memories of 

Prior to 1847, the Irish population in South Australia 
was not very large — it consisted chiefly of agriculturists 
from Galway, Cork and Kerry, and political offenders ; 
but after 1847, thanks to the energy of St. Patrick's 
Society of South Australia — especially to its President, 
Major O'Halloran, R. Torrens, the Collector of Customs, 
Sir George Kingston and the Hon. Captain Bagot — crowds 


of Irishmen, at first, mostly peasants, migrated to South 
Australia, and either obtained employment on ranches, 
or started ranches for themselves. Among the famous 
political prisoners transported to the Colony in 1849, 
were : William Smith O'Brien, Thomas Francis Meagher, 
Terence Bellew McManus, Patrick O'Donoghue, John 
Martin, Kevin Izod O'Doherty, John Mitchel, John 
Boyle O'Reilly and J. K. Casey. 

Smith O'Brien — as the leader and, presumably, the 
most dreaded of these political offenders — was imprisoned 
alone in Maria Island, whilst Meagher, McManus, Mitchel, 
O'Doherty and O'Donoghue were sent to Tasmania, 
where they became very popular and were allowed 
any amount of liberty. Meagher married a squatter's 
daughter, and escaped to New York with her in 1852 — 
John Mitchel and McManus escaped to America the 
year after. The other prisoners were all granted pardon 
at the end of five years, provided they did not return 
to the United Kingdom. O'Doherty remained in 
Australia and made a big reputation for himself as a 
doctor in Sydney, but Smith O'Brien, after staying for 
a time in Australia, and receiving from the Irish in 
Melbourne a golden cup as a token of their appreciation 
of his struggles for Irish Independence, went to Brussels, 
where he wrote his Principles of Government, or Medita- 
tions in Exile, and thence, on the receipt of a free pardon, 
returned to Ireland. He died at Bangor, North Wales, 
in 1864, and was buried at Rathronan, Co. Limerick. 
O'Reilly escaped to America and achieved fame there 
as an author. 

J. K. Casey and Dr. R. R. Madden remained in South 
Australia, and also acquired distinction in literature, 


publishing, respectively, The Rising of the Moon, and The 
Lives and Times of the United Irishmen. 

Throughout the history of the Irish in Adelaide, the 
Roman Catholic clergy have played a very important 
part . Not only did they encourage the Irish to emigrate 
to South Australia, but they provided funds to enable 
them to emigrate, and looked after them on their arrival. 
Francis Murphy was the first priest to settle in the 
Colony. Adelaide then consisted of a few log cabins, 
a public-house, and a general store. Father Murphy 
converted the public-house into his private residence, 
and the store into his church ; and so rapidly did the 
Settlement grow, that his house was soon metamorphosed 
into a Bishop's Palace and his church into a Cathedral — 
which Cathedral is now one of the finest edifices in 
the city. 

To the Irishmen, already mentioned, who distinguished 
themselves in South Australia should be added : Sir 
Dominick Daly, a native of Galway, who was the most 
popular of all the Governors of South Australia ; Sir 
William Robinson, who, besides filling the post of 
Governor of South Australia, was a clever musician 
and composer ; Sir George Kingston, Speaker of the 
South Australian Legislative Assembly ; and Sir Richard 
M'Donnell, the immediate predecessor of Sir Dominick 
Daly as Governor of South Australia, and famous as 
the first " white " explorer of the district between the 
Roper and Victoria rivers in the extreme North of the 

Compared with the numbers in other parts of Australia, 


there are very few Irishmen in the Western Provinces, 
and of these, perhaps, none are of any special note. 

The Irish were among the first emigrants to settle in 
Tasmania, and have aided no little in the development of 
that Colony by their indefatigable energy and industry. 
They have supplied many members to the House of 
Assembly, and are to be met with — in every walk of 
life — mostly in Hobart and Launceston, in the mining 
districts round Corinna and Mount Zeehan, and in the 
agricultural regions about Oatlands and Franklin, where 
many of them are sheep and fruit farmers. 

Sir Richard Dry, the first Speaker of the Tasmanian 
House of Assembly, of which he was also Prime Minister, 
was an Irishman. 

Although comparatively few Irishmen have settled in 
New Zealand, which has been mostly associated with 
the Scotch, there have yet been several in that country 
who have distinguished themselves. Among the most 
notable of these are : Sir George Grey, author and 
explorer, who was Governor of the Colony ; Sir James 
Prendergast, who was Chief Justice of New Zealand ; 
Sir G. Maurice O'Rorke, who was Speaker of the 
House of Representatives ; the Hon. Alfred Tole, 
who was Minister of Justice ; and the Hon. J. E. 

Ireland, of course, had a share in the military history 
of New Zealand. The Royal Irish Regiment was one 
of the few British Regiments engaged in the campaign 


of 1865, and Major-General H. Shaw, C.B., one of the 
few to receive the Victoria Cross, which he obtained for 
saving a wounded soldier from being clubbed to death by 
a party of Maoris. 

The distinguished Irish men and women of the present 
day in Australia are too numerous to be separately 
mentioned in this work. A complete list of them may 
be seen by referring to Johns* Notable Australians, and 
Who is Who in Australia. 

The Irish are not very numerous in Canada, although 
this country has offered special inducements to agricul- 
turists in the shape of free grants of land ; though the 
climate is good, and there is every facility for travel, 
nothing like the number of Irishmen have migrated 
there as have migrated to Australia or to the United 
States. Those, however, who, migrating to Canada, 
have experimented in farms of their own, have invariably 
succeeded, and have become owners of large tracts of 
country and a huge stock. This is especially the case in 
Assiniboia, Winnipeg and Saskatchewan, where the Irish, 
as ranchmen and farm-hands, have chiefly congregated. 
There are few Irish in Ontario, and fewer still in British 
Columbia. Prince Edward's Island, on the contrary, is 
almost entirely peopled with Irish, mostly employed in 
agriculture, and nearly all Roman Catholics. They 
commenced migrating there about the middle of the last 
century. The percentage of Irishmen employed in the 
Canadian lumber trade is very small. For some reason 
or another the Irish peasant does not take kindly to the 
solitary life in the Canadian backwoods, nor to the 


monotony of everlasting tree felling. He likes to be 
within reasonable distance, at least, of a town. 

In Quebec and Montreal, where they number most, 
Irishmen follow all kinds of vocations ; and are by no 
means confined to the labouring classes. 

The frequent inter-marrying of the Irish with the 
French Canadians is invariably productive of excellent 
results — the children of these marriages making the 
finest citizens — mentally, morally and physically — in the 
Dominion. Though the general standard of wages in 
Quebec and Montreal is lower than it is in New York 
and Chicago, the hours of work are nothing like so long, 
and the housing is infinitely preferable. There are no 
back-to-back tenements, the sanitary arrangements are, 
on the whole, good — though there is still room for improve- 
ment — and many of the habitations are fitted with baths 
and other modern conveniences. The municipal author- 
ities in the Canadian towns pay far greater attention to 
the needs of the working classes than do similar councils 
in the United States. 

Moreover, the educational system throughout Canada 
is run on very sound principles — the national schools are 
free, the syllabus is rational — much more so than it is 
either in the Mother Country or in the United States ; 
the hours of study are specially adapted to the ages of 
the pupils, and the discipline is invariably excellent. 
With all these advantages, it is not surprising that the 
naturally intelligent Irish children should do well, and 
a recent enquiry showed that of the prizes and certificates 
awarded in one year in the State schools in Quebec, 
Montreal and Toronto, at least 20 per cent, were won 
by scholars of Irish extraction. 


Perhaps the most distinguished Irishman in Canada 
of late years has been Lucius Richard O'Brien, who was 
first President of the Royal Canadian Academy of Arts — 
a post he occupied from 1880 to 1890. His diploma 
picture, " Sunrise on the Saguenay," is in the Art Gallery 
at Ottawa. 

In Newfoundland the Irish element is exceptionally 
strong. The conditions of life and labour out there 
prove most attractive to the Irish peasants, especially 
to those in Cork, Tipperary and Waterford ; consequently 
they emigrate to Newfoundland in large numbers. The 
bulk of these emigrants are Celts and Roman Catholics, 
and they find employment on the farms — they make 
excellent farm-hands — or in various of the industries in 
St. John's. Comparatively few of them are employed 
in the fisheries. Apart from these peasants, however, 
there are many wealthy Irish in St. John's who own big 
businesses, some of them being descendants of Irishmen 
who migrated there as far back as the eighteenth century. 

One of the most remarkable of the Irishmen in New- 
foundland was James Louis O'Donnell, usually styled 
" The Apostle of Newfoundland." Born at Knocklofty, 
in Co. Tipperary, James Louis O'Donnell was educated 
for the Roman Catholic Church at St. Isidore in Rome, 
in Bohemia, and then in Prague. On completing his 
studies, he returned to Ireland, and was appointed head 
of the Franciscan House in Waterford. In 1784, at the 
request of certain of the leading Irish merchants in 
Newfoundland, James O'Donnell went there as Prefect 
and Vicar Apostolic — being the first Roman Catholic 


priest to visit the Province. He at once set to work 
building schools and churches, and tried to bring about 
an entente cordiale with the Presbyterians and other 
religious sects. In 1800 he received a pension of £50 a 
year from the British Government, for discovering a plot 
to mutiny among the English soldiers garrisoning New- 
foundland. In 1811 his health broke down and, to the 
great regret of all, Protestants as well as Roman Catholics, 
in Newfoundland, he was obliged to return to Waterford, 
where he died the same year. 

Another Irishman of note in Newfoundland was Sir 
John Terence Nicholls O'Brien, K.C.M.G., who, after 
serving throughout the Indian Mutiny, was first made 
Governor of Heligoland in 1881, and then Governor of 
Newfoundland in 1888. 

The history of the Irish in India is almost entirely 
military, and is woven round the names of Wellesley, 
Gough, Keane, the Lawrences, and Roberts, referred to 
in the biographical notices. 

The Royal Munster Fusiliers was one of the first British 
regiments to fight in India, and it played no small part 
in the conquest of that country. It was one of the two 
European regiments that fought under Major John 
Adams at Gheriah and the Undwah Nala. The Undwah 
Nala — one of those narrow passes typical of Northern 
India — not only presented enormous natural difficulties 
to an assailing force, but was so fortified as to render it 
impregnable in the opinion of Mir Kasim, the defender, 
who had 100 cannon in position there and 45,000 troops, 
whilst the English had only 5,000 men and a few guns. 


Yet Major Adams, with the Ministers and 84th Regiment, 
stormed the Pass and utterly routed the Indians — a feat 
second to none in the annals of modern warfare. 

The Munsters again figured conspicuously in the battle 
of Chillian wallah, where both they and the Royal Dublin 
Fusiliers (102nd) narrowly escaped the fate of the South 
Wales Borderers (24th). The same two regiments fought 
also in the Indian Mutiny, taking part in the Relief of 
Lucknow, where they were repeatedly praised by Sir 
Colin Campbell, the Commander-in-Chief. The Munsters 
were one of the first regiments to enter Delhi, on the 
capture of that city, September, 1857. 

Only one Irish regiment — the Royal Irish Regiment 
(18th)— took part in the Afghan War of 1879-1880, in 
which Earl Roberts (then Major-General Roberts) com- 
manded the Kabul Field Force, and rendered himself 
famous by his great march from Kabul to Kandahar. 

In this campaign General Sir O' Moore Creagh was 
given the Victoria Cross for repeating Lieut. Bromhead's 
feat at Rorke's Drift by defending Kam Dakka with 
150 men against, at the very least, 1,500 Afghans. In 
the same war, the late Field-Marshal Sir George White 
also won the Victoria Cross, as did three other Irishmen — 
General Sir Hugh Gough, Lieutenant W. R. P. Hamilton, 
who was barbarously murdered in Kabul, and 
Sergeant-Major P. Mullane. 

The Irish are in every part of Egypt and South 
Africa to-day. Many of them are in the police, many 
in business in the principal towns — especially in Cairo, 
Alexandria, Cape Town, Johannesburg, and Pretoria 


— whilst a fair percentage of them are employed in 
agricultural pursuits, more especially in Cape Colony 
and Natal. The religious element among the South 
African Irish is not so pronounced as in America and 
elsewhere, there being a marked and growing tendency 
towards indifference, which may be, partly at all events, 
accounted for by the fact that the majority of the Irish 
immigrants are Anglo-Irish and not Celts. 

In all parts of Africa — in Egypt, Benin, Zululand, 
Abyssinia and the Transvaal, Irishmen have fully upheld 
the martial traditions of their country. The British 
Expeditionary Force to Abyssinia in 1868 was led by 
Sir Robert Napier, and that to Ashanti in 1873 by Sir 
Garnet Wolseley, both Irishmen. 

In the Zulu War of 1879 many were the gallant deeds 
performed by Irishmen. Lieut. Bromhead in command 
of a small detachment of the 24th Regiment (South 
Wales Borderers) successfully defended Rorke's Drift 
against a large army of Zulus, whilst at Ulundi, Lord 
William Beresford and Sergeant O'Toole were both 
awarded the Victoria Cross for their rescue of Sergeant 
Fitzmaurice, another Irishman, equally as valiant as 
themselves. The story of the rescue may briefly be 
summarized thus : The three men, belonging to an 
advance detachment of Scouts — commanded by Redvers 
Buller and Lord William Beresford — having been 
surprised by a large body of Zulus, were in the act of 
retreating when Beresford, looking back, saw Fitzmaurice 
fall from his horse. Without a moment's hesitation, 
Beresford rode back to the wounded man's rescue. 
Fitzmaurice expostulated, and begged to be left to his 
fate, but Beresford persisted, and in the end managed 


to drag Fitzmaurice into the saddle in front of him. 
By this time the Zulus had come right up to them, and 
both men must have perished had not 0' Toole ridden 
back and, shooting down Zulu after Zulu with his revolver, 
enabled his two companions to escape. Captain C. 
D'Arcy, of the Frontier Horse, was also awarded the 
V.C. for an equally heroic act in the same battle. At 
Sekukuni's Town, 1879, where the Connaught Rangers 
experienced some of the hardest fighting of the campaign, 
Privates F. Fitzpatrick and T. Flawn, of the Connaught 
Rangers, were each awarded the Cross for saving the 
life of another Irishman, Lieutenant J. C. Dewar. While 
Fitzpatrick helped Lieutenant Dewar on to his horse, 
Flawn held at bay about forty Basutos with his revolver. 
Few regiments in the British Army have seen more 
active service in Africa than the Connaught Rangers. 
It was the Connaught Rangers that figured so tragically 
at Bronspruit in the Boer War of 1880-1, when a detach- 
ment of that regiment, acting as escort to a convoy, was 
surprised by a party of Boers under the flag of truce, 
and nearly all were massacred. Among the survivors was 
Mrs, Annie Fox, wife of the Quarter-Master of the 
regiment, who saved the colours of the Rangers by hiding 
them under her bed, and who attended to the wounded, 
though suffering the greatest agony herself. She was 
afterwards decorated by Queen Victoria with the Order 
of the Royal Red Cross, and on her death in 1888 a 
monument was erected to her memory in Portsmouth 
by the officers, non-commissioned officers and men (past 
and present) of the Second Battalion of the Connaught 

In the Boer War of 1899-1902, Lieutenant the Hon. 


F. H. S. Roberts, son of Earl Roberts, was killed while 
rescuing a gun at Colenso. He was awarded the Victoria 
Cross, this being the first instance of that much-coveted 
honour being gained by father and son. In this campaign 
every Irish regiment in the Army was represented. 

Lord Wolseley (then Sir Garnet Wolseley) commanded 
the British Army in the Egyptian War of 1882 ; Lord 
Charles Beresford won his way to fame with the Condor ; 
and the Royal Irish Regiment and the Royal Irish Rifles 
played a conspicuous part in it. 

In the Somaliland Campaign of 1903, Brigadier-General 
J. E. Gough won the Victoria Cross — the only instance 
on record of three members of a family winning that 

The most conspicuous of the famous present-day 
Irishmen in Africa are : Sir David Miller Barbour, 
K.C.M.G., K.C.S.I., who has been a Member and Chair- 
man of several Royal Commissions and Committees, and 
who is Director of the Standard Bank of South Africa ; 
the late Lieutenant-General Sir William Francis Butler, 
K.C.B., who had a most brilliant military career, and 
commanded the Western District from 1899 to his 
retirement in 1905 (his widow, Lady Butler, i.e., Elizabeth 
Thompson, is the well-known painter of military and North 
American scenes, her most famous works being " The 
Roll Call," " The Great Lone Land," and " From Naboth's 
Vineyard ") ; Lieut. -Colonel John Joseph Byron, C.M.G., 
Aide-de-Camp to Earl Roberts in the South African 
War, and a member of the Legislative Assembly of the 
Orange River Colony ; Sir William St. John Carr, J. P., 
first Mayor of Johannesburg, and Chairman of the 
Johannesburg Town Council, 1902-3 ; the Hon. John 


Daverin, founder of the firm of Daverin & Co., 1876, 
and one of the largest wool dealers in South Africa ; 
Sir James Percy Fit zpat rick, President of the Transvaal 
Chamber of Mines, 1902-3, and now a member of the 
Legislative Assembly of the Transvaal (he has written 
many books, including The Transvaal from Within, and 
Jock of the Bushveld) ; His Excellency Sir Walter Hely 
Hutchinson, G.C.M.G., Governor of Cape Colony from 
1901-1909 ; James Kyle, M.I.M.E., Construction Engineer 
at the Premier Diamond Mine, Transvaal ; Thomas 
Patrick O'Meara, who was a member of the Pietermaritz- 
burg Town Council for twelve years ; the Right Rev. 
Peter Austin, Roman Catholic Bishop of Port Louis 
(Mauritius) ; George Walter Ross, member of the Legis- 
lative Assembly for the Eastern Towns of the Orange 
River Colony ; William Charles Scully, who, in addition 
to being a Civil Commissioner and Resident Magistrate 
at Bredasdorp, Cape Colony, has written many verses 
and stories, including, Poems, Kaffir Stories, The White 
Hecatomb, and A Vendetta of the Desert ; Tom Shillington, 
once the manager and editor of The Rhodesia Herald, Salis- 
bury, and now engaged in farming ; Alfred D. Donovan, 
founder and editor of The Cape, Cape Town ; Edward 
Thomas Ernest Hamilton, editor of The Transvaal Medical 
Journal, and Chairman of the Seymour Memorial Library, 
Johannesburg ; Hugh Mayan, M.A., editor of The 
Progressive Monthly, Johannesburg ; Ronan Barry, M.I. J., 
Member of the Society of Arts, and, until recently, acting 
editor of The Times of Natal / and James Tyrrell Wallace, 
editor of The Latest, Durban, and one of the foremost 
journalists in South Africa. 

22— (2339) 



According to tradition, the first Irishmen to visit 
America were two sailors, Barind and Mernoc, who 
landed on the Eastern shores of the Northern Continent 
about a.d. 500, and, after penetrating a few miles inland 
in search of food and water, returned to Ireland. The 
news of their discovery exciting the liveliest interest and 
curiosity, St. Brendan, a native of Kerry, and an old 
pupil of Bishop Ere, fitted up an expedition, and sailed 
from Mount Brandon, about seven miles from Dingle. 
He had with him a crew of about sixty men, mostly 
monks — for monks in those days could turn their hands 
to anything — and, after a voyage lasting many weeks, 
reached, what some affirm to have been, the Eastern coast 
of North America. They penetrated into the interior for 
fifteen days, and, returning to their ship laden with 
fruit and the flesh of many animals of a species entirely 
unknown to them, retraced their course to Ireland. 
Their landing-place they had named Hy-Breasail, and 
from their description of the interior of the country they 
had explored — its climate, birds, and animals — it certainly 
bore a far closer resemblance to the Southern than to 
the Northern Continent. Referring to the expedition, 
Lanigan writes thus : " Although the narrative of these 
voyages abounds with fables, yet it may be admitted 
that Brendan sailed, in company with some other persons, 
towards the West, in search of some island or country, 
the existence of which he had heard of." St. Brendan, 



on his return to Ireland, founded the monastery of 
Clonfert, visited St. Columbcille in Iona, retired to 
Inchiquin in Lough Corrib, and died at his sister's 
monastery of Annadown in 577, and was buried at 
Clonfert. His festival is still kept on the 16th of May. 
Soon after St. Brendan's expedition, two other Irish 
Saints, St. Cormac Ua Liathain and St. Baithen, tried 
to reach America, but were compelled to desist owing 
to the wind and waves. 

St. Maelduin, a century or so later, made another 
attempt, and is supposed to have landed somewhere 
near Labrador. 

The first Irish settlers in America about whom there is 
any really authentic information arrived there in the 
seventeenth century, when about a thousand, mostly 
Puritans from all parts of Ireland, went to Maryland 
under the leadership of John Winthrop, and, in 1630, 
founded Boston, which has been Irish in the main ever 

In 1633, Sir George Calvert, created an Irish peer as 
" Lord Baltimore/' by James I, founded Baltimore ; his 
brother Leonard, the Neales, and a goodly number of 
other Irishmen accompanying him to that settlement. 

Of all towns in the United States, with the exception, 
perhaps, of New York, Baltimore has always been the 
most Irish — not numerically, of course, for the population 
is comparatively small, but proportionately. Fully three- 
quarters of the inhabitants of Baltimore are of Irish 
extraction, and are Irish in sentiment. 

Among the most prominent of the Irish in Baltimore 
to-day are the Limerick branch of the O'Donnells. The 
first of the O'Donnells to go to Baltimore was John, 


son of John O'Donnell of Truagh (Trough) Castle, County 
Limerick, who ran away from home when a boy, and, 
obtaining a post on one of the big ships trading with 
India, sailed thither. Landing practically friendless in 
Calcutta, he soon set to work, and with such success that 
he amassed a large fortune before he was thirty. Desirous 
of returning to Ireland, and anxious to try a new route, 
he obtained the security of the British Government, and 
a pledge from the Arabs, to allow him to cross Arabia. 
While he was crossing that Continent, accompanied by 
two other Europeans, he was treacherously attacked by 
his Arab escort, who murdered one of his white com- 
panions and took the other and himself prisoners. They 
were both stripped and beaten, and only saved them- 
selves from sunstroke by swathing their heads with 
fragments of John O'Donnell's shirt. After two years' 
captivity, they escaped, and after many adventures 
succeeded in reaching India. There, John O'Donnell 
was entertained at a public banquet by his old friends, 
and taken into partnership by Mr. Huggins, a rich 
merchant and Paymaster-General to the East Indian 
Company's Army. After amassing a second fortune, 
John O'Donnell found his way to America and settled 
in Baltimore. He represented Baltimore in the Legisla- 
ture of Maryland, and speedily won a reputation as an 
orator by his speech in favour of the Potomac Canal, 
being known thenceforth as " The Father of the Potomac 
Canal." He was also Colonel of the 27th American 
Militia. He married Sarah, daughter of Thomas Elliot, of 
Baltimore, of a well-known Quaker family and descendant 
of one of the Pilgrim Fathers ; and had three sons, 
Columbus, John and Elliot. Columbus, following in his 


father's footsteps, became a General in the United States 
Army, and President of the Maryland House of Legislature. 
He had two sons, Charles Oliver and Columbus, and three 
daughters. Of these, his daughter Eleanora married 
Adrian Iselin, the well-known New York banker, and 
father of the famous American yachtsman and Secretary 
of the New York Yachting Club ; Josephine married 
Mr. Lee, another well-known old Baltimore family ; 
whilst Columbus married Caroline Jenkins. 

To return to John O'Donnell's other sons, John died 
young, and Elliot inherited the Trough estates, in Co. 
Limerick. One of Elliot O'Donnell's sons, General Sir 
Charles Routledge O'Donnell, K.C.B., has been referred 
to in the chapter on " Famous Irishmen of the Nineteenth 
Century." This branch of the O'Donnells is connected 
by marriage with the Winthrops, descendants of John 
Winthrop, the founder of Boston. 

Baltimore was at first Roman Catholic, Boston was at 
first Puritan ; and though neither can be said to be any 
longer wholly representative of one particular denomina- 
tion, in either city there is still a slight preponderance of 
the creed professed by those who originally settled there. 
The small but steady migration of Irishmen to America 
throughout the reigns of James I and Charles I increased 
a hundred-fold in Cromwell's time, when, as has already 
been stated, thousands of Irish women and children were 
sent to the West Indies as slaves, either to twist tobacco, 
or to become the mistresses of Puritan planters. One 
Bristol slave dealer, Captain John Vernon, supplied 250 
women, between twelve and forty years of age, in one 
year alone from Cork, Youghal, Kinsale, Waterford and 


Of the Irish, other than slaves, who went to America 
at that period, the majority settled in Maryland and 
New York, and in the latter city hundreds settled in the 
year 1649, when, indeed, the Irish Colony may be said 
to have really commenced. Prior to that date, the 
Irish in New York were but a mere handful. 

In 1682, Colonel Thomas Dongan, an Irish Catholic, 
was made Governor of New York ; from 1682 onwards 
the flow of Irishmen into New York has been incessant ; 
and to-day the Irish form a very large proportion of the 
total population in New York, and have a considerable 
voice in all municipal matters. By reason of their 
wealth, no less than their wits, they practically run 
Tammany Hall, and American politics are very largely 
controlled by them. Not many Irish settled anywhere 
in New York State, saving in New York City, till 1731, 
when New Windsor was founded by a contingent from 
the North- West of Ireland. Other Irishmen following 
suit founded other settlements in New York State, and 
from being one of the least popular of the American 
Provinces it became almost the most popular. The 
majority of the Irish who went there were Roman 
Catholics, and a large percentage were Celts. 

So with regard to the early Irish Settlements elsewhere. 
In 1660 the Pollocks, a family of Irish-Scotch extraction, 
sailed from Donegal and took up their abode in Maryland. 
In 1677 Salem was founded by the Thompsons, Ganes, 
and other Anglo-Irish Quakers, who left Ulster, fearing 
persecution at the hands of James II. 

The year 1689 saw the advent in America of the 
O'Carrolls — descendants of Niall of the Nine Hostages — 
and their foundation of Carrolltown in Maryland. In 


1715 the Irish first began to settle in Massachusetts, and 
practically founded Palmer and Worcester. Belfast and 
Maine were founded by the O'Sullivans in 1723 ; and 
Newcastle by a body of about 4,000 Irish in 1726. In 
1729 nearly 6,000 Irish — mostly Celtic — came to Phila- 
delphia, and formed the nucleus of the present Irish 
Colony, which ranks third in America in point of numbers 
— the Colony in New York being the biggest, and that 
in Chicago next. 

Amongst these earliest arrivals in Philadelphia were 
members of the following families : the M'Kennans, 
Bryans, Musgraves, Fitzsimons, Reillys (O'Reillys), 
Bradys, Stewarts (same as Highland Stuarts), and 
Butlers (a branch of the Ormonde family). 

Williamsburg and other towns in South Carolina 
were founded by the Irish in, or about, the year 1734, 
when a number of Irish also settled in Virginia. Long 
Meadows and Cherry Mead, for example, were founded 
by the Glasses, whilst the Aliens, Madisons, Conways 
and other Anglo-Irishmen founded other settlements, 
now large towns. Indeed, the Southern States almost 
entirely owe their colonization to the Irish, principally 
the Anglo-Irish, the purely Celtic Irish chiefly settling 
in Maryland. 

In South Carolina and Alabama the Irish, undoubtedly, 
gave its first impetus to the American cotton industry, 
which numbered among its earliest pioneers Messrs. 
Stark, Whipple, Callamore and Casse, from Ulster ; 
Sullivan (O'Sullivan), from Munster ; and Butler, from 
Leinster ; all of whose descendants became wealthy 

About the year 1748, small gangs of the Irish began to 


push forward, further into the heart of America. These 
Irishmen were mostly peasants, hardy and sturdy Celts 
from Galway, Connemara and Kerry ; who made some 
of the finest backwoodsmen America has ever seen. 
Among the best known of them were Daniel Boone, 
Hugh M'Grady (O'Grady), M'Bride and Butler, who 
were actually the first white settlers in Kentucky ; 
and Butler, a famous shot, was held in the highest 
veneration by the Indians. About twenty years later 
another batch of Irishmen, headed by Captain James 
Knox, and styled " The Forty Hunters," arrived and 
pushed on still further into the heart of Kentucky and 
Tennessee. In 1775 Simon Kenton, the son of Butler, 
planted the first corn hitherto seen west of the Alleghany 
Mountains. Up to this period, few Irishwomen had gone 
further west than Maryland, but they now began to 
move more and more inland, following in the wake of 
Simon Kenton and other of the more adventurous 

The breaking out of the Great War of Independence in 
1775 was hailed with the greatest delight by the Irish 
emigrants. Every man that could shoulder a gun at 
once joined either the American Army or Navy, both of 
which were mainly composed of Irish, anxious to avenge 
the many wrongs inflicted on them in Ireland by the 
English. According to statistics, 70 per cent, of 
Washington's Army, in June 1775, was Irish ; and 50 
per cent, of the American Navy ; whilst at the close of 
the war in 1782, there was a 5 per cent, increase of the 
Irish in the American Navy and 10 per cent, increase in 
the Army. 

As the Irish took part in every military and naval 


engagement throughout the war, it is obviously impossible 
within the limits of this work to do more than briefly 
allude to a few of their doings, and to a few of those 
who achieved distinction. 

At the battle of Bunker Hill, in 1775, Dr. Warren, 
a native of Ireland and related to Sir Peter Warren, an 
officer of some distinction in the English Navy, held an 
important command on the Colonist side. The two New 
Hampshire regiments commanded by Colonel Stark were 
almost entirely composed of Irishmen, and these two 
regiments bore the brunt of the attack. When Prescott's 
— the American General — other regiments retreated for 
lack of ammunition, Stark's Irishmen continued holding 
their ground. The English were driven back, not once, 
but twenty times ; each retreat of theirs being accom- 
panied by loud cries of : " Remember the Boyne ! " 
" Sarsneld " and " O'Donnell Abu," from the Irish ranks. 
At last, when all their ammunition was spent and their 
bayonets were twisted out of shape, they were reluctantly 
compelled to draw back ; but they had some consolation, 
the English were far too exhausted to follow them, and, 
consequently, the battle was merely a draw — neither side 
being rightly able to claim a victory. 

Among the Irishmen killed were Dr. Warren and 
Majors Moore and McClary, all of whom had fought most 
gallantly. After this battle a large number of special 
appointments were given to Irishmen. John Sullivan 
was given the command of the American Army besieging 
Boston ; Richard Montgomery the command of the 
expedition to Quebec ; Colonels Ed. Hand and William 
Irving the commands of the Army of Pennsylvania ; 
Colonels John Fitzgerald and Stephen Moylan were made 


aides-de-camp to Washington ; and James McHenry 
was appointed Chief Army Surgeon. One of these men, 
Richard Montgomery, had led a singularly eventful life. 
Born near Raphoe, County Donegal, he entered the 
English Army and saw service against the French in 
Canada ; but, unable to put up with the harsh and 
unjust conduct of his commanding officer, he resigned his 
commission and joined the American Colonists. At the 
head of the Quebec Expeditionary Force, he first of all 
captured Chantilly, taking prisoners over 500 English 
troops, and then Montreal, with all the British shipping 
on the Upper St. Lawrence. He next attacked Quebec, 
which, oddly enough, was defended by another Irishman, 
Sir Guy Carleton, a native of Strabane. 

Putting himself at the head of his troops, Montgomery 
addressed them thus : " Men of New York ! You will 
not fear to follow where your General leads you," 
dashed forward, sword in hand, and rushed at the 
stockades. His men followed. Not a shot was fired 
till they were within about thirty yards of the English, 
and then a furious cannonade suddenly bursting out, 
Montgomery and scores of his soldiers were killed. 

This took place in 1775 ; early in 1776, Brigadier 
James Moore, grandson of James Moore, Governor of 
South Carolina and a native of Ireland, defeated a 
regiment of Highlanders, taking the bulk of them prisoners, 
and before the year was out other Irishmen had gained 
similar successes. Brigadier-General Hand, a native of 
Clyduff, King's County, Ireland, who had formerly been 
a doctor in the Royal Irish Regiment, defeated the 
English on Long Island ; and Colonel W. Thompson, 
a native of Ulster, who had fought for the English against 


the French and Indians in 1757, now beat the English 
in several engagements on the borders of Canada, and 
was, in consequence, made Brigadier-General and en- 
trusted with the temporary command of the American 
Army in Canada, which post he held till the arrival 
of his compatriot, General Sullivan. 

The same year, too, Dr. W. Irvine, a native of 
Enniskillen, who had forsaken surgery for the sword 
conducted himself with so much bravery that he was 
made Colonel of the Sixth Pennsylvania Regiment, and 
subsequently created Brigadier-General ; whilst in 1777 
Walter Stewart, who had raised a company for the 3rd 
Pennsylvania Regiment at his own expense, and had 
been appointed aide-de-camp to General Horatio Gates, 
was made a Colonel for his gallantry at Brandywine 
and Germantown, where whole corps of Irish were engaged, 
and were disputing, with the utmost stubbornness, every 
inch of the ground with the English. 

It is interesting to note that of the 56 delegates who 
signed the Declaration of Independence on the 4th of 
July, 1776, eight at least were of Irish parentage. These 
eight were : Dr. Matthew Thornton, Colonel in American 
Army, and afterwards President of New Hampshire 
Legislative Assembly ; James Smith, Captain of New 
York Volunteers, and afterwards Member of Congress 
(he was a great friend of George Washington, and the 
author of a work entitled, The Constitutional Power of 
Great Britain over Colonies in America) ; George Taylor, 
son of an Irish clergyman, who, after being an ordinary 
manual labourer and clerk, married a rich widow, was 
elected successively to the Colonial and Provincial 
Assemblies, to the Committee of Public Safety, and 


finally to Congress ; George Read, Attorney-General and 
Member of Delaware Assembly, who was afterwards 
twice elected a United States Senator, and finally made 
Chief- Justice for Delaware ; Thomas McKean, barrister, 
and President of Continental Congress ; Charles Carroll, 
of Carrolltown, Member of the Committee of Public 
Safety, and Delegate to the Revolutionary Committee 
(he was the last survivor of the signers of the Declaration, 
dying as recently as 1832) ; Edward Rutledge, lawyer, 
Member of Continental Congress, and subsequently 
Governor of South Carolina ; and Thomas Lynch, who, 
after being educated at Eton and Cambridge, migrated 
to America, became a Member of Continental Congress, 
and was lost at sea in 1779, in a ship that was never 
heard of after it sailed from the United States. 

In 1779 four regiments of the Irish Brigade, namely, 
the Berwicks, Walsh's, Fermoys, and Dillons, came over 
from France under Colonel Dillon to help the Americans, 
and landed on Rhode Island ; in the same year, also, 
Mary Kelly, the beautiful golden-haired child-wife of an 
Irish soldier, displayed extraordinary bravery at the 
battle of Monmouth, and was presented to Washington, 
who made her a sergeant. In 1780 several regiments, 
entirely composed of Irishmen, took part in the battles 
of Camden and Gildford, and, although defeated, were 
specially eulogized by Washington for the heroic manner 
in which they had covered the American retreat ; thus 
saving a general massacre. 

In 1782 there was great rejoicing among the Irish, 
both in America and in Ireland, at the announcement 
that England was at last obliged to recognize the Indepen- 
dence of the United States. As the United States were 


so largely populated by Irishmen, who had either been 
driven out of Ireland themselves by the oppressive 
measures of the English, or were descended from those 
who had been thus driven out, the Irish regarded 
England's loss of the American Colonies as an act of 
retribution. Moreover, they were especially jubilant 
because they had borne such a large part themselves in 
inflicting this ignominy on the English. It was, indeed, 
a revenge for the depopulation and spoliation of Ulster 
and Conn aught. It should be mentioned that, apart 
from the many victories gained by the Irish soldiers 
over the English in this war, the Irish sailors in the 
service of the United States had been equally successful. 

After the signing of Peace in 1783 the American Army 
was mostly disbanded, and the majority of Irishmen 
serving in it returned to their former occupations. Many 
settled in the big towns, and amassed fortunes and 
became Congress men ; many pushed on their work of 
pioneering into the hinterland and founded fresh settle- 
ments ; and many, taking up the pen, helped to form 
the nucleus of American literature. 

In 1798 the first papers started in America were 
started by Irishmen. They were : The Intelligence, of 
Washington, edited by Ed. S. Gales ; The Whig, of Balti- 
more, edited by Baptiste Irving ; The Aurora, of Phila- 
delphia, edited by Duane ; and The Democratic Press, 
edited by Binns. All these editors were United Irishmen, 
and their papers were most bitter in the denunciation 
of the Union. 

The treatment meted out to the leaders of the " '98 " 
Rising in Ireland by the English roused the greatest 
indignation in America, and when Robert Emmet was 


executed there were loud cries of " Let us avenge his 
death." Indeed, it required a very considerable amount 
of tact and firmness on the part of the American Govern- 
ment to prevent the country being rushed into war. 
Nor had this feeling by any means died out by 1812. 
It was commonly supposed in England that the irritation 
caused in the United States by the British practice of 
searching American ships for deserters from the British 
Navy, and for goods from the French Colonies, was 
solely responsible for the abrupt declaration of war by 
America ; but it was not so. Although such behaviour 
on the part of the English was extremely annoying, and 
had no doubt aroused considerable resentment in the 
American shipping world, it had not aroused the indigna- 
tion of the United States people, as a whole, to anything 
like the same extent as the Irish Question, and to the 
latter chiefly, if not entirely, may be attributed the 
outburst of hostilities. 

The American Government had succeeded in preventing 
war after the execution of Emmet, but it had not stifled 
public sentiment, and, when it was rumoured that the 
English had been searching American ships for deserters 
from their Navy, the Irish party, seeing their opportunity, 
at once denounced the act as illegal. The American 
Government was appealed to, and finding that the whole 
country was in favour of prompt action it first of all 
issued a manifesto to England, and then, as this was 
ignored, declared war. 

In the campaign that followed, the Irishmen were 
even more active than they had been in 1777. Both on 
land and at sea they speedily distinguished themselves. 
At the battle of Chippewa, the American General Ripley 


— who was an Irishman — inflicted a severe defeat on the 
English under General Riall ; and in the same engagement 
another Irishman, Major John McNeill, was specially 
commended by Washington for the gallant manner in 
which he had headed three successive charges of the 
11th Regiment. 

At the battle of Bridgewater, Colonel Miller materially 
aided in the American victory by putting to flight two 
batteries of English artillery and capturing the guns. 
Colonel W. Carroll, of Irish descent, had no small share 
in the American victory at Pittsburg ; whilst his fellow- 
countryman, General John Coffee, better known as 
" brave Jack Coffee," made a big reputation as the 
leader of a brigade of cavalry, raised from among the 
Irish backwoodsmen of Kentucky and Tennessee, and 
generally termed Coffee's Scouts. Throughout the war, 
Coffee's Scouts were the terror of the English, whom 
they constantly met and defeated. 

At sea, the United States Captain W. Blakeley, a 
native of Co. Down, captured in rapid succession the 
English warships Reindeer, Lettice, Bonaccord, Armada, 
Mary and Avon, but perished with his ship, The Wasp, 
in a violent hurricane shortly after his last victory. 

In the famous battle between the United States ship 
Chesapeake, and the English ship Shannon, the former 
was commanded by Captain Lawrence, of Irish extrac- 
tion ; whilst several of her officers and many of her 
crew were Irish born and bred. 

In a battle on one of the great lakes, a small flotilla 
of United States ships under Commodore Thomas 
MacDonough, an Irishman, beat an English flotilla of 
about the same size commanded by Capt. George Downie, 


also an Irishman. In this war 70 per cent, of the United 
States soldiers and nearly 60 per cent, of their sailors 
were Irish, and those battles which were not actually 
won by them were all, chiefly through their agency, 
stubbornly contested. 

The war over, the Irish resumed their ordinary 
occupations in life, and emigration progressed as usual. 

Kentucky was by this time mostly settled, and the 
work of pioneering was carried much further East, large 
numbers of Irish crossing the Mississippi river and 
founding settlements in Kansas, Arkansas and Colorado. 
Fights with Indians were of everyday occurrence, and 
the acts of heroism performed by the Irish emigrants 
would fill many volumes. 

In 1829 Ireland claimed its first President of America 
in General Andrew Jackson, of Tennessee ; his father, 
Andrew Jackson, having emigrated from Carrickfergus 
in 1765. General Jackson was born at Wrexham, U.S.A., 
in 1767, and worked his way to the Presidency without 
either money or influence. He was just a poor boy, 
living in a log cabin, every beam and rafter of which had 
been put together by his father, and his success was 
solely gained by his indomitable pluck, industry and 
perseverance. He died in America in 1845. There are 
few names in history deserving of more praise. 

Prior to General Jackson, John C. Calhoun, grandson 
of James Calhoun, of Donegal, had been Vice-President 
of the United States in 1825 ; whilst John Tyler, also of 
Irish parentage, was Vice-President in 1840. 

In the Mexican War of 1846 rather more than half 
the United States Army was composed of Irishmen. 
General Taylor, an Irishman, led an Expeditionary Force 


of nearly 7,000 American troops against Monterey, and 
after making several desperate assaults, in which General 
W. Butler, son of General Pierce Butler, a native of 
Ireland and member of the Ormonde family, was wounded 
— Colonel Pierce Butler, his brother, was killed soon 
afterwards in the battle of Churubusco — eventually 
compelled the Mexican Commander, General Ampudia, 
to capitulate. In the battle of Sierra Gorda, in which 
the Mexicans were defeated with great slaughter, General 
Shields, a native of Dungannon, and Thomas Burke, a 
native of Limerick, greatly distinguished themselves 
(Burke, one of the first to enter the enemy's lines and the 
last to leave, took several Mexicans prisoners, and was 
wounded in nine places) ; and at the battle of San 
Pasqual, fought the same day as Churubusco, General 
Stephen Kearney, an Irishman, with a small body of 
American troops, utterly routed a large force of Mexicans, 
pursuing them many miles, and capturing all their arms 
and ammunition, together with many prisoners. 

This practically saw the end of the fighting. The 
honours list was a long one — and of the promotions 
awarded 90 per cent, went to Irishmen. 

Four years later gold was discovered in California, and 
among the hordes of immigrants, who came pouring into 
America from all parts of the world, were thousands of 
Irish. Successful and unsuccessful alike drifted for the 
most part to San Francisco, where those who had " made 
their pile " built beautiful houses for themselves any- 
where they fancied, whilst those who had been unlucky 
took any jobs they could get — the majority of them 
finding work in the docks. Thanks to their eternally 
hopeful dispositions, few of the Irish really went under — 

23— (2339) 


at any rate not to the same extent as diggers of other 
nationalities, many of whom became habitual loafers, 
spending their lives in drinking saloons, and ending their 
lives in suicide, or in some other equally ignominious 

The Irish Colony in San Francisco may be said to have 
actually commenced in 1850, and it has gone on increasing 
both in numbers and importance ever since. 

Passing down Market Street, O'Farrell Street, Brannan 
Street, Kearny Street, Sansome Street, all the principal 
streets, in fact, one sees nothing but Irish names — every 
other doctor, lawyer, tailor, coal merchant, oil merchant, 
wine merchant, greengrocer and confectioner is an 
Irishman. And it is the same in the suburbs — Irish 
names haunt one everywhere. San Francisco's beau 
monde, or " Four Hundred," though not confined exclu- 
sively to one section, are to be mostly found in Nob Hill, 
Pacific Avenue and the Western Addition of the town ; 
the bonanza and railway set chiefly in Nob Hill, and the 
rest of the elite in Pacific Avenue and the Western 
Addition. Here, in these three localities, containing the 
most sumptuous and beautiful houses in America, if not, 
indeed, in the world, are congregated many people of 
Irish extraction. 

The late Peter Donohue owned one of the most artistic 
and attractive houses in Bryant, near Second, whilst 
other Irish names closely associated with this paradise 
of the wealthy, are those of E. J. McCutchen and Patrick 
Henry McCarthy, a native of County Limerick, who was 
Mayor of San Francisco in 1904. 

To revert to the Irish in America in their chronological 
order. J. K. Polk, a native of the North of Ireland, was 


elected President of the United States in 1845. He was 
the second Irishman to fill that post — General Andrew 
Jackson, as has already been stated, being the first. 
Others who have since occupied it are : Franklin Pierce, 
elected in 1853, awarded the rank of a Brigadier-General 
for his gallant conduct in the battles of Vera Cruz, Molino 
del Rey and Chapultepec, during the Mexican War of 
1846-7 ; James Buchanan, of Irish-Scotch descent, elected 
in 1857 ; Chester A. Arthur, also of Irish-Scotch extrac- 
tion, elected in 1881 on the death of Garfield ; and 
William M'Kinley, of Irish parentage, elected in 1896 
and re-elected in 1900. William M'Kinley, like so many 
of his predecessors, had once been a soldier. Fighting 
throughout the Civil War of 1862-65, he rose from the 
ranks to be Brevet-Major. He was assassinated at the 
Pan-American Exhibition of 1901 by an anarchist. 

The Vice-Presidents of the United States who have 
been Irishmen, apart from John C. Calhoun, who held 
that position in 1825, are Chester A. Arthur, in 1881, 
and T. A. Hendricks, elected in 1885. 

Of the Irish candidates who have stood for election to the 
Presidency, no one is more prominent than William 
Jennings Bryan, the democrat, and advocate of mono- 
metallism as opposed to the present system of bimetallism. 

In the Civil War of 1862-65 thousands of Irishmen 
took part on either side, though more, perhaps, for the 
North than for the South ; and several Irish Brigades, 
of more or less importance, were formed. The Western 
Brigade, otherwise known as the 23rd Illinois Regiment, 
was raised and commanded by Colonel James A. Milligan, 
at one time a lawyer and editor of The Western Tablet. 
After fighting with the greatest gallantry in a long series 


of battles, it was eventually compelled to surrender 
to the Confederates at Lexington. Colonel James A. 
Milligan was fatally wounded at the battle of Kerns- 
town in 1864. Another well-known Irish Brigade was 
" Caldwell's and Meagher's." At the commencement of 
hostilities, Captain Thos. Meagher — the well-known Young 
Irelander, who had been arrested in Ireland in 1848, on 
a charge of high treason, found guilty, and transported 
to Tasmania, whence he had escaped to America — formed 
a corps of Zouaves for the North, entirely of Irishmen, 
and styled it the 69th New York Regiment. After the 
battle of Bull Run, in which the Regiment performed 
prodigies of valour, Meagher set to work to form an 
Irish Brigade. The 69th Regiment, which had been 
sadly depleted, was brought up to its full complement 
by fresh recruits ; and two additional regiments, the 63rd 
and 68th, both entirely composed of Irishmen, were 
raised — the three corps being known as Caldwell's and 
Meagher's Irish Brigade. The Colonel of the 69th 
Regiment was Michael Corcoran, who, as second in 
command under Meagher at Bull Run, had headed 
several charges, been taken prisoner, and, on his escape, 
had formed a legion of his own, called after him, and 
attached to the Irish Brigade. He died from the effect 
of a fall from his horse near Fairfax Courthouse. Meagher's 
Irish Brigade took a prominent part in the battles of 
Bull Run, Fair Oaks, Gaines Mill Creek, Antietam and 
Fredericksburg, where it was practically cut to pieces. 
Meagher wanted to withdraw the remnant from further 
action, till he had had time to gather in fresh recruits 
and bring it up to its original strength ; but, permission 
being refused him, he resigned his commission as its 


leader, and was immediately appointed to the command 
of the Etowah district. He held this post to the end 
of the war, when he was appointed Secretary of the 
territory of Montana by President Johnson. He had 
occupied this position satisfactorily for two years, when 
he was accidentally drowned off a steamer' in the Missis- 
sippi in 1867. An eye-witness writes of the conduct of 
the Irish Brigade at the battle of Fredericksburg * thus : 
" To the Irish division commanded by General Meagher 
was principally committed the desperate task of bursting 
out of the town of Fredericksburg, and forming, under 
the withering fire of the Confederates batteries, to attack 
Marye's Heights, towering immediately in their front. 
Never at Fontenoy, Albuera, nor at Waterloo, was more 
undoubted courage displayed by the sons of Erin than 
during those six frantic dashes which they directed 
against the almost impregnable position of their foe . . . 
The bodies which lie in dense masses within forty yards 
of the muzzles of Colonel Walton's guns are the best 
evidence what manner of men they were." Mr. Webb 
adds : " Meagher was himself distinguished for his cool 
bravery. Of the 1,200 men he led into action, only 280 
appeared on parade the next day." 

Meagher was succeeded in his command of the 280 
residue of the Irish Brigade by Colonel Patrick Kelly, 
who had served under him in all the battles in which 
the Brigade had taken part. Thanks to Kelly's ceaseless 
energies, the Brigade was soon brought up to its 
full strength, when it participated with all its usual 
valour in the battles of Chancellors ville, Gettysburg — 

1 From Mr. Alfred Webb's Compendium of Irish Biography (M. H. 
Gill & Son, Sackville Street, Dublin, 1878). 


where the Irish rivalled their performance at Fredericks- 
burg — Auburn, Bristow Station, Tod's Tavern, Po River, 
Spottsylvania, North Anna River, Tolapotomy Creek, 
Coal Harbour, Petersburg, Yellow Tavern, Strawberry 
Plains, Petersburg (second battle), Skinner's Farm, and 
several others of minor importance. In most of these 
battles the Brigade was led either by Colonel Kelly or 
by Colonel Denis F. Burke. Colonel Burke was a native 
of Cork. He fought with the Brigade right through the 
war, and was wounded at Antietam, Fredericksburg, 
Chancellorsville, Gettysburg and The Wilderness. At 
Spottsylvania he was the first to cross what was 
designated '* The Bloody Angle," and, penetrating with his 
men into the interior line of entrenchments, he took over 
3,000 of General Johnston's men prisoners. He remained 
with the Irish Brigade till its final dissolution at the end 
of the war. In 1866 he was arrested in Dublin as a 
Fenian, and imprisoned in Mount joy and Kilmainham 
Prisons. On his release he returned to the United States, 
was given an appointment in the Tax Office, and was 
one of the leaders of the Republican party. He died 
in 1893. 

Amongst the Irish officers who served with distinction 
in the Civil War, besides those already mentioned, are 
the following : Captain T. Sweeney, Federal, who was 
made Brigadier-General for heroic conduct at Boonville 
and Bull Run ; Colonel B. F. Kelly, Federal, who fought 
at the head of a regiment of his own raising at Phillippi ; 
Brigadier-Generals Robert Emmet Clary and Thos. J. 
Jackson, Federals, who showed great skill in handling 
their troops at Bull Run and other battles ; Generals 
McCullock and MacBride, Confederates, who defeated 


General Lyon near Springfield ; and Lieutenant-Colonel 
Silas Casey, Federal, who had the organization and 
mobilization of recruits, and the defence of the lines of 
communication round Washington in the earlier stages 
of war, and who displayed conspicuous bravery at the 
battle of Fair Oaks, 1862. 

General Patrick R. Cleburne was, perhaps, one of the 
most distinguished Irish officers on the Confederate side. 
He was born near Queenstown and educated at Trinity 
College, Dublin. Entering the ranks of the Confederate 
Army, Cleburne soon rose to be Colonel, and for his 
gallantry at Shiloh and Perryville he was made Brigadier- 
General. As Major-General he commanded divisions at 
Murfreesboro', Chickamauga, Mission Ridge, and for 
his defence of Ringgold Gap he received the thanks of 
the Confederate Congress. At Jonesboro' he saved 
General Hood's army from total annihilation by covering 
its retreat. He was killed at the battle of Franklin, 
Tennessee, 30th November, 1864. Horace Greeley, 
writing of him, remarked : " The loss of Patrick Cleburne, 
the ' Stonewall Jackson of the West,' would of itself 
have been a rebel disaster." 

General Ben. F. Butler was the son of John Butler, 
who had distinguished himself at New Orleans in the 
1812 War, and a member of one of the numerous branches 
of the Ormonde Butlers. He led an Expeditionary Force 
of 10,000 Federals against New Orleans in 1861, which 
he took, and held for months against the Confederates. 
He next fought in Virginia, where he beat the Con- 
federates in many skirmishes, crossed the James river 
in the face of heavy fire, and took Petersburg after a 
stubborn siege. For his subsequent failure to take 


Wilmington, when working in conjunction with Admiral 
Porter, who commanded the Federal Navy, he was 
deprived of his command by General Grant, and was 
superseded by General Ord. 

Other distinguished Irish officers in this war were : 
General Kearney, Federal, who repeatedly led his army 
against the enemy's trenches during the battle of 
Williamsburg, and finally succeeded in routing them ; 
General Early, Confederate, who fought with great 
valour at Williamsburg, beat the Federals at Strasburg, 
but was defeated by General Sheridan, another Irish- 
man, at Winchester and Hatcher's Run ; Jeremiah 
Boyle, Federal, who held the post of Military Governor 
of Kentucky, 1862-64 ; General W. Gorman, Federal, 
who, fighting under General M'Clellan at the battle of 
Antietam, had several horses killed under him and per- 
formed many acts of extraordinary heroism ; General 
John M'Neill, Federal, who, in 1862, drove all the Con- 
federate guerillas out of the North-East Valley of the 
Missouri ; Major P. Keenan, Federal, who recruited 
the 8th Regiment of Pennsylvania Cavalry, which he 
led at a critical moment in the battle of Chancellors- 
ville, and so saved the Federal Army from defeat ; 
Brigadier-General Lawler, Federal, who led his regi- 
ment, the 18th Illinois, at the battle of Big Black river, 
and captured the enemy's position at the point of the 
bayonet ; Brigadier-General J. Barnes, Federal, who 
had his horse shot under him at Gettysburg and was 
severely wounded ; Colonel P. H. O'Rorke, Federal, 
a native of Cavan, who seized the position of Little 
Round Top at the battle of Gettysburg, but was 
killed ; Major-General Charles Griffin, Confederate, who 


fought with conspicuous bravery at Antietam, Fredericks- 
burg and Gettysburg, and succeeded Lee in the command 
of the Fifth Army Corps ; General O'Neill, Federal, who 
was killed while leading his brigade at Gettysburg ; 
Brigadier-General J. M. Brannan, who commanded the 
Federal Artillery during part of the war ; Major-General 
Sheridan, Federal, who beat General Early, an Irish 
Confederate at Winchester and Hatcher's Run (for which 
he received the thanks of the United States Congress), 
and, in conjunction with Generals Meade and Ord, inflicted 
a severe defeat on General Lee near Petersburg ; and 
General Geary, Federal, who raised the 28th Pennsyl- 
vanian Volunteers in 1862, and afterwards commanded 
the Second Division of the Twelfth Corps. 

Among the Irishmen serving with distinction in the 
Navy during this war, was Captain James S. Thornton, 
Federal. He was second in command of the U.S. ship 
Kearsarge, when in action with the Alabama off Cherbourg. 

During the great anti-negro riot in New York, which 
took place before the war was over, Horace Greeley, the 
Irish proprietor of The New York Tribune, had his office 
windows smashed and narrowly escaped being torn to 
pieces ; whilst Colonel J. O'Brien, another supporter of 
the Government, was barbarously attacked by the mob, 
who threw him on the ground and pounded him to death 
with their feet — an act of atrocity that was hardly 
surpassed even in the worst epoch of the French 

In 1891 Mr. Patrick Egan, a native of Ireland, and the 
United States Minister at Valparaiso, won the esteem of 
all his countrymen by forcing the Chilians to apologise 
for an attack on American citizens in Valparaiso and an 


insult to the American flag ; and seven years later another 
Irishman, namely, Rear-Admiral W. T. Sampson, was 
before the American public as the Commander of the 
North Atlantic United States Fleet in the war against 

The Clan-na-Gael, started in America by John 
O'Mahony in 1858, is still a force, but the Irish as a 
whole are now nothing like as hostile to England as they 
were a few years ago ; and at the present moment there 
is every reason to believe that Ireland, now that she 
has obtained the independent Parliament upon which 
she had so long set her heart, will therewith rest content, 
and, with nothing but friendship in her heart, bury the 
hatchet for good. In the present crisis — the Great 
European War — the sympathy of every true-born Irish- 
man in the United States is entirely with England and 
her Allies. 




Since it is obviously impossible within the limits of 
this work to give a biographical sketch — or even an 
exhaustive list — of all the Irishmen who distinguished 
themselves in the United States between the seventeenth 
and twentieth centuries, a brief record of a few of them 
only will be found in the following pages. 

John Ross Browne, born in Ireland, 1822 ; died at 
Oakland, U.S.A., 1875. He wrote a work entitled 
Etchings of a Whaling Cruise, and contributed innumerable 
articles, chiefly on travel — which he illustrated himself — 
to Harper's and other magazines. 

Matthew Carey, born in Ireland, 1760 ; died in the 
United States through the accidental overturning of his 
carriage, 1839. He edited the Volunteer's Journal 
(Dublin), and the Pennsylvania Herald (America), and 
published many works, the best known of which is 
Vindiciae Hiberniae (1819). 

John Dunlap, born at Strabane, 1747 ; died in Phila- 
delphia, 1812. He founded and edited in 1784 the 
North American and United States Gazette, which was the 
first daily paper published in the United States, and the 
Pennsylvania Packet in 1771. As printer to Congress, 
he issued " The Declaration of Independence." 

Charles G. Halpine, born at Oldcastle, Co. Meath, 
1829 ; died from an overdose of chloroform in New 
York, 1868. He was educated at Trinity College, Dublin, 



and, migrating to the United States, served throughout 
the Civil War of 1862 — rising to the grade of Major. 
He edited the Citizen, but is best known by his two 
volumes of humorous writings, written under the pseu- 
donym of " Private Miles O'Reilly,' ' and entitled Poems 
by the Letter H. 

Mary Laetitia Bell Martin, born at Ballinahinch 
Castle, Co. Galway, about 1810, died in a hotel in New 
York of fever, 1850. In addition to contributing many 
articles to the Encyclopedic des Gens du Monde, and other 
French periodicals, she published several novels, the best 
known of which are St. Etienne, A Tale of the Vendean 
War, and Julia Howard. Through the failure of the 
potato crop in Ireland in 1845-47, she lost her entire 
income — all her money being vested in land — and 
arrived in America, to die a few days later, penniless. 

The Rev. James MacSparran, M.A., born in Dungiven, 
Co. Derry, about 1700; died in Rhode Island, 1757. 
He was the author of America Dissected; being a Full 
and True Account of the American Colonies, and several 
other works. 

Edmund Bailey O'Callaghan, born in the United 
States, 1797 ; died in the United States, 1880. Author 
of several standard works of American history. 

Richard Dalton Williams, born in Co. Tipperary, 
1822 ; died of consumption at Thibodeaux, Louisiana, 
1862. Richard Williams was an ardent Nationalist, 
and, together with his friend Kevin Izod O'Doherty, 
founded the Irish Tribune, which was seized by Govern- 
ment six months after its first appearance. O'Doherty 
was convicted of sedition and transported to Australia, 
but Williams was acquitted. Williams emigrated to the 


United States in 1851, and became a Professor in Spring 
Hill College, Mobile, still, however, continuing to write. 
Though he published much prose in the Nation and 
other papers, he was best known for his verse, particularly 
for his poems, namely, " The Irish National Guard to his 
Sister," " Ben Heder," and " The Dying Girl," written 
under the pseudonym of " Shamrock." 

Mrs. Frank M'Carthy (at the zenith of her fame in 
1879) was one of the best known magazine writers of 
the latter part of the last century, and her sketches of 
Irish character — particularly those in " The Mysterious 
Household " {Harper's Magazine) — are inimitable. 

Although it is not often commented upon — possibly 
because it is not generally known — Edgar Allan Poe 
was of Irish extraction, his grandfather, David Poe, 
being a native of the South of Ireland, whilst his mother's 
family originally came from the North. 

Of actors in America from 1600-1900, Ireland has 
produced an innumerable host, the best known being, in 
all probability, John Brougham. 

John Brougham, whose versatility was nothing short 
of the marvellous — for there were few parts he had not 
played in, and played in with success — was born in 
Ireland in 1814, and died in America in 1880. 

The number of eminent Irish ecclesiastics in the United 
States from 1600 to 1900 equalling, if not exceeding, that 
of the actors, renders any attempt at a complete 
enumeration of them utterly impossible. The following 
are a few of the best known — 

Francis Alison, D.D., born in Co. Donegal, 1705 ; died 


in Philadelphia, 1779. Dr. Alison was a Glasgow student, 
and for many years held the post of Vice-Provost of 
the College of Philadelphia, and pastor of the Irish 
Presbyterian Church. 

Alexander Campbell, D.D., born in Co. Antrim, 1786 ; 
died at Bethany, West Virginia, 1866. Dr. Campbell 
was educated at Glasgow University. At first a Presby- 
terian, he subsequently founded a society called " The 
Disciples of Christ," which soon became known as " The 
Campbellites," and in forty years' time numbered half a 
million. The organ of the sect was the Millennial 
Harbinger, of which Dr. Campbell was the first editor. 

Francis Makemie, born in Donegal about 1630 ; died 
in Boston, U.S.A., 1708. Francis Makemie combined 
the vocation of a West Indian trader with that of a 
preacher. Preaching, when not trading, and trading 
when not preaching, he travelled through Virginia, the 
Carolinas, and the West Indies, and established a big 

John Murray, born at Antrim, 1742 ; died at New- 
buryport, Massachusetts. John Murray, like Francis 
Makemie, followed two callings at the same time. A 
soldier and a Presbyterian minister, he was both Captain 
and Chaplain of a corps that fought in Washington's 
Army against the English in the War of Independence. 

Gilbert Tennent, born at Armagh, 1703 ; died in 
North America, 1764. Gilbert Tennent (who, like both 
Makemie and Murray, followed a dual occupation), 
migrating to America when a boy, was educated there 
as a doctor of medicine and also as a Presbyterian minister. 
" Every physician ought to be able to cure both soul 
and body " was one of his favourite maxims, and he 


made a wide reputation as a preacher in 1740, when, at 
the request of Whitefield, he travelled through New 
England with his hair half down his back, a long beard, 
and a leathern girdle round his waist. According to 
Drake, " he was one of the most conspicuous ministers of 
his day, ardent in his zeal, forcible in his reasoning, and 
bold and passionate in his addresses to the conscience 
and the heart." In 1743 he founded a Presbyterian 
Church in Philadelphia, which was packed to over- 
flowing every time he appeared there, right up to the 
time of his death. He published several works, of which 
The Lawfulness of Defensive War (1747), and Sermons on 
Important Subjects (1758), were the best known. 

William Tennent (brother of the preceding), born in 
Co. Antrim, 1705 ; died at Freehold, New Jersey, 1777. 
Whilst studying theology under his brother, a curious 
incident befell William Tennent. One day he suddenly 
fell into a trance, and when about to be buried, by a 
mighty effort he broke the bonds that held him, and 
called out. He was ordained in 1733, and was minister 
of a Presbyterian Church in New Jersey for 44 years. 

There have been very few inventors amongst the Irish 
in America, and of these the most noteworthy, perhaps, 
is Cyrus Hall McCormick, the inventor of the reaping 
machine. He was born in Ireland in 1809, and died in 
America in 1884. 

As has already been stated, many of the early pioneers 
in America were Irish, the sturdy Celtic peasants from 
Galway and Connemara being especially suited to that 


work. Besides Simon Kenton and others already men- 
tioned, there was Patrick Calhoun (the father of John 
Caldwell Calhoun, Vice-President of the United States), 
who was born in Ireland in 1727, and died in America 
in 1796. Patrick Calhoun migrated to Virginia when a 
boy, and was one of the first white men to penetrate 
into the interior of the South Carolinas. He and his 
family suffered terribly at the hands of the Red Indians, 
by whom he was several times captured and tortured. 

Of prominent Irish lawyers in America during the 
seventeenth, eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, there 
were any number. The following two are the most 

Aedanus Burke, born in Galway, in 1743 ; died at 
Charleston, South Carolina, 1802. He held the office 
of Judge of the Supreme Court of South Carolina, and 
was the first Senator to represent South Carolina at 

John Doly Burke, born in Ireland about 1770 ; killed 
in a duel, in consequence of a political dispute, 1808. 
He was educated at Trinity College, Dublin, and, migrating 
to America, practised law at Petersburg and Virginia. 
He also published several works, including The History 
of the late War in Ireland (1799), and History of Virginia 
from its First Settlement (1804). 

So many Irishmen have figured in the field of American 
politics during the last three centuries that only a small 
proportion of them can be mentioned in this work. 
Among the most prominent are — 

Thomas Dongan, born at Castletown, Co. Kildare, 


1634 ; died in London, England, 1715. Thomas Dongan 
had a singularly adventurous career. After fighting for 
the King in the Civil War of 1644-49, he joined the 
French Army and saw service in it in America. At the 
Restoration he returned to England, and was first of all 
appointed Lieutenant-Governor of Tangiers, and then 
Governor of New York. In the latter post he was 
distinguished for his democratic views. It was he who 
first called together a general assembly of the Represen- 
tatives of the American people to consult with him as 
to the establishment of laws. The Assembly met in 
October, 1683, and at Dongan's direction adopted " A 
Charter of Liberties and Privileges," one of the main 
clauses of which was that no taxes, duties or impositions 
whatever should be levied, except by the consent of the 
Governor, Council and Assembly of the English Colonies 
in America. This was the actual commencement of 
Democratic Government in America ; one may compare 
Dongan's Charter with the Magna Charta. 

Matthew Lyon, born in Co. Wicklow, 1746 ; died at 
Spadra Bluff, Arkansas, 1822. He served with Washington 
throughout the War of Independence, founded the town 
of Fairhaven, in Vermont, was for ten years a member 
of the Vermont Legislature, and for years a member of 

William Russe, born in Ireland, 1732 ; died at Great 
Ealing, 1810. He was first of all Agent for Georgia and 
East Florida, but forfeited that post by writing in favour 
of the Stamp Act. He was then appointed Under- 
Secretary of State in the American Colonies, and distin- 
guished himself by his unswerving loyalty to England 
during the War of Independence. On the conclusion of 

24— (2339) 


hostilities the British Government rewarded him with a 
pension of £1,200 per annum. In 1789 he published 
The Extra-Official State Papers, a work of the greatest 
historical value. 

Thomas D'Arcy McGee, born at Carlingford, 1825 ; 
assassinated at Ottawa, 1868. Starting life as an ardent 
Repealer, he assisted Gavan Duffy, Davis, Mitchel and 
Reilly in editing The Nation, escaped to America disguised 
as a priest after the failure of the '48 Rising, and founded 
The American Celt, in Boston, in 1850. In 1858 he 
removed to Montreal, was returned to the Canadian 
Parliament, and in 1862 became President of the Execu- 
tive Council. In 1865 he visited Ireland, and gave great 
offence to the Irish in America by making disparaging 
statements in public, relative to the condition of the 
Irish in the United States. He completed the estrange- 
ment by bringing forward a scheme for the union of the 
scattered Provinces of British North America with the 
Dominion of Canada, thereby proving himself to be an 
Imperialist. Furthermore, he strongly opposed the 
Fenians in their attempt to invade Canada, and it was 
for his bitter denunciation of them that he was supposed 
to have been murdered. Apart from his work as a 
politician, D'Arcy McGee published many works, the 
most important of which are : A Popular History of 
Ireland; A History of the Irish Settlers in North 
America, and Catholic History of North America. 

John O'Mahony, born at Kilbeheny, Co. Cork, 1816 ; 
died in New York, 1877. O'Mahony was educated at 
Trinity College, Dublin, and, associating himself after- 
wards with the Repealers and the Young Ireland Party, 
was one of those who took the field with Smith O'Brien 


in 1848. Escaping capture, he fled to France, and thence 
to New York. There he joined another fugitive, John 
Mitchel, and the two at once became supporters of the 
" Emigrant Aid Association," " The Emmet Monument 
Association," and all the other Irish organizations in 
the country. In 1857 O'Mahony published A History 
of Ireland, by Geoffrey Keating, D.D., translated from 
the original Gaelic, and copiously annotated. The 
work, however, which showed little originality, most 
of the notes being copied from O' Donovan's Four 
Masters, was a failure, and O'Mahony, worn out with 
the labour of compiling, temporarily lost his reason, 
and had to be confined for a short time in an asylum. 
On his recovery, O'Mahony inaugurated the Fenian 
Brotherhood, or Irish Republican Brotherhood (I.R.B.), 
at Chicago, about the year 1858, its chief objective being 
the complete independence of Ireland. The Society at 
once " caught on," vast numbers joined it, and within 
the space of ten years its exchequer contained over 
£80,000. For many years O'Mahony was President of 
the Society and assisted in its councils ; but he did not 
participate in any way in its raid on Canada in 1870, 
nor in the '67 Rising in Ireland. The latter part of his 
life O'Mahony devoted to writing, and he died in volun- 
tary poverty. To quote from Mr. Alfred Webb's 
Compendium of Irish Biography : "He had friends who 
were willing to sacrifice anything for him, yet he was 
often sadly in need of a dollar, and when his poverty was 
discovered he declined to receive assistance in any shape 
or form. ... A ten-dollar greenback over and above 
his immediate wants was a fortune to him, but one that 
he held a loose hold of ; for any person who approached 


him with a woeful story was sure to get it out of 

Alexander J. Porter, born in Armagh, 1786 ; died at 
Attakapas, Louisiana, 1844. Alexander Porter was a 
Judge of the Supreme Court of Louisiana, and a Member 
of Congress, but was best known for his attitude with 
regard to the institution of slavery, which he vigorously 

William Sampson, born in Londonderry, 1764 ; died 
in New York, 1836. William Sampson was a United 
Irishman, one of the signers of the Declaration of Inde- 
pendence, an author, and a member of the first United 
States Congress. 

James Smith, born in Ireland in 1720 ; died at York, 
Pennsylvania, in 1806. He raised the first corps of 
Colonial Volunteers in America to resist England, was 
one of the signers of the Declaration of Independence, 
and sat in Congress from 1778 to 1780. 

George Taylor, born in Ireland, 1716 ; died at Delaware, 
1781. The fame of George Taylor chiefly rests on the 
facts that he was one of the signers of the Declaration 
of Independence, and was a member of the first United 
States Congress. 

Charles Thompson, born at Maghera, Co. Londonderry, 
1729 ; died in Montgomery Co., Pennsylvania, 1824. 
Charles Thompson was a member of the Society of Friends, 
a great friend of Benjamin Franklin, an arbitrator 
between various of the Red Indian tribes and the white 
settlers, and Secretary to the Continental Congress from 
1774-1789. He wrote several works, including An 
Inquiry into the Cause of the Alienation of the Delaware 
and Shawnee Indians. 


Matthew Thornton, born in Ireland, 1714 ; died at 
Newburyport, Massachusetts, 1803. Matthew Thornton 
was one of the signers of the Declaration of Independence, 
and a member of the first United States Congress. 

Among the best known Irishmen in the American 
Navy are — 

John Barry, born near Tacumshin, Co. Wexford, 
1745 ; died at Philadelphia, 1803. Prior to the War of 
Independence, John Barry was captain of The Black 
Prince, one of the biggest trading vessels between Phila- 
delphia and London. On the outbreak of the War in 
1777, he was appointed Captain of The Relief, and gained 
the first victory for the Americans against the English 
at sea. He captured the two British cruisers Atalanta 
and Trespasa, in Mid-Atlantic Ocean, and conveyed 
Lafayette, the Count de Noailles, and several other 
officers of the French Expeditionary Force to America. 
For his services to America he was publicly thanked by 
Washington, and raised to the rank of Commodore. 
After the war he was entrusted with the general super- 
vision of the United States Navy, of which Navy he has 
been designated the father. 

William Brown, born in Ireland, 1779 ; died about 
1830. William Brown migrated to the United States 
when a boy, entered the merchant service, was seized 
by an English press-gang, and, deserting from the British 
Navy at the first opportunity that presented itself, 
entered the service of Brazil. During the Spanish and 
Brazilian War, Brown was given the command of a 
Brazilian fleet. He defeated the Spanish in battle after 
battle, finally capturing Montevideo, and entirely des- 
troying Spanish commerce in the Pacific. For his many 


successes he was made Admiral and given the supreme 
command of the Brazilian Navy, which post he continued 
to hold till his death. 

John Shaw, born at Mountmellick, 1773 ; died in 
Philadelphia, 1823. John Shaw entered the United 
States Navy as midshipman in 1789, and was appointed 
to the command of The Enterprize at the outbreak of 
war with France in 1798. All through that war, and 
also throughout the war of 1812 against the English, he 
served with the greatest distinction, winning every 
engagement in which he took part. In 1816 he was 
promoted to the rank of Captain, and at the same time 
given the command of the United States Squadron in 
the Mediterranean. He was home on furlough, in order 
to enjoy a brief respite from his strenuous duties, when 
he was attacked with a sudden illness which terminated 

In addition to those already mentioned, the following 
are a few of the many Irish soldiers who distinguished 
themselves in America between the years 1700 and 1900. 

Sir Guy Carleton, born at Strabane, 1724 ; died in 
England, 1808. Sir Guy Carleton is chiefly famous as 
the Military Governor of Quebec during the War of 
Independence. He repulsed every effort made by the 
Americans — under the command of his fellow-country- 
man, General Montgomery — to take the town, and 
inflicted a decisive defeat on the American fleet under 
General Arnold on Lake Champlain. In 1782 he succeeded 
General Clinton as Commander-in-Chief of the British 
Forces in America ; in 1786 was created Baron Dorchester ; 
and from 1786-96 held the appointment of Governor of 


Colonel Chas. Clinton, born in Co. Longford, 1690 ; 
died in Ulster, New York, 1773. Colonel Clinton founded 
the Colony of Ulster (now Orange Co.), New York, and 
won his military title, whilst serving with De Lancy's 
regiment, at the siege of Front enac. 

Colonel George Croghan, born in Ireland about 1720 ; 
died at Passayunk, Pennsylvania, about August, 1782. 
Colonel Croghan served with Braddock's expedition 
against the French in 1755, was taken prisoner by the 
Indians, but speedily released, and was of the greatest 
use to the English in winning over to their cause many 
of the Indian tribes. 

Brigadier-General Edward Hand, born at Clyduff, 
King's Co., 1747 ; died at Rockford, Lancaster Co., 
Pennsylvania, 1802. Colonel Hand served with the 
American Army throughout the War of Independence, 
and greatly distinguished himself in the battles of Long 
Island and Trenton. 

Sir W. Johnson, Bart., born Co. Down, 1715 ; died 
near Johnstown, Fulton Co., New York, 1774. Sir W. 
Johnson was chiefly famous as a great trader with the 
Mohawk Indians, who had the greatest affection for him. 
In the Anglo-French War in America of 1756-59, Sir W. 
Johnson led an army of Indians, and defeated Baron 
Dieskau at Lake George. He was also present at the 
defeat of Abercromby at Ticonderoga, and took a 
prominent part in Prideaux's expedition against Fort 
Niagara in 1759, and in Amherst's expedition of 1760. 
He married twice, and had for his second wife a sister of 
the Mohawk sachem Brant. 

Colonel Andrew Lewis, born in Ulster, 1730 ; died in 
Bedford Co., Virginia, 1780. He had a long and 


distinguished military career, serving in the English expe- 
dition against Ohio in 1754, in Braddock's expedition in 
1755, and in Major Grant's expedition in 1758, when he 
was taken prisoner. In 1774 he defeated the largest 
force of Indians that ever assembled in the States, and 
on the outbreak of hostilities between the English and 
the Americans, he sided with the latter, winning a 
decisive victory over Lord Dunmore in G Wynne's Island. 

Colonel Hugh Maxwell, born in Ireland, 1733 ; died 
at sea, 1799. He served in the American Army with 
Bailey's Regiment during the War of Independence, and 
was made Lieutenant-Colonel for his gallant conduct at 

Brigadier-General Stephen Moylan, born in Ireland 
in 1734; died in Pennsylvania, 1811. Stephen Moylan 
was one of the first colonists to enlist in the American 
Army in the War of Independence, and for his skill and 
bravery in a long series of battles and skirmishes he was 
made Brigadier-General. Washington looked upon him 
as one of his four most capable Generals. 

General Griffith Rutherford, born in Ireland about 
1750 ; died at Tennessee, about 1794. He served in the 
American Army during the War of Independence/ and 
commanded the army at Wilmington after the English 
had evacuated that town. On the conclusion of the war 
he became a member of the first United States Congress. 

Brigadier-General Thomas A. Smyth, born in Ireland 
about 1810 ; died of wounds received in a skirmish near 
Farmville, Virginia, 1865. Thomas Smyth raised a 
company in Philadelphia for the Federals at the beginning 
of the Civil War, 1861, and fought with such gallantry 
that he was created a Brigadier-General after the Battle 
of Cold Harbour, 1864. 


Brigadier-General William Thompson, born in Ireland 
about 1730 ; died near Carlisle, Pennsylvania, 1781. 
William Thompson served against the French in America 
in the war of 1759-60, and against the English throughout 
the War of Independence, when he was promoted to the 
rank of Brigadier-General for his victory at Lechmere 
Point. He succeeded General Lee in command of the 
American Army in New York, but was taken prisoner 
at the battle of Three Rivers, when on his way to reinforce 
General Sullivan (another Irishman) in Canada. 

Owing to their prodigious numbers, a very small 
proportion of the many Irish men and women in the 
United States to-day, who may rightly claim to be 
distinguished, are mentioned in this work. For informa- 
tion regarding those who — although of sufficient note to 
be included — for the reason just quoted are omitted, the 
reader should refer to Who's Who in America, edited by 
Mr. Albert Nelson Marquis, and published by Messrs. 
A. N. Marquis & Co., Chicago. 

Among the present-day famous actors, actresses, 
artists and authors are — 

Langdon McCormick, actor and author, having written 
The Western Girl ; When the World Sleeps, and many 
other successful plays. 

Ada Rehan, a native of Co. Limerick, and one of 
America's greatest actresses ; a few of the many roles 
in which she excels are, " Lady Teazle," " Peggy " (in 
The Country Girl), " Viola," " Beatrice " and "Rosalind." 

Miss Ethel B anymore, one of the best known actresses 
in America, who has played leading lady with Sir Henry 
Irving, and leading parts in Secret Service ; Caftt. Jinks ; 


Cousin Kate ; A Doll's House ; Alice-Sit-by-the-Fire, and 
many other pieces. 

William Rudolf O'Donovan, well known as a sculptor. 
Among his numerous works in America are the statue of 
Archbishop Hughes, St. John's College, Fordham, and 
the bust of the late Chas. P. Daly, New York Geographical 

Hermann Dudley Murphy, who had a most brilliant 
career in Paris, taking many prizes at the Academy 
Julien, and exhibiting at the Salon as a portrait, landscape, 
and marine painter. He is easily one of the best all- 
round artists in America to-day, and is a member of the 
New York Water Color Club, the Boston Water Color 
Club, and the Society of Arts and Crafts, Boston. 

Eleanor Cecilia Donnelly, generally recognized as the 
foremost Catholic poetess in the United States. She 
has written many stories also, and several times has 
been specially commended by the Pope. Among her 
numerous works are : The Conversion of St. Augustine 
and other Poems ; Petronilla and other Stories. 

James O' Duffy, a native of Strabane, Co. Tyrone, 
who, in addition to being an editor, is author of numerous 
plays and novels, including Hohenzollern (play), and 
Father Ignatius (a novel). 

Richard Duffy, editor, and author of several plays and 
novels, including An Adventure in Exile (a novel), and 
The Night of the Wedding (a play). 

John Driscoll Fitzgerald, University Professor, and 
author of many works, including Rambles in Spain. 

Denis Aloysius McCarthy, poet and editor, whose 


most popular publications are : A Round of Rimes, and 
Voices from Erin. 

Charles McCarthy, who, besides being an author, has 
acquired fame as a lecturer. 

Samuel Sidney McClure, who founded McClure's 
Magazine, of which he is editor, and is also well known 
as the President of the S. S. McClure Co. 

Mary Eleanor O'Donnell, who has written and lectured 
much on social subjects, and is editress of the women's 
section of the Chicago Tribune. 

John J. Rooney, poet and lawyer, author of The Men 
Behind the Guns (first use of that phrase), Victor Blue, 
and many other poetical works. 

Leigh Reilly, who has occupied many important 
positions in the American editorial world, and is now 
editor-in-chief of the Chicago Evening Post. 

Among the famous capitalists and business men 
are — 

Robert Hall McCormick, capitalist, who is greatly 
interested in Art and has a large collection of the works 
of British artists. 

Robert L. McCormick, one of the best known bankers 
and lumber kings in America. 

Miles M. O'Brien, famous as a banker and for the 
interest he takes in the education and welfare of the 

Frank Morrill Murphy, big American capitalist, and 
president of many mining and other companies. 

Among the most famous clergy are — 

Thomas Martin Aloysius Burke, Bishop of Albany, 
created Knight of the Holy Sepulchre, 1890, and Knight 
of the Grand Cross, 1894. 

Maurice Francis Burke, Bishop of St. Joseph. 


John E. Fitzmaurice, Bishop of Amisus and Coadjutor 
Bishop of Erie. 

Oscar Penn Fitzgerald, Bishop of Nashville, author of 
many works, including The Whetstone and Sunset Views. 

James McGolrick, a native of Tipperary and Bishop 
of Duluth. 

William Henry O'Connell, who, after a most 
distinguished career, is now Cardinal, and Archbishop 
of Boston. 

Among the most famous lawyers, doctors, politicians 
and soldiers are — 

Patrick Calhoun, well known as a barrister, and for 
his share in the consolidation development of State 

James Fitzgerald, Judge of Supreme Court of New 

Thomas Dillon O'Brien, Associate Justice of the 
Minnesota Supreme Court. 

Thomas Jefferson O'Donnell, one of the foremost 
lawyers in Denver. 

Daniel D. Murphy, who is President of the Iowa 
State Bar Association, and a Member of the American 
Bar Association. 

Dr. John Bernard McGee, who has won many dis- 
tinctions in medicine, and is Professor of Therapeutics, 
and Secretary of the Cleveland College of Physicians 
and Surgeons. 

Dr. Stuart McGuire, who holds, among other posts, 
that of Dean and Professor of Clinical Surgery at the 
Medical College of Virginia. 

Dr. David O'Brine, who was for six years Professor of 


Chemistry and Geology at the State Agricultural College, 
Colorado, and has published several works, including 
Laboratory Guide of Chemical Analysis. 

Sister M. Raphael O'Brien, M.D., who is especially 
famous as the only Catholic nun in the world practising 

Timothy Leary, one of the foremost pathologists in 
Massachusetts, who served as Assistant-Surgeon in the 
Spanish-American War, and has held many important 
positions in the medical world. 

Richard Croker, who was born at Blackrock, Ireland, 
and migrated to America when only two years of age. 
After being Alderman and Coroner for New York, he 
finally became the recognized leader of Tammany Hall. 
He now resides in Ireland. 

John Joseph Fitzgerald, barrister and member of 

Denis T. Flynn, member of the Bar and ex-Congressman. 

Arthur Phillips Murphy, who is a member of the 
American Bar, and a Republican Member of Congress. 

Brigadier-General Peter Joseph Augustine Cleary, who 
saw over thirty years' service in the United States Army, 
being with the Army of the Cumberland during the Civil 
War, and fighting in the Chickamauga campaign and 
siege of Chattanooga. 

Brigadier-General John Randolph McGinness, who 
served throughout the Civil War, and greatly distinguished 
himself before Charleston. 

Brigadier-General John Joseph O'Connell, a native of 
Co. Kerry, who served in the Civil War of 1862-65, in 


the Pine Ridge (Dakota) Indian Campaign of 1894, and 
in the Cuban Campaign of 1898. 

Surgeon-General Robert Maitland O'Reilly, who served 
throughout the Spanish-American War of 1898. 

Brigadier-General James William Reilly, who served 
with great distinction on the staff of General Schofield 
during the Civil War. 


In Peru and Chili, O'Higgins has been a household 
name for rather more than a century. The first O'Higgins 
to visit those countries was Don Ambrosio, who was 
born at Dangan Castle, Co. Meath, about 1720. Intended 
for the Church, he was sent to a Jesuit in Cadiz, who was 
his uncle, to be trained, but finding the restraint imposed 
upon him unbearable he ran away and, after embarking 
on a Spanish merchant ship, eventually landed at Buenos 
Ayres. Setting out from thence on foot, he crossed the 
Pampas and Cordilleras, encountering innumerable 
adventures on the road, and finally reached Lima. There 
he set up as a hawker or pedlar. He was next employed 
in supervising the opening up of the route between Chili 
and Mendoza, after which he was made Captain of a 
Corps of Cavalry and sent to subdue some very trouble- 
some Indians, whom he defeated, but treated so magna- 
nimously that he gained the good-will of many other 
Indians, and won back by peaceful measures much of the 
territory Spain had lost. For this achievement he was 
promoted to the rank of Brigadier-General ; a little later 
he was made Intendant of Conception, and then Major- 
General and Viceroy of Chili, when he considered it high 
time to affix an O to his name, forthwith styling himself 


O'Higgins instead of Higgins. He founded the city of 
San Ambrosio de Ballenar, made an excellent road from 
Santiago to Valparaiso, and rebuilt Osorno. He was then 
created a Marquis and made Viceroy of Peru. The 
account of the great public reception awarded him 
at the theatre of Lima, on the occasion of his entry into 
that city as Viceroy, is narrated in a manuscript in the 
British Museum. 

Nor did he forget, when at the zenith of his success, 
his less fortunate countrymen. He appointed Father 
Kellet of Summerhill, his almoner, and gave John 
Mackenna his first start in public life in Peru. 

On the Declaration of War with England in 1797, he 
at once fortified Callao and Pisco, and did all he could 
to put the Peruvian Army and Navy in a state of prepara- 
tion for action. At his death, his son, Don Bernardo, 
who had been educated in England, succeeded him as 
Marquis. On the outbreak of the Revolution in Peru, 
Don Bernardo sided with the Popular Party, and held 
the office of Supreme Director of the young Republic 
from 1818 to 1823, when, filled with disgust at the 
corrupt behaviour of his Ministers, he retired into private 
life. He died in 1846. 

With the United States of America, this brief history 
of the Irish abroad ends. Other races have been equally 
cosmopolitan in their wanderings, but none have attained 
to such a universal eminence. In whatever country the 
Irish have settled, they have there risen to fame and 
glory, and have there exercised a controlling influence 
in times of peace no less than in times of war. Indeed, 
the Irish are not only the bravest and most capable 
soldiers in the world, but they are also the greatest 
financiers — in this respect greater even than the Jews. 


Abbey Theatre, The, 147 
Abd-el-Kadir, 199 
Abercromby, Sir Ralph, 375 
Abercorn, The Regiment of, 194 
Abisbal, Henry O'Donnell, Count 

of, 264, 282 
Abyssinia, The Irish in, 334 
Actors and Actresses of the 

Eighteenth and Nineteenth 

Centuries in England, Famous 

Irish, 132 
Adams, Major John, 332 
Adelaide, The Irish in, 327 
Afghan War, The, 333 
Africa, The Irish in, 333-37 
Agincourt, Battle of, 57 
Aidan, 163 
Alabama, The Confederate Ship, 

Albemarle, The Duke of, 196 

, The Regiment of, 196 

Alcala, The Irish College at, 252 
Aldern, Battle of, 170 
Alfonso XIII, King, 284 
Alford, Battle of, 170 
Algiers, The Irish in, 199, 216 
Alison, D.D., Francis, 365 
Allen the Fenian, 48 

the United Irishman, 67 

Allgood, Miss Sara, 149 
Amalia, Queen, 264 
Amberg, Battle of, 288 
America, The Irish in, 338-84 
Amherst's Expedition, 375 
Ampudia, General, 353 
Angus, 162 

Anlaff and his Irish Northmen, 165 
Antietam, Battle of, 356 
Archdeacon, Joseph, 47 
Archdeacon, M., 234 
Archer, Father, 251 
Arco, Battle of, 196 
Ardilaun, Lord, 144 
Ardskull, Battle of, 167 
Argyll, Duke of, 170 
Arleux, Lines of, 186, 197 

Armstrong, F.R.S., John, 124 

Arnaud, General St., 199 

Arthur, President Chester A., 355 

Artists of the Eighteenth and 
Nineteenth Centuries in 
England, Famous Irish, 132 

Ashanti War, The, 334 

Association de St. Patrice, L', 234 

Athlone, The Regiment of, 197 

Auburn, Battle of, 358 

Aurora, The, 349 

Austerlitz, Battle of, 288 

Austin, The Right Rev. Peter, 337 

Austria, The Irish in, 285 

Australia, The Irish in, 310-27. 

Avizard, General, 199 

Badeslade, Thos., 124 
Bagot, The Hon. Captain, 325 
Baillie's Grenadiers, 170 
Balfe, Michael William, 140 
Ballarat, The Irish in, 316-17 
Ballina, The Humbert Centenary 

at, 229 
Ballinamuck, The Skirmish at, 

213, 244 
Ballingarry, The Skirmish at, 45 
Baltimore, The Irish in, 339, 349 

, Lord, 339 

Banim, John and Michael, 110,235 
Banshee, The, 164 
Banner of Ulster, The, 75 
Barbadoes, The selling of Irish 

Slaves in the, 29 
Barbour, K.C.M.G., K.C.S.I. 

David M., 336 
Barind, 338 

Barker, Mrs. Granville, 149 
Barnes, Brigadier-General J. 
Barnewall, Nicholas, First 

count Kingsland, 302 
Barrett, R.A., Geo., 138 
Barrington, Geo., 312 
Barry, F.R.S., Sir David, 124 

, R.A., Jas., 138 

, Commodore John, 373 







Barry, Ludowick, 62, 101 

, Sir Redmond, 318 

, M.I. J., Ronan, 337 

, Sheil, 149 

, Spranger, 134 

Barrymore, Ethel, 377 
Basuto War, The, 335 
Bazaine, Marshal, 246 
Beatty, C.B., Vice- Admiral, Sir 

David, 158 
Belfast, Australia, The Irish in, 318 
Bell, Sir Joshua Peter, 325 
Belgium, The Irish in, 294 
Bendigo, The Irish in, 317 
Bending of the Bough, The, 146 
Beresford, Admiral Lord Chas., 

158, 336 

, V.C., Lord William, 334 

— — , Viscount Beresford, William 

Carr, 117 
Bergeaud, General, 199 
Bermingham, Sir John, 168 
Bernadotte, General, 205 
Berthezene, General, 199 
Berwick, The Duke of, 178, 197 

, The Regiment of, 197, 348 

Besancon, The Siege of, 218 

Biarritz, 272 

Big Black River, Battle of, 360 

Bigger, F. J., 85 

Bignon, 208 

Bilsen, Battle of, 187 

Bingham in Ireland, 24 

Binns, the United Irishman, 67 

, Editor of The Democratic 

Press, Mr., 349 
Birkenhead Riots, The, 42 
Birmingham, Geo. A., 149, 152 
Bismarck, Prince, 247 
Blakeley, Capt. W., 351 
Blakeney, William, Lord, 116 
Boer War, The, 335 
Boiseleau, General, 178 
Bolton, Hon. Henry, 319 
Bona, Capture of, 199 
Bonaparte, Joseph, 205 

, Lucien, 204 

Boone, Daniel, 344 
Boonville, Battle of, 358 
Bordeaux, Irish College at, 223 
Borghese, Princess, 205 
Borlace, Edmund, 23 

25— (2339) 

Boru, Brian, 166 
Boucicault, Dion, 112 
Bourgeois, Maurice, 145 
Bourke, General, 282 

, K.C.B., Sir Richard, 314 

, Richard MacWilliam, 6, 56, 


, The Regiment of, 197 

Boston, The Irish in, 341 
Bouchain, Battle of, 186, 197 
Bowes, Lord Chancellor, 32 
Bowles, William, 279 
Boy, Battle of , 181 
Boyd, Hugh, 108 
Boyle, Jeremiah, 360 
Boyne, Leonard, 149 
Braddock, General, 375-76 
Brady, Field-Marshal, 289 

, Dr. Nicholas, 104 

Brandy wine, Battle of, 347 
Brannan, Brigadier-Gen. J.M.,361 
Brigade, The Irish, 30, 170, 176, 

199, 200, 205, 211, 215-220, 

223, 279, 297, 356 
Bristol, The Irish in, 5, 8, 26, 27, 

Bristow Station, The Battle of ,358 
Brogoforte, Battle of , 196 
Bromhead, V.C., Lieut., 333-34 
Brontes, The, 110 
Brooke, Henry, 107 

, The Rev. S., 84 

Brophy, Daniel, 317 
Brougham, John, 365 
Brouncker, Viscount Castlelyons, 

William, 122 
Brown, Admiral William, 373 
Browne, John Ross, 363 

, Colonel, 289 

Brownes in Austria, The, 286 

in Russia, The, 284 

Brownrigg, Gen. Sir Robert, 1 18 
Bruce in Ireland, Edward, 167 

, Robert, 167 

Brude, King of the Picts, 163 
Bruix, Minister of the Marine, M., 

Brunanburgh, Battle of, 165 
Bryan, Denis, 310 

, William Jennings, 355 

Buchanan, President James, 355 
Bull Run, Battle of, 356, 358 



Bullen, Mr. Justice, 67 
Bunker Hill, Battle of, 345 
Burke, Judge Aedanus, 368 

, Colonel Denis F., 358 

, John Doly, 368 

, Edmund, 126 

, Bishop Maurice Francis, 379 

, Thomas Martin Aloy- 

sius, 379 

, Robert O'Hara, 323 

, Thomas, 353 

Busy, Battle of, 216, 218, 219 
Butler, General Ben. F., 359 

, Q.C., Hon. Ed., 313 

, Edmund, 167 

, Colonel James, 180, 195 

, Pierce, 353 

, Richard, 176 

, James, 57 

, John, 359 

, Lady, 336 

, K.C.B., Lieut. -General Sir 

William F., 336 

, General W., 353 

the Backwoodsman, 344 

, Thomas, 57 

Butt, Nationalist, Mr., 81 

Byrne, Miles, 208-09 

Byron, C.M.G., Lieut.-Colonel 

John J., 336 

Cadwallader, Gen., 242 

Caldwell, Hume, 288 

Calhoun, John Caldwell, 352, 355, 

, Patrick, 380 [[368 

Callaghan, Admiral Sir George 

Astley, 158 
Calvert, Sir George, 339 
Camden, Battle of, 348 
Campbell, D.D., Alexander, 366 
, fourth Earl of Argyll, Archi- 
bald, 169 
Cameron of Lochiel, 172 
Canada, The Irish in, 329-31 
Canrobert, Gen., 199 
Carbie, Riada, 162 
Carey, Matthew, 363 
Carleton, Sir Guy, 346, 374 

, Junior, William, 320 

Carnot, President, 200-3, 237 
Carr, J. P., Sir William St. John, 

Carroll, Father Anthony, 50 

, Charles, 348 

, Col. Francis, 194 

, Father John, 50 

, Col. W., 351 

Carte, Thomas, 23 
Carve, Thomas, 286 
Casey, Judge, 321 

, J. K., 326 

, Lieut.-Col. Silas, 359 

Castlecomer, Battle of, 209 
Castleknock, Capture of, 167 
Cassano, Battle of, 196 
Cathach of Columbcille, The, 238 
Catherine, The Empress, 307 
Cathleen, The Countess, 145 
Caulfield, Hon. Mrs., 302 
Cavanagh, Sir Morgan, 60 
Celtic Warder Tales, 231 
Ceuta, 270 
Chaldini, Gen., 299 
Chancellorsville, Battle of, 357-58 
Chapultepec, Battle of, 355 
Charlemont, Family of, 302 
Charleroi, 195 
Charles I, 20, 32, 39, 341 

II, 29, 32 

Ill of Spain, 278 

VI, Emperor, 291 

Edward, Prince, 171 

Charpentier, Mile., 310 
Chartists, The, 46, 52, 72 
Chartran, Theobald, 235 
Cherry, Andrew, 135 

" Chesapeake," U.S. Ship, 351 

Chester Castle Rising, 52 

Chickamauga, Battle of, 359 

Chili, 382 

Chillian wallah, Battle of, 333 

Chinchilla, 280 

Chippewa, Battle of, 350 

Chivasso, Battle of, 196 

Christina, Queen, 264, 266 

Churubusco, Battle of, 353 

Clancarty, Regiment of, 197 

Clan-na-gael, The, 47, 52, 80, 362 

Clanronald, 172 

Claretie, Leo, 229 

Clarke, Due de Feltre, 200, 205, 

Clary, Brigadier-Gen. Robert 

Emmet, 358 



Clausel, Marshal, 199 

Cleary, Brigadier-Gen. Peter 

Joseph, 381 
Cleburne, Gen. Patrick R., 359 
Clergymen of the Seventeenth, 

Eighteenth, and Nineteenth 

Centuries in England, Famous 

Irish, 115 
Clinton, Col. Charles, 375 

, Gen., 374 

Clive, Kitty, 132, 134 
Cloncurry, Lord, 210-12 
Clontarf, Battle of, 166 
Coal Harbour, Battle of, 358 
Coffee, Gen. John, 351 
Coimbra, Bishop of, 275 

, Monastery of, 280 

Cole, Sir W., 24 
Collins, Col. D., 118 
Compostella, The Archbishop of 

St. James of, 257 
Conal of the Cinel Conaill, 162 
Conde, O'Moran, Governor of, 239 
Condorcet, Elisa, 208 
Confederates, The, 44 
Connaught Rangers, The, 335 
Connelly, Abbe, 234 
Connor, Battle of, 167 

, J. H., 318 

, Patrick, 316 

Conry, Father Florence, 256-57, 

274, 301 
Constantine, King, 165 
Conway, Father, 251 

, Count Thomas, 241 

Cooly, Admiral Philip, 120 
Corbet, Capt., 204 
Corbiesdale, Battle of, 170 
Cork Examiner, The, 75 
Corcoran, Michael, 356 
Corunna, Franciscan Church at, 

Cotter, Mr., 216-17 
Crawford, William Shannon, 75 
Creagh, Margaret, 239 
, G.C.B., V.C., Gen. Sir G. 

O'Moore, 333 
Cremont, Count Margerin de, 232 
Crimean War, The, 216 
Croghan, Col. George, 375 
Croix, M. de la, 200 
Croker, Mrs. B. M., 154 

Croker, Richard, 381 

, J. W., 112 

, Thomas C, 111 

Croly, Rev. George, 111 
Cromwell, Henry, 27 

.Oliver, 24, 36 

Crozier, R.N., Capt. F. R., 121 

Cuba, 267 

Cuildrevne, Battle of, 164 

Curran, J. P., 113 

Curtain, John, 320 

, Patrick, 316 

Daly, John, 229 

, Sir Dominick, 327 

Dalley, P.C., The Right Hon. 

Bede, 313 
Danby, A.R.A., Francis, 139 
D'Aquila, Don Juan, 256-7 
D'Arcy, V.C., Capt. C, 335 
Dark Rosaleen, 281 
D'Arnaville, Emile, 229 
Daughters of Erin, The, 230 
Daverin, The Hon. John, 337 
Davis, Thomas, 44 
Davitt, Michael, 82, 227 
De Betagh, Chevalier, 187 
De Browne, Count George, 307 
De Bulkeley, Count Francois, 

182, 184 
De Burgh, Lady Honora, 240 
— — defeated at Battle of Con- 
nor, 167 
De Catinat, Marshal, 180 
Declaration of Independence, The, 

De Feltre, Due, 200, 205, 284 
D'Eguilly, Marquis, 242 
Deirdre, 147 

Delamar, Father Joseph, 253 
Delane, Dennis, 133 
Deliverance of Red Hugh, The, 230 
De Maupas, John, 168 
De Meave, Col., 188 
Democratic Press, The, 349 
Denain, Battle of, 197 
Denham, Sir John, 62, 101 
Deniehy, Daniel H., 320 
Denmark, The Irish in, 294 
De Nottingham, Robert, 167 
Denvir, John, 40 
Desmichels, General, 199 



Desmond, Maurice, Earl of, 56 
Dettingen, Battle of, 182, 187, 195 
De Vere, Sir Aubrey, 113 
Devlin, Joseph, 82 
Devorgilla, 5 
Dieskau, Baron, 375 
Dillons, The, 198 
Dillon, Col., The Hon. Arthur, 

30, 176, 177, 188 

, Col. Arthur, 190, 191, 235 

, Col. Charles, 188 

, Col. Edward, 189 

, Col. Lord Henry, 189 

, Col. James, 189 

, Sir James, 60 

, M.P., John, 82 

, R.N., Peter, 121 

, The Regiment of, 183, 188, 


, Theobald, Viscount, 188 

Directory, The, 200-1 
Dodwell, Henry, 104 
Donaghy, Michael, 317 
Don Carlos, 264 
Dongan, Col. Thomas, 342, 369 
Donnell Oge, 166 
Donnelly, Eleanor Cecilia, 378 
Donohue, Peter, 354 
Donovan, Alfred D., 337 
Dopping, Bishop, 32 
Dorchester, Baron, 374 
Douai, Battle of, 186, 197 

, Irish College at, 223 

Doutelle, La, 171 
Downie, Capt. George, 351 
Doyle, Sir A. Conan, 155 

, James Warren, 280 

, John, 139 

Drummond, Gen., 172 

, Rev. W. H., 85 

Dry, Sir Richard, 328 

Duane, Mr., 349 

Dublin Penny Journal, The, 281 

Dublin, The Regiment of, 197 

Duboc, E., 229 

Dufferin, Lord, 144 

Duffet, Thomas, 102 

Duffy, K.C.M.G., Sir Charles 

Gavan, 44, 75, 84, 319, 321 

, Richard, 378 

, Hon. John Gavan, 323 

Dumouriez, Gen., 190 

Dunlap, John, 363 

Dunn, Thomas, 316 

Dunne, D.D., Very Rev. Patrick, 

321, 324 
Dunstan, 35 
D'Usson, Gen., 178 
Dyer, Michael, 311 

Early, Gen., 361 

East Anglia, The Irish in, 94 

" Eblana," 313 

Edgeworth, Abbe Henry Essex, 

Edgeworth, Maria, 111 

, Richard, 244 

Edward VI, 9 
Egan, Patrick, 82, 361 
Elizabeth, Queen, 9 
Emmet, Robert, 209-12, 349 

, Judge Thomas Addis, 207 

, Thomas Addis, 209-12 

" Erin-go-Bragh," The Emigrant 

Ship, 324 
Escobra, 265 
Espartero, 267-9 
Essex, Earl of, 24 
Eugenie, Empress, 235 
Eureka, Irish in, 316 
Evans, Sir George de Lacy, 118, 


Fair Oaks, Battle of, 356 
Falkirk, Battle of, 173 
Farley, R. P., 85 
Farmville, Battle of, 376 
Farnham, 318 
Farquhar, George, 103 
Farren, Elizabeth, 132, 135 
Faughart, Battle of, 168 
Fay, Frank, 146 

.William G., 146, 149 

Feis Ceoil, The, 88 

Fenians, The, 47, 48, 52, 80, 371 

Felton, William H., 125 

Ferdinand VII, 264, 282 

Fergus, 162 

Fermoy, The Regiment of, 348 

Fiacres, 220 

Field, John, 310 

, Leonoff, 310 

Fielding, Col. Robert, 176 
Finnamore, John, 320 



Finnigan, John Joseph, 52 
Fitzgeralds in Austria, The, 286 
Fitzgerald, Bishop, 380 

, Lady Bridget, 302 

, Lord Edward, 66, 200, 208, 


, Gerald, 6, 276 

, Hon. J. E., 328 

, Brigadier James, 187 

, James, 273, 275 

, Prof. John Driscoll, 378 

, John Joseph, 381 

, Judge, 380 

, Maurice, 6, 56, 57, 159 

, Gen. Minarelli-, 286 

, Hon. Nicholas, 319 

("Silken Thomas"), Thomas, 

8, 57 

, Sir Thomas, 171 

Fitzgibbon, Edmond Gerald, 319 
Fitzjames, Lord Henry, 196 

, The Regiment of, 196 

Fitzmaurice, Bishop, 379 

, V.C., Sergt., 334 

Fitzpatrick, Sir James Percy, 337 

, V.C., Private, 335 

Flags of the Irish Brigade, 215 
Flanagan, Roderick, 320 
Flawn, V.C., Private, 335 
Flecknoe, Richard, 101 
Fleming, Patrick, 293 
Flood, John, 47 

, Dr. H. H. Grattan, 87 

Flower, R. E. W., 85 
Flynn, Denis T., 381 
Fogarty, Thomas, 320 
Fontenoy, Battle of, 183, 187, 

189, 195, 215 
Forbes, Sir George, 244 
Forest of Dean, 95 
Four Masters, The, 256-7, 371 
Fox, Mrs. Annie, 335 

, Mrs. Milligan, 86 

France, Patrice, 229 

Francis Joseph, The Emperor, 290 

, Sir Philip, 108 

Franck, Cesar, 247 
Franco-German War, The, 216, 

224, 245-6, 248 
Franco-Irish Press Committee, 

The, 234 
Franklin, Battle of, 359 

Frederick the Great, 292, 308 
Fredericksburg, Battle of, 356, 

358, 361 
Freiburg, Battle of, 197 
French, G.C.B., G.C.V.O., 

K.C.M.G., Field-Marshal Sir 

John Denton Pinkstone, 158 

, Nicholas, 295 

Frontenac, Siege of, 375 

Froude the Historian, 10, 17, 23, 


Gaelic Athletic Association, The, 

League, The, 88 [88 

Repertory Theatre, The, 149 

Gaines Mill Creek, Battle of, 356 
Gales, Ed. S., 349 

Ganes, The, 342 
Galway, Regiment of, 197 
Gannocke, Siege of, 159 
Garibaldi, 298-99 
Garrick, David, 132 
Geary, General, 361 
Geelong, Irish in, 317 
General John Regan, 149, 152 
Geraldine, Sir Thos., 172 
Germany, The Irish in, 292 
Gettysburg, Battle of, 357-58, 

Gheriah, Battle of, 332 
Giauque, Jean F., 204 
Gilford, Battle of, 348 
Gillespie, Major-Gen. Sir Robert 

Rollo, 118 
Ginkel, General, 176, 179, 240 
Gipps, Sir George, 318 
Gipps Land, 318 
Glastonbury Abbey, 3, 35 
Glenfinnan, 172 
Glover, Julia, 135 
Goldsmith, Oliver, 106 
Gonne, Madame Maud, 144, 147, 


, Seaghan, 232 

Gordon, Lord George, 41, 62, 65 
Goresbridge, Capture of, 209 
Gorey, Capture of, 208 
Gorman, General W. , 360 
Gough, G.C.B., Viscount, 118, 332 

, V.C., Gen. Sir Hugh, 333 

, V.C., Brigadier-General J. 

E., 336 



Grant, Captain, 314 
Grattan, Henry, 66 
Gray, Sir John, 75 
Graves, A. P., 85, 86, 87 
Greeley, Horace, 359, 361 
Green, Mrs. J. R., 85 
Greene, Harry Plunket, 150 
Greer, Mr., 75 
Gregory, Lady, 152 
Grenada, Capture of, 190 
Grey, Sir George, 328 
Grierson, Mrs. Constantia, 293 

, Hugh, 293 

Griffin, Major-General Chas., 360 
Griffith, Arthur, 228 
Gunning, Elizabeth, 141 

, Maria, 141 

Gwyn, Mad. Eleanor, 102 
Gwynn, M.P., Stephen, 153 

Halidon Hill, Battle of, 56 
Hall, Mr. and Mrs. S. C, 111 
Halpine, Chas. G., 363 
Hamilton, E. T. E., 337 

, V.C., Lieut. W. R. P., 333 

, Lieut., 204 

Hand, Col. Ed., 345-46, 375 
Hannay, Rev. J. O., 149, 152 
Hanrahan, Michael, 316 
Harmsworth, Lord Northcliffe, 

Alfred, 153 
Harolds, The Bavarian Count, 284 
Harrington, Mr., 228 

, Sir John, 14 

Hatcher's Run, Battle of, 360 
Haviland, General W., 117 
Hayes, Dean, 321 

, Edmund, 320 

, Sir Henry, 312 

Hazlitt, William, 108 

Healy, Tim, 82 

Hearn, Dr. W. E., 320-21 

Heather Field and Maeve, The, 

Hely - Hutchinson, Earl of 

Donoughmore, Richard, 127 
, G.C.M.G., His Excellency 

Sir Walter, 337 
Hendricks, T. A., 355 
Henry II, 6 

VII, 6 

VIII, 7 

Henry, F.R.S., Thos., 123 
Higgins, Matthew, J., 113 
Higinbotham, Mr. Justice, 320 
History of the War in the Peninsula, 

Napier's, 282 
Hoche, General, 66, 202 
Hochstadt, Battle of, 182, 195 
Holmes, Augusta Patricia, 247 
Holt, Joseph, 311 
Home Rule, 81 
Hone, Horace, 139 
Hone, R.A., Nathaniel, 139 
Horse Guards, Corps of the, 193 
Hull, Miss Eleanor, 85, 86 
Humbert, General, 213-14, 229 
Hyde, Douglas, 153 

Independence, The Great War 

of, 344 
India, The Irish in, 332-33 
Intelligence, The, 349 
In the Seven Woods, 150 
In the Shadow of the Glen, 151 
Inverlochy, Battle of, 170 
Ireland, Q.C., Hon. R. D., 320 
I.R.B., The, 47, 80, 371 
Irish Brigade, The, 30, 170, 176, 

199, 200, 205, 211, 215-220, 

223, 279, 297, 356 

Club, The, 89 

College in Paris, The, 222- 

224, 239 

Folk Song Society, The, 85 

Industries Association, The, 

Legion, The, 205 [88 

Literary Society, The, 84 

Theatre, The, 144 

Irishman, The, 281 

Irish National Dramatic Com- 
pany, The, 147 
Irish Penny Journal, The, 282 

Texts Society, The, 85 

Tribune, The, 364 

Irvine, Dr. W., 347 
Irving, Baptiste, 349 

, Col. William, 345 

Isabella, Queen, 264, 269-70 
Isby, River, 199 

Iselin, Adrian, 341 

Italy, The Irish in, 296 

Ivrea, Battle of, 196 

Ivry, The Irish College at, 223 



Jackson, President Andrew, 352, 

— — , Brigadier-Gen. Thos. J., 358 
Jamaica, The Slave Trade in, 27 
James I, 18, 302. 339, 341 

II, 30, 222, 260, 342 

Jennings, Sir Patrick, 314 
Jonesboro', Battle of, 359 
Johnson, Bart., G.C.B., Gen. Sir 

H., 117 

, , Sir W., 375 

Johnstone, John H., 136 
Jordan, Dorothea, 136 
Joyce, Dr. P. W., 87, 153 

Kabul, 333 

Kam Dakka, 333 

Kane, Brigadier-Gen. Richard, 1 16 

Kandahar, 333 

Kathleen Ni Houlihan, 146 

Kavanaghs in Austria, The, 283 

Kavanagh, Julia. 225 

Kean, Charles John, 136 

, Edmund, 136 

, Michael, 139 

Keane, Lord John, 117, 332 
Kearney, General, 360 

, General Stephen, 353 

, William H., 140 

Kearns, William H., 141 
Kearsarge, U.S. Ship, 361 
Keary, Annie, 111 
Keenan, Major P., 360 
Kehl, Battle of, 167 
Kellet, Father, 383 
Kells, Battle of, 167 
Kelly, Colonel B. F., 358 

, The Most Rev. Denis, 224 

, Joseph, 318 

, Malachy, 222 

, Mary, 348 

, Colonel Patrick, 357 

Kempten, Battle of, 182 
Kenneth, King, 165 
Kenton, Simon, 344, 368 
Kentucky, The Irish in, 352 
Keogh, William, 76 
Kernahan, Coulson, 153 
Kildare, The Great Earl of, 6 

, Lady, 302 

, Thomas Fitzgerald, Earl 

of, 8 

Killala Bay, 229 

Killenaule, 45 

Killowen, Lord Russell of, 122 

Kilmaine, General, 203, 243 

Kilsyth, Battle of, 170 

King, the Australian Explorer, 


, Hon. H. E., 325 

and Queen's Regiment of 

Horse, 194 
King's Langley, Riot at, 93 

Regiment of Dismounted 

Dragoons, 194 

Royal Regiment of Foot 

Guards, 195 

Kingston, Lord, 244 

, Sir Geo., 325 

Kinsale, Battle of, 14, 256 
Kirwan, Captain M. W., 216 

, Patrick, 85 

Kitchener of Khartoum, K.P., 
CLE., Right Hon. Horatio 
Herbert, Viscount, 158 
Kitmore, The Irish in, 318 
Knowles, James Sheridan, 113 
Kyneton, The Irish in, 318 

La Chanson de la Caravana, 248 
Lacy, Count Peter, 309 

:, General, 282, 284 

, Governor of Riga, 284 

Lacys in Austria, The, 286 

in Russia, The, 283 

Ladies of Llangollen, The, 143 
Laffeldt, Battle of, 187, 189 

La Iglesia de los Irlandeses, 252 
Lallv, Governor of Pondicherry, 

Lalor, Peter, 316 
Lambert, Henri, 247 
Lament for the Princes of Tyrone 

and Tirconnell, 258, 281 
La Montagne Noir, 248 
Landen, Battle of, 195, 240 
Land League, The, 227 
Lanigan, 338 
Larkin the Fenian, 48 
Last of the Fianna, The, 146 
Laudons, The, 286 
Law, H. A., 85 
Lawler, Brigadier-General, 360 



Lawless in Spain, 284 

, William, 212 

Lawrence, Brigadier-General Sir 

Henry Montgomery, 1 18, 332 

, Captain, 351 

Lawyers, Famous Irish, 115 
Lavery, A.R.A., John, 157 
Laying of the Foundations, The, 

Leary, Dr. Timothy, 381 
Leclerc, Madame, 205 
Lee, Col. Andrew, 181, 184 

of Baltimore, Mr., 341 

, Lady Charlotte, 189 

, Father John, 222 

, General, 361, 377 

Leinster Association, The, 89 

Stage Society, The, 149 

Lenehan Mr., 240 

Les Argonautes, 248 

Letter of Philip III, 250 

Lewis, Col. Andrew, 375 

L'Heureuse, The French Ship, 174 

Lia Fail, The, 163 

Lille, The Irish College at, 223 

Lima, Magalhaes, 229 

Limavaddy, 17 

Limerick, Siege of, 179, 240 

Lincoln, John of, 57 

L'lrlande Libre, 229, 231 

Lisbon, The Irish College at, 251 

Liverpool, The Irish in, 38-50 

Logue, Cardinal, 224 

Lombards, College des, 223 

London, The Irish in, 55-89 

Lorn, 162 

Lorrequer, Harry, 300 

Louvain, Irish College at, 274, 

293, 305 
Lover, Samuel, 112 
Lucan, Regiment of, 194 
Lucas, Frederick, 75, 79 
Lucius, King, 55 
Luttrell, Col. The Hon. Simon, 

195, 239 

, Regiment of, 194 

Luxembourg, Marshal, 182, 240 
Luzzara, Battle of, 196 
Lynch, D.D., John, 221 

, Thos., 348 

Lyon, General, 359 
, Matthew, 369 

MacArdell, Jas., 138 
Macartney, Earl Macartney, Sir 

Geo., 126 
MacBride, General, 358 
MacCaghwell, Archbishop, 293 
MacCarthy, Sir Chas., 236 

, Abbe Nicholas, 245 

MacCormack, John, 150 
MacCormac, Padraic, 153 
Macdonald, Flora, 174 
Macdonagh, Michael, 154 
MacDonnell, Francis, 288 

, Jas., 169 

MacDonough, Thos., 351 
MacFlynn, Flavin, 35 
MacGregor de Glenstroe, Le Comte 

et la Comtesse, 233 
Macken, Dr., 216 
Mackenna, John, 383 
Macklin, Chas., 132-33 
Maclean, Catherine, 169 
Maclise, R.A., Daniel, 139 
MacMahon, Sir Chas., 319 

, John B., 242 

, Due de Magenta, Marshal 

Marie Edme Patrice Maurice de, 

199-200, 245 

, Trial of, 59-60 

MacManus, Seumas, 153 

, Terence Bellew, 41, 44, 71, 

Macmurrough, Diarmaid, 5 
Macnamara, M.P., Right Hon. 

Thos., 153 
MacNevin, Baron, 291 

, Dr. W. J., 291 

Macrossan, Hon. John Murtagh, 

MacSheehy, General, 211 
MacSparran, M.A., Rev. Jas., 364 
Madden, Dr., 69, 320, 326 

, John, 319 

, Hon. Walter, 319 

Madgett, M., 200 

Madrid, Irish College at, 251 

Maelmordha, King of Leinster, 

Magee, Archbishop of York, 

William Connor, 122 
Magennis, Catherine, 305 
Maginn, Patrick, 222 
Maginniss, Sir Con, 23 



Maguire and Tirconnell, 301 

, Connor, 59 

, John Francis, 75 

, Lord, 23 

, William, 113 

Makemie, Francis, 366 

Maldulf, 166 

M'Alevey of the Irish Brigade, 

Mr., 216 
Malplaquet, Battle of, 186 
Manchester, Irish in, 51-54 
Mangan, Jas. Clarence, 258, 281 
Mar, Earl of, 170 
Marengo, Battle of, 289 
Maria Louisa, The Empress, 290 
Theresa, The Empress, 285, 

Marine, Infantry Regiment of the, 

Marlborough, Duke of, 186 
Marston Moor, Battle of, 59 
Martin, Sir James, 314 

, John, 326 

, Mary Laetitia Bell, 364 

, Violet, 153 

Martyn, Edward, 144 
Maryborough, The Emigrant Ship, 

Maunsell, K.C.B., Gen. Sir F. R., 

Maxwell, Col. Hugh, 376 
Mayan, M.A., Hugh, 337 
M'Bride of Kentucky, 344 
M'Cabe, William Putnam, 213 
M'Carthy, Mrs. Frank, 365 
McCarthy, Chas., 379 

, Denis, Aloysius, 379 

— — , Justin, 23, 27, 32, 78, 155 
, Lord Viscount Mountcashel, 

Lieut. -Gen. Justin, 176 

, Lillah, 149 

, Marion, 150 

, Patrick H., 354 

McClary, Major, 345 
McClintock, K.C.B., R.N., Capt. 

Sir F. L., 121 
McClure, K.C.B., R.N., Rear- 

Admiral Sir R. J. Le Mesurier, 


, Sam S., 379 

McCormick, Cyrus Hall, 367 
, Langdon, 377 

McCormick, Robert Hall, 379 

, Robert L., 379 

McCoy, Professor, 320 
McCullock, General, 358 
McCutchen, E. J., 354 
McDermott, Abbe, 223 
McDonnell, General, 204 
M'Donnell, Sir Richard, 327 
McGee, Dr. John B., 380 

, Thos. D'Arcy, 370 

McGinness, Brigadier-Gen. John 

R., 381 
McGolrick, Bishop, 380 
McGuire, Dr. Stuart, 380 
McHenry, Jas., 346 
McKean, Thos., 348 
McMahons in the United States, 

The, 284 
M'Neill, Major John, 351 

, General John, 360 

McSherry, The Most Rev. Dr., 224 

Meade, General, 361 

— — , L. T., 155 

Meagher, Thos. , 45-46, 326, 357-59 

Meaux, 220-21 

Meehan, Rev. C. P., 256, 260, 304 

Melbourne, The Irish in, 314-19 

Meredyth, Sir Joshua, 235 

Mernoc, 338 

Merrin, Battle of, 184 

Mexican War, The, 252 

M'Grady, Hugh, 344 

Midlands, The Irish in the, 90 

Milligan, Miss Alice, 87, 146 

, Col. Jas. A., 355 

Mirasol, 265 

Mission Ridge, Battle of, 359 

Mitchel, John, 326, 371 

Mitchell, Captain, 314 

M'Kinley, President William, 355 

M'Knight, Dr., 75 

M'Leod, Laird of, 172 

Moira, Lord, 244 

Molesworth, Mr. Justice, 320 

Molino del Rey, Battle of, 355 

Molloy, Chas., 104 

, Chas., 107 

Moloney, Patrick, 320 
Monmouth, Duke of, 240 
Montaigne, College of, 222 
Montbeliard, Battle of, 216, 219 
Mont-Chevis, Battle of, 218 



Montemar, 278 

Montgomery, General R. ( 345, 374 

Montrose, Duke of, 59 

Moor, D.D., Michael, 222 

Moore, Frank F., 152 

, George, 144, 152 

, General James, 346 

, Maj., 345 

, Thomas, 109 

More, Roger, 23-24 
Morgan, Lady, 12, 112, 224, 235 
Morley, the harp maker, Mr., 86 
Morocco, Emperor of, 199, 216 

, War in, 270-72 

Mountcashel, The Regiment of, 

179, 183, 197, 238 
Mount] oy, 20 

Mountrath, Coote, Earl of, 29 
Moylan, Brigadier-Gen. Stephen, 

345, 376 
Mulready, R.A., William, 140 
Murat, General, 282 
Murfreesboro', Battle of, 359 
Murphy, Arthur, 107 

, Arthur P., 381 

, Daniel D., 380 

, Dr., 41, 71 

, Father, 327 

, Sir Francis, 315 

, Frank M., 379 

, Hermann D., 378 

, Rev. John, 208 

, Patrick, 282 

Murray, John, 366 
Musicians, Famous Irish, 132 
Muspratt, Jas. S., 125 

Nago, Battle of, 196 
Nantwich, Battle of, 58 
Napier of Magdala, Lord, 119 

, Sir Robert, 334 

, K.C.B., Gen. Sir William 

Francis Patrick, 119 
Napoleon I, Emperor, 206, 210- 

211, 237 
Narvaez, 267-69 
Naseby, Battle of, 59, 170 
Nation, The, 44, 75, 281, 313 
Navarre, Irish College of, 222 
Nesbitt, Cathleen, 149 
Newfoundland, 331-32 
New Ross, Battle of, 208 

New South Wales, The Irish in, 3 1 1 
New York City, The Irish in, 342 
New York Tribune, The, 361 
New Zealand, The Irish in, 328-29 
Niall of the Nine Hostages, 1, 159, 

162, 237, 260, 342 
Nillson, Madame, 247 
Norris, Admiral Sir John, 120 
North Anna River, Battle of, 358 
Northcliffe, Lord, 153 
Northern Star, The, 46 
Nugents in Austria, The, 283, 286 
Nugent, Lavall, 289 

O'Brien, Barry, 84 

, Cavalry Regiment of, 194 

, Col. Chas., 185, 187, 237 

, Col. Daniel, 30, 176, 184 

, Father, 172 

the Fenian, 48 

, K.C.M.G., Sir George 

Thomas Michael, 131 

, Col. J., 361 

, K.C.M.G., Sir John Terence 

Nicholls, 332 

, Lord, 144 

, Lucius Richard, 331 

, M.D., Sister M. Raphael, 381 

, Miles M., 379 

, Murrough, 182, 185 

, Father Peter, 50 

, The Regiment of, 182-84, 

197, 238 

, Richard Barry, 153 

, Smith, 45 

, William, 144 

O'Briens in Austria, The, 286 

in Russia, The, 306 

O'Brine, Dr. David, 380 
O'Byrne, Brian, 276 
O'Cahan, Bishop of Derry, 15 

in the Owen Roe O'Neill 

Expedition, 276 

O'Callaghan, Edmund Bailey, 364 
O'Carrolls, The, 342 
O'Coigley, The Rev. James, 66 
O'Connell, Daniel, 44, 71, 213 

, Count Daniel, 236-37 

, Brigadier-General John 

Joseph, 381 

, Cardinal, 380 

O'Connells in Austria, The, 286 



O'Connor, Arthur, 65, 208 

, Daniel, 312 

, Feargus, 41, 45, 46, 52, 71 

, Felim, 6, 56, 159 

, J. A., 140 

, K.C.B., V.C., Major-General 

Sir Luke, 158 

of Offaly, 9 

, Patrick, 311 

, Right Rev, Dr., 320 

, Roderick, 6 

, M.P., T. P., 154 

O'Conor, G.C.B., G.C.M.G., The 
Right Hon. Sir Nicholas 
Roderick, 131 

O'Cuisin, Seumas, 147 

O'Daly, Dominic de Rosario, 275 

, General, 282 

O'Dalys in Portugal, The, 284 

O'Delany, Miss Barry, 215, 220, 
226, 229, 232, 233, 248 

Ode Triomphale, 248 

O'Dogherty, Sir Cahir, 16, 276 

, Owen, 276 

, Rose, 276 

O'Doherty, Eileen, 149 

, Kevin Izod, 326, 364 

, Right Rev. Dr., 250, 253 

O'Donel, Bart., Sir George, 238 

, , Sir Neale, 238 

, , Sir Richard, 238 

O'Donlevy, Father, 257 

O'Donnell Abu, 258-59, 344 
O'Donnell, Bryan, 155 

, Calvagh, 10, 11, 169, 274 

, K.C.B., Gen. Sir Charles 

Routledge, 119, 341 

, Gen. Charles, 262, 282 

, Charles, 265 

, Charles J., 154 

, Charles Oliver, 341 

, Columbus, 340-41 

, Junr., Columbus, 340-41 

, Con Oge, 262 

, Captain Daniel, 239 

, Count Daniel, 196, 237-39 

, Dohmnaill Oge, 168 

, Donnell More, 166 

, Eleanora, 341 

, Elliot, 340 

, Frank Hugh, 82, 85, 145, 154 

, Godfrey, 168 

O'Donnell, Count of Abisbal, 

Henry, 262 

, Henry, 266 

, Hugh Balldearg, 260-62 

, Boy, 16, 262 

, , Hugh Duv, 168 

, Count of Tirconnell, Hugh, 

262, 302 

, James Louis, 331 

, John, 340 

, Junr., John, 340 

of the Irish Brigade, John, 


in Spain, John, 265 

, Don Jose, 282 

, Josephine, 341 

, Duke of Tetuan, Leopold, 


, Manus, 16, 169 

, Mary Eleanor, 379 

, Lady Mary Stuart, 302 

(Tetuan Branch), Mrs., 264 

, Nachtan, 16 

, Sir Niall Garv, 15, 238 

, Petronella, 154 

, Red Hugh, 13, 169, 255-260 

, The Regiment of, 182, 197 

, Earl of Tirconnell, Rory, 15, 

256, 300-1 

, Thos. Jefferson, 380 

O'Donnells in Austria, The, 286 

in Baltimore, The, 339 

, Genealogy of the, 260 

, The Larkfield, 238 

in Spain, The, 255-272 

, Genealogy of the, 263 

, The Tetuan, 238 

O'Donoghue, D. J., 154 

, Patrick, 326 

the " Young Irelander," 45 

O'Donovan, Davis, 325 

, William Rudolf, 378 

O' Donovan's Four Masters, 371 
O'Doyle, General, 282 
O'Driscoll, The Very Rev. Dean, 
O'Duffy, James, 378 [320 

O'Durjer of Belgrade, Com., 284 
O'Farrel, General, 282 
O'Flaherty, Edmund, 76 
Officers of the Irish Brigade, 236 
O'Gallagher, Husband of Lady 
Mary Stuart O'Donnell, 303 



O'Gara in Spain, 284 
O'Grady, Hon. Michael, 319 

, Standish, 154 

O'Halloran, Major, 325 
O'Higgins, Don Ambrosio, 382 

, Bernardo, 383 

O'Keefe, John, 135 

O'Learv the United Irishman, 67 

, D.D., Arthur, 122 

, John, 144 

O'Loghlen, Bart., Hon. Sir Bryan, 

O'Mahony, John, 47, 362, 370 
O'Malley, Charles, 300 
O'Malley, Ellen, 149 
O'Meara, Dr. Barry, 124 

, Thomas P., 337 

O'Moran, General Jas., 239 
O'More, Rory, 240 
O'Neill, Alice, 306 

, Lady Avelina, 260 

, Bernard, 305 

, Brian, 276 

, Captain, 172 

, Con, 276 

, , 305 

, Bacagh, 8, 22 

, Don Eugenio, 276 

, General, 361 

, Henry, 276 

, , 305 

, Earl of Tyrone, Hugh, 13, 

256, 260, 301-2 

, John, 305 

, Miss, 135 

— , Maire, 149 

, Moira, 153 

, Owen Roe, 24, 58-9, 276 

, Sir Phelim, 22, 24, 58-9 

, Shane, 10, 240, 274 

, Turlough, 23 

On the King's Threshold, 150 
Ord, General, 360-61 
O'Reilly, Count Alexander, 279 

, Andrew, 288 

, Father, 172 

, John Boyle, 326 

, Miles, 364 

, Surgeon-Gen. Robert M., 


, Stanley, 282 

O'Reillys in Spain, The, 284 

O'Riordan, Conal, 85 
Orleans, Duke of, 199 
Ormonde, 8, 57, 58 

, First Duke of, 195 

O'Rorke, Sir G. Maurice, 328 

, Colonel P. H., 360 

, Tiernan, 5 

O'Rourke, Chief of Brefni, 12 

, Count, 307-9 

Orpen, A.R.A., William, 157 
O'Shanassy, Sir John, 315 
O'Shaugnessy, Edward, 312 
O'Sullivan Beare, The, 16 

, Philip, 277 

, Sir John, 177 

O'Sullivans of Belfast, The, 343 
O'Toole, V.C., Sergeant, 334 
Oudenarde, Battle of, 186 
Ouseley, Bart., F.R.S., Sir Gore, 

, , Sir W. Gore, 131 

, , Sir William, 131 

Paine, Thos., 243 
Pakenham, Sir E. M., 119 
Palmer, Sir Arthur, 325 
Parnell, Charles Stewart, 81, 83, 

, Thos., 105 [228 

Patriots, Famous Irish, 115 
Pelissier, General, 199-200 
Penal Laws, 30 
Perigord, Talleyrand, 203-4, 206, 


, Count Edmond de, 207 

Perkins, Hon. Patrick, 325 

Perry ville, Battle of, 359 

Perth, Capture of, 170 

Peru, Irish in, 382-83 

Petersburg, Battle of, 358-59, 361 

Petty, Sir William, 27 

Philip III, 250, 257-58, 260 

Phihphaugh, Battle of, 170 

Phihppi, 358 

Philipsburg, Taking of, 187 

Phoenix Park Murders, 83 

Pichegru, General, 243 

Pierce, President Franklin, 355 

Plunkett, Q.C., The Hon. John 

Herbert, 313 

, Sir Horace, 85 

Po River, Battle of the, 358 
Poe, Edgar Allan, 361 



Political Prisoners' Amnesty 

Association, 228 
Polk, President J. K., 354 
Pollocks, The, 342 
Pondicherry, 242 
Ponsonby, Miss Sarah, 143 
Pontarlier, 218 
Pope's Brass Band, The, 74 
Pope Pius IV, 298 
Porter, Admiral, 360 

, Judge Alexander J., 372 

Portugal, Irish College of the 

Dominican Order in, 275 
Pot of Broth, A , 147, 150 
Pottinger, Major E., 119 
Power, Tyrone, 137 
Prague, Siege of, 293 
Pratz-de-Mollo, Battle of, 181 
Prendergast, John, 23, 27 
Press, The, 66 
Preston, The Riot at, 93 
Prestonpans, Battle of, 173 
Pretender, The Young, 41, 62 
Provinces, The Irish in the, 90-97 
Prynne, William, 62 
Purcell, Regiment of, 194 

Quain, M.D., Jones, 125 
Quebec, Siege of, 346 
Queensland, The Irish in, 327 
Queen's Regiment of Guards, The, 

Infantry, The, 195 

Quesada, 265 

Quesnoy, Battle of, 186, 197 

Quin, Sir E. R. W., 125 

, James, 132-33 

Quinn, Bishop, 325 

Racing Lug, The, 147 

Rastadt, Peace of, 197 

Rawdon, Earl of Moira, Francis, 

Read, George, 348 [120 

Rebillard, General, 217-18 

Red Hugh O'Donnell, 13, 169, 

255-260, 274 
Redmond, M.P., John, 82 
Rehan, Ada, 377 
Reilly, Brigadier-General Jas. 

William, 382 

, Leigh, 379 

Repealers, The, 370 

Riall, General, 351 

Riario, Sforza, Duchess of, 290 

Ribbonism, 44, 51 

Richey the Historian, 305 

Richepin, Jean, 229 

Riders to the Sea, 147, 151 

Riddell, Mrs. J. H., 155 

Ringgold Gap, Defence of, 359 

Ripley, General, 350 

Roberts; V.C., Field-Marshal 

Earl, 332-33 
, , Lieut, the Hon. 

F. H. S., 336 ' 
Robins, Miss G. L., 149 
Robinson, Chief Justice, 32 

, Sir Hercules, 314 

, Sir William, 327 

Rolleston, T. W., 85 
Rolt-Wheeler, Miss Ethel, 85 
Rooney, John J., 379 

, Letter of John, 283 

Rorke's Drift, The Irish at, 333 
Ross, Geo. Walter, 337 

, Martin, 153 

Rovigo, Duke of, 199 

Rowley, Bart., Admiral Sir Josias, 

Royal Dublin Fusiliers, The, 333 

Irish Regiment, The, 194, 


Munster Fusiliers, The, 332 

Rupert, Prince, 58-9 

Russell (" A.E."), Geo. W., 152 

, LL.D., Sir William Howard, 

Russia, The Irish in, 306-10 
Ryan, Fred, 147 

Sadleir, James, 76 

, John, 76 

Sailors, Famous Irish, 115 

St. Adamnan, 2 

St. Aidan, 2 

St. Albin, 4 

St. Baithen, 339 

St. Boniface, 4 

St. Brendan, 338 

St. Cathaldus, 296 

St. Columba, 2, 159, 162 

St. Cormac Ua Liathain, 339 

St. Cuthbert, 3 

St. Eustacia, Capture of, 190 



St. Eutrope, Church of, 223 

Shaw, William, 82 

St. Faron, 220-21 

Shee, P.R.A., Sir Martin Archer, 

St. Fiacre, 220-21 


St. Finan, 3, 159 

Sheil, R. L., 113 

St. Finnbarr, 3 

Sheldon, Regiment of, 197 

St. Finnian, 2, 55 

Sheridan, General, 360-61 

St. Foelan, 4 

, Richard Brinsley, 67, 106 

St. Fursey, 3 

, Thos., 134 

St. Gall, 4 

Sheriff Muir, Battle of, 170 

St. Killian, 4 

Shields, General, 353 

St. Maelduin, 339 

Shillington, Tom, 337 

St. Pietro di Montorio, Church of, 

Shiloh, Battle of, 359 


Sierra Gorda, Battle of, 353 

St. Ruth, General, 178 

" Silken Thomas," 8 

Saissy, A., 229 

Sinn Fein, The, 228 

Salamanca, Irish College at, 

Simancas, 257, 274 

250-54, 296 

Simnel, Lambert, 57 

Sail, Father Andrew, 253 

Skinner's Farm, Battle of, 358 

Saluzzo, Battle of, 180 

Slave Trade at Bristol, The, 26, 37 

Samhain, Festival, The, 147 

Sloane, M.D., F.R.S., Sir Hans, 123 

Sampson, Rear-Admiral W. T., 362 

Smerwick, Massacre of, 13 

, William, 207, 307 

Smith, Goldwin, 23 

San Francisco, 353 

, Jas., 347, 372 

Pasqual, Battle of, 353 

, Mrs. Toulmin, 155 

Santiago, Irish College at, 251 

Smyth, Geo., 71 

Sarsfield, Mary, 240 

, Brigadier-Gen. Thos. A., 376 

, Earl of Lucan, Patrick, 176, 

Soldiers, Famous Irish, 115 


Somerville, Edith, 153 

, General, 265, 282 

South America, The Irish in, 382 

, William, 240 

Australia, The Irish in, 325 

Sartorius, 267-69 

Southerne, Thos., 105 

Savage, Marmion W., 113 

Spain, The Irish in, 250 

Savannah, Capture of, 190 

Spanish Gold, 152 

Savoy, Duke of, 197 

Spottsylvania, Battle of, 358 

Scandinavia, The Irish in, 294-95 

Springfield, Battle of, 359 

Schmidt, General, 299 

Stanfield, R.A., Clarkson, 140 

Scientists, Famous Irish, 115 

Stanford, Sir Chas. Villiers, 87, 150 

Scotland, The Irish in, 161 

Stanislaus, King, 308 

Scully, William Chas., 337 

Stapleton, General, 173 

Sedan, Battle of, 246 

Statesmen, Famous Irish, 115 

Serurier, Marshal, 215 

Stawell, Sir Wm. Foster, 315, 319 

Severe, Jean, 229 

Steele, Sir Richard, 106 

Seville, Irish College at, 251 

Steinkirk, Battle of, 240 

Shadow of the Glen, The, 147 

Stephens, the Author, James, 154, 

Shadwell Murder, The, 93 


Shaftesbury, Earl of, 87 

, The Fenian, James, 47, 52 

" Shamrock," 365 

Sterne, Laurence, 106 

Shannon, H.M.S., 351 

Stewart, third Marquis of London- 

Shaw, George Bernard, 156 

derry, Sir Chas. W. V., 120 

, Capt. John, 374 

, Viscount Castlereagh, Robt., 

, C.B., V.C., Major-General 


H., 329 

, Col. Walter, 347 



Strasburg, Battle of, 360 
Strawberry Plains, Battle of, 358 
Stuart, The House of, 162 
Stucley, Thos., 274 
Sullivan, M.P., J., 82 

, General John, 345-46 

Sullivans in Wales, The, 161 
Supple, Gerald Henry, 320 
Sutherland, The Regiment of, 194 
Sutton, Comte de Clonard, 284 
Sweeney, Captain T., 358 
Switzerland, The Irish in, 294 
Synge, J. M., 145, 147, 150, 151, 

Sydney, The Irish in, 311 

Tablet, The, 75, 79 
Taaffe, Francis, 291 

, Nicholas, Viscount, 291 

, Sir Theobald, Viscount, 290 

Taaffes in Austria, The, 283, 286, 

Talbot, Monsignor, 297 
, Earl of Tirconnell, Richard, 

178, 185, 261 
Talleyrand Perigord, Prince of 

Benevent, 203-^, 206, 210 
Tandy, Napper, 243 
Tate, Nahum, 103 
Taylor, Geo., 347, 352, 372 
Teeling, Bartholomew, 214 
Tenant Leaguers, 77 
Tennent, Gilbert, 366 

, William, 367 

Tetuan, Capture of, 239 

, Duke of, 272 

Theatre of Ireland, The, 149 
Thomond, Viceroy of the 

Languedoc, Count, 284 
Thompson, Chas., 372 

, Brigadier-General W., 377 

, Colonel W., 346 

Thornton, Captain Jas. S., 361 

, Dr. Matthew, 347, 373 

Three Rivers, Battle of the, 377 
Thurston, E. Temple, 155 

, Mrs. K. C, 155 

Ticonderoga, Battle of, 375 
Tierney, Geo., 127 
Tinker's Wedding, The, 151 
Tirconnell, Earl of, 11, 13, 301-2 
, Regiment of, 194-95 

Titus Oates Plot, The, 30, 40, 62 
Tlemcen, Capture of, 199 
Tobago, Capture of, 190 
Todhunter, Dr. J., 87 
Tod's Tavern, Battle of, 358 
Tolapotomy Creek, Battle of, 358 
Tole, Hon. Alfred, 328 
Tom Burke of Ours, 300 
Tone Family, The, 203-7 

, Francis Rawdon, 204-7 

, Mrs., 203-7 

, William Wolfe, 205-7 

, Wolfe, 66, 129, 199, 200-3 

Torrens, R., 325 

, K.C.B., Sir Henry, 117 

, Colonel Robert, 117 

Tournay, Capture of, 239 
Tredegar, Riot at, 160 
Trieste, 300 

Tuam, Archbishop of, 274 
Tyler, John, 352 
Tynan, Miss K., 154, 311 
Tyrone, Earl of, 13, 301-2 
, Lady, 301 

Ulster Association, The, 89 

Literary Theatre, The, 149 

, The Spoliation of, 17-33 

Undwah Nala, The, 332 

Union of the Four Provinces Club, 

The, 88 
University Magazine, The, 282 
Urgel, The Battle of , 181 
Ussher, Archbishop, 62, 100, 277 

Valence, Battle of, 181 
Valenza, Battle of, 185 
Valladolid, Irish Colony at, 250, 

Vaubonne, General, 197 
Vaugirard Cemetery, 214 
Vendome, Duke of, 196 
Vera Cruz, Battle of, 355 
Vercelli, Battle of, 196 
Verrua, Battle of, 196 
Victor Amadeus, 180 

Emmanuel, King, 297 

Victoria, Australia, The Irish in, 

Villars, Marshal, 197 
Villeroi, Marshal, 185, 197 
Vinegar Hill, Battle of, 208 



Virginia, Transportation of Irish 

slaves to, 27 
Von Moltke, 247 

Wales, The Irish in, 159 
Walker's Irish Bards, 12 
Wall, Richard, 278 
Wallace, James Tyrrell, 337 
Walsh, Dr., 223-24 

, Major, 198 

, Regiment of, 348 

, William, 273 

War of Independence in America, 

The, 344 

in Spain, The, 344 

Warbeck, Perkin, 57 
Ward, Hugh, 293 
Ware, Sir James, 62, 100 
Warren, Dr., 345 
Washington, George, 242 
Waterses, The, 171 
Wellington, The Duke of, 115 
Wentworth, William Charles, 313 
Western Tablet, The, 355 
Westmeath, The Regiment of, 194 
Wexford, Calvagh O'Donnell, 

Earl of, 12, 274 
Whig, The, 349 
White, V.C., Field-Marshal Sir 

Geo., 158, 333 

, The Venerable Thomas, 252 

Wilde, Lady, 114 

, Oscar Fingal O'Flahertie 

Wills, 155, 226 
Wilderness, Battle of the, 358 

Willes, Sir James S., 122 

William III, 30, 262 

Williams, Richard Dalton, 364 

Williamsburg, Battle of, 360 

Wills, the Australian Explorer, 322 

Wilson, Philip, 85 

, Thomas, 204, 207 

Will-the-Wisher, 232 

Winchester, Battle of, 360-61 

Winthrop, John, 339-41 

Wiseman, Bishop, 41, 73 

Woerth, Battle of, 246 

Woffington, Peg, 132, 134 

Wogan in Spain, 284 

Wolseley, Field-Marshal Lord, 
158, 334, 336 

Wood, Dr. Charles, 87 

Writers of the seventeenth, eigh- 
teenth and nineteenth centuries 
in England, Famous Irish, 98 

Wyse, K.C.B., M.P., Sir Thos., 131 

Yeats, W. B., 84, 144, 147, 150, 

Yellow Tavern, Battle of, 358 
Young, Sir John, 314 

, Miss, 231 

Ireland Society, The, 230 

Ypres, Battle of, 184 

Zamora, 257 
Zouche, Elizabeth, 7 
Zulu War, The, 334 
Zumalacarreguy, 265, 282 


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[Catalogue O] 




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D D., F.S.A. 
THE ATHANASIAN CREED. By the Rev. Canon Douglas 
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THE PAPAL QUESTION. By the Rev. G. Bayfield Roberts, B.A. 




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MODERNISM. A Record and Review. By the Ven. A. Leslie 

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THE CHURCHMAN'S GUIDE. A Handbook for all persons, whether 
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COMPANION TO HYMNS, A. AND M. By the Rev. C. W. A. Brooke, 
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THE SOCIAL WORKERS' GUIDE. A Handbook of Information 
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HOW TO TEACH AND CATECHISE. A Plea for the Employment 
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THE POETRY OF PLANTS. By the late Hugh Macmillan, D.D., 
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growth of London beyond the Walls into the Western Liberty 
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WINCHESTER CATHEDRAL CLOSE. Its Historical and Literary 

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HUNGARIANS. By L. Kellner, Paula Arnold and Arthur 
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FRANCE OF THE FRENCH. By E. Harrison Barker. 

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RUSSIA OF THE RUSSIANS. By H. Whitmore Williams, Ph.D. 
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JAPAN OF THE JAPANESE* By Professor J. H. Longford. 

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SERVIA OF THE SERVIANS. By Chedo Mijatovich. 

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" Miss Garnett's admirable little book should accompany all 
visitors to Greece." — Manchester Guardian. 

HOLLAND OF THE DUTCH. By the same author. 

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SPAIN OF THE SPANISH. By Mrs. Villiers-Wardell. 

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Nowhere else, so far as we are aware, can a more complete and yet 
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" Mr. Webb's account of that unknown country is intimate, 
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Other Volumes in preparation. 

The " All Red" Series 

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Ringrose Wise (formerly Attorney-General of New South Wales) 
Second Edition Revised. 

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THE DOMINION OF NEW ZEALAND. By the late Sir Arthur P. 
Douglas, Bt., formerly Under-Secretary for Defence, New Zealand, 
and previously a Lieutenant. R.N. 

" Those who have failed to find romance in the history of the 
British Empire should read The Dominion of New Zealand. Sir 
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THE DOMINION OF CANADA. By W. L. Griffith, Secretary to 
the Office of the High Commissioner for Canada. 

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THE BRITISH WEST INDIES. Their History, Resources, and Pro- 
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his guide." — Times 

THE UNION OF SOUTH AFRICA. With chapters on Rhodesia and the 
Native Territories of the High Commission. By W. Basil Worsfold, 
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Into 500 pages he has compressed the main outlines of the history 
and geography of that much- troubled dominion, the form of its 
new Constitution, its industrial developments, and social and 
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— Yorkshire Post. 

THE EMPIRE OF INDIA. By Sir J. Bampfylde Fuller, K.C.S.I, 
Formerly Lieutenant-Governor of Eastern Bengal. 

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its government, and its future prospects." — Times. 


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PERU. By E. C. Vivian. 

SOUTH BRAZIL. By E. C. Buley. 

COLOMBIA. By V. Levine. With Introduction by B. Sanin Cano. 

NORTH BRAZIL. By E. C. Buley. 

CHILE |Both by George J. Mills. With aa Introduction 

ARGENTINA J by W. H. Koebel. 

Other Volumes in preparation. 

WINTER LIFE IN SWITZERLAND. Its Sports and Health Cures. 
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This book is so full of description and useful information on 
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BRITISH COLUMBIA. By Ford Fairford. With an Introduction 
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in London). In crown 8vo, 150 pp., with 23 full-page illustrations 
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urely tour in Liguria. By Frederic Lees. With coloured plate, 
and 60 illustrations, map. In large crown 8vo, cloth gilt, gilt top, 
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" The Italian Riviera ... is practically unknown to the majority 
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writing this very readable and pleasant volume. All intellectual 
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to expound." — World. 

THE IMMOVABLE EAST. Studies of the People and Customs of 
Palestine. By Philip J. Baldensperger. With Biographical 
Introduction by Frederic Lees. With 24 full-page plate illus- 
trations and map. In demy 8vo, cloth gilt, gilt top, 7s. 6d. net. 
" Nothing so intimate has yet appeared upon the subject as this 
book. To those who know already something of the people and the 
life described, there is no book we should recommend more strongly 
to enlarge their knowledge." — The Athenceum. 

Printed by Sir Isaac Pitman & Sons, Lid., Bath 
Pi i 




O'Donnell, Elliot 
The Irish abroad 



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